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Full text of "The War in Wexford; an account of the rebellion in the south of Ireland in 1798 told from original documents by H.F.B. Wheeler & A.M. Broadley"

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1797-1805. With 114 full-page Illustrations, 
including 8 in colour, reproduced from a 
unique collection of contemporary Caricatures, 
Broadsides, Songs, etc. 2 Vols. Demy 8vo. 

























March, 1 910 


SOME eighteen months ago three MSS. of un- 
deniable importance to a correct appreciation 
of one of the most interesting phases of Irish 
history, viz. the brief but bloody conflict in 
Wexford during the summer of 1798, were placed at 
the disposal of the writers. These documents con- 
sisted of the following items : ist, the holograph 
correspondence of Arthur, Earl of Mount Norris, 
ranging from the 27th December, 1796, to the loth 
July, 1813 ; 2nd, the Detail Book of the Camolin 
Yeomanry, the entries in which begin with the 25th 
May, 1798, and end the 9th October of the same 
year ; 3rd, the journal of Mrs. Brownrigg, of Green- 
mound, Co. Wexford, which covers the period between 
26th May and 2ist June, 1798, when the troops under 
Sir John Moore relieved Wexford on the very day 
made memorable by the Battle of Vinegar Hill. 
These records, with the exception of the last-men- 
tioned, to which brief allusion is made by Musgrave, 
do not appear to have been at the command of any 
of the numerous historians of the desperate struggle 
between Loyalists and Rebels. Some of these writers 
exhibit a strong bias in favour of the Government, 
while others make no secret of their whole-hearted 
sympathy with the insurgents. The object of this 


volume is to tell once again the story of the War in 
Wexford by the aid of original documents, comparison 
being made in the course of the narrative of the 
statements of eye-witnesses contained in the MSS. now 
brought to light with those given in the pages of Hay, 
Byrne, Cloney, and Teeling, ardent partisans of the 
Catholics, and Musgrave, Taylor, Gordon, and Jack- 
son, who enter the lists with equal enthusiasm on the 
part of the Protestants. James Anthony Froude and 
W. E. H. Lecky, especially the latter, may be re- 
garded, to some extent, as impartial. It is thus that 
Froude, in a few trenchant sentences, sums up his 
opinions as to the merits of the case : 

" Were it not for the enormous crimes which these 
infatuated men confessed that they were deliberately 
contemplating, the spectacle of Ireland on the eve of 
the rebellion of 1798 would rise into tragic piteous- 
ness. The long era of misgovernment had ripened at 
last for the harvest. Rarely since the inhabitants of 
the earth have formed themselves into civilised com- 
munities had any country suffered from such a com- 
plication of neglect and ill-usage. The Irish people 
clamoured against Government, and their real wrong, 
from first to last, had been that there was no govern- 
ment over them ; that, under changing forms, the 
universal rule among them for four centuries had been 
the tyranny of the strong over the weak ; that from 
the catalogue of virtues demanded of those who exer- 
cised authority over their fellow-men the word Justice 
had been blotted out. Anarchy had borne its fruits. 
The victims of scandalous misadministration had 
risen at last to demand redress ; but they had risen 


in blind rage in pursuit of objects which, if obtained, 
could but plunge them deeper in their misery. They 
had appealed to England, and England had for bread 
given them a stone, for fish a serpent. Instead of 
practical justice she had given them political liberty, 
and when political liberty had proved a mocking 
phantom, they had gone mad and had started to 
arms, and were preparing for universal massacre and 

" Their leaders disguised the hideousness of their 
schemes in patriotic rhapsodies. They compared them- 
selves in fancy to the liberators of America or to the 
heroes of Jacobin France. They believed, or dreamt 
that they believed, that they were to enrich the annals 
of mankind by the achievement of a glorious revolu- 
tion. Their road to it hitherto had lain through mid- 
night murder, through seduction of honest men from 
their duty, through the contemplation of crimes so 
horrible that they shrank appalled from the ferocity 
of each other's conceptions. Though engaged, as they 
supposed, in the most glorious of causes, they had 
been unable to inspire one another with the fidelity 
which the pickpocket displays to his comrades. In 
every Committee there were traitors, one or many. 
They had generated round them an atmosphere of 
villainy, and when they lifted their hands at last to 
strike the blow which was to break the chains of 
Ireland, they found themselves in the hands of the 
police, fallen from the high peaks to which they were 
in imagination soaring to the level of common felons." 1 

In dealing with facts, Froude is not always en- 

1 Froude, Vol. III., pp. 400-1. 


tirely accurate, and occasionally he comes to conclu- 
sions which the evidence he adduces scarcely justifies. 
Although the Earl of Mount Norris played a con- 
spicuous part in the affairs of 1798, he is only referred 
to as Lord Mountmorris, 1 and it is sometimes difficult 
to account for discrepancies which, here and there, 
have crept into an undeniably monumental work. 

It must not be forgotten that it was in beautiful 
Wexford that the death-struggle of 1798 between 
Loyalist and Rebel was specially characterised by 
that ferocity and vindictiveness which only spring 
from an intensity of religious feeling. As far as Wex- 
ford was concerned, it was nothing less than the jihad, 
or Holy War of the Roman Catholics of the South 
against the Protestants and their protectors. No 
quarter was asked for, given, or expected. Hence 
the outrages which make men shudder after the lapse 
of more than a century. 

Camolin Park, in County Wexford, had come to the 
Annesleys through the marriage, in 1741, of the sixth 
Earl of Anglesey with Juliana, daughter of Richard 
Donovan, the owner of that estate, and the writer of 
the Camolin Papers was her only son. 

The personality of Arthur Annesley, the moving 
spirit of the Camolin Yeomanry, the Loyal Mount 
Norris Rangers, and the Loyal Mount Norris Yeoman 
Infantry, born in 1744, was in many ways remark- 
able. On the death, in 1761, of his father, Richard 
Annesley, sixth Earl of Anglesey, seventh Viscount 
Valentia, and fifth Baron Altham, the earldom seems 
to have reverted to the descendants of the second son 

1 Froude, Vol. III., p. 432. 


of the first Earl ; but Arthur Annesley inherited the 
second title, and as Viscount Valentia took his seat 
four years later in the Irish House of Peers. His 
claim to a writ of summons as Earl of Anglesey in the 
English Parliament was rejected only by a single vote in 
the Committee of Privilege. In 1767 he married Lucy, 
only daughter of George, Lord Lyttelton, 1 who. died 
in 1783. His second wife, who lived till 1849, was a 
daughter of the Rt. Hon. Sir Henry Cavendish and 
the Baroness Waterpark. In December, 1793, Viscount 
Valentia was created Earl of Mount Norris. 2 He sur- 
vived the troubles of 1798 for eighteen years, dying 
in 1816, when his honours devolved on his son George, 
so named after his distinguished maternal grandfather, 
the " Good " Lord Lyttelton. At his demise, in 1844, 
the earldom became extinct. The present representa- 
tive of the energetic cavalry captain of 1798 is Lieut.- 
General Arthur Lyttelton Lyttelton-Annesley, who 
has assumed the additional name of Lyttelton, and 
also represents in the female line the first Barony of 
Lyttelton. It is by the kindness of General Lyttelton- 
Annesley that the writers are enabled to give, for the 
first time, a reproduction of the striking family por- 
trait of the first Earl of Mount Norris. 

Camolin Park, the scene of so much excitement 
during the " War in Wexford," no longer belongs to 
the House of Annesley. It was sold in 1852 by the 
then owner, Mr. Lyttelton-Annesley, to Mr. James 
Foster, of Stourton Castle, Staffordshire, and the 

1 See Dr. Johnson and Mrs. Thrale, by A. M. Broadley, pub- 
lished by John Lane, 1909, p. 211. 

2 Burke gives the title as Mountnorris, but its first holder, at 
any rate, invariably wrote it Mount Norris. 


present owner is Mr. W. H. Foster, of Apley Park, 
Shropshire. Much of the land has been divided among 
the tenants, and the mansion-house is now used as a 
College of Forestry. 

At the present moment the eyes of travellers and 
politicians are alike directed to Ireland. The problem 
of Home Rule must inevitably become once again pre- 
eminently a burning question, and, on the other hand, 
the inauguration of the new Great Western short sea 
route to Ireland by way of Fishguard and Rosslare 
is bringing crowds of holiday-makers to Wexford and 
Waterford, as well as to the Lakes of Killarney and 
the Valley of Ovoca. 

It is certainly a strange coincidence that this plea- 
sant journey should commence at Fishguard, the 
scene of the only practical attempt to carry into 
effect the oft-repeated threat of Gallic invasion on 
English soil, and end at Rosslare, mentioned more 
than once in the Camolin Papers, and almost within 
sight of Wexford, where the statue of one of the 
Vinegar Hill combatants now looks down, peacefully 
and complacently, on crowds of appreciative sight- 
seers. It is hoped that the twentieth-century traveller, 
as well as the twentieth-century politician, will find 
much to interest them in the story now placed before 
them. The authors desire to express their acknow- 
ledgments of assistance kindly given them to General 
Sir Arthur Lyttelton Lyttelton-Annesley, K.C.V.O., 
F.S.A., F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., as well as to Mr. S. A. Pope and 
Mr. W. Beddoes, J.P., both of the Great Western 








BATTLE OF Ross . . 104 



JUNE 2isT . ... 162 


(continued) . . 183 


X. BANDITTI . . . . . 216 




XIV. WHO WAS TO BLAME? . . . 297 

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . 327 

INDEX . . . 335 



MOUNT NORRIS {Photogravure) . . . Frontispiece 

From a contemporary portrait in the possession of his descendant Sir 
Arthur Lyttelton Lyttelton-Annesley, K.C.V.O. 



From a contemporary portrait in the collection of Mr. A. M. Broadley. 


From a contemporary portrait in the collection of Mr. A. M. Broadley, 


From the collection of Mr. A, M. Broadley. 



From an old engraving in the collection of Mr. A. M. Broadley. 


From the collection of Mr. A. M. Broadley. 


From a contemporary proof engraving in the collection of Mr. A. M. 


From a photograph. 


From a photograph by Mr. C. A. Hamilton. 



From an engraving in the collection of Mr. H. F. B. Wheeler. 

ROBERT EMMET . . . ... 292 

From the collection of Mr. A. M. Broadley. 




23RD JULY, 1803 . . . ... 294 

From a contemporary drawing in the collection of Mr. A. M. Broadley. 


Front the collection of Mr. A. M. Broadley. 

AN EMMET BROADSIDE OF 1803 . ... 322 

From the collection of Mr. A. M. Broadley. 





Who fears to speak of Ninety-eight ? 

Who blushes at the name ? 
When cowards mock the patriot's fate, 

Who hangs his head for shame ? 



sunset of the eighteenth century in 
Ireland was as lurid and stormy as its dawn 
had been colourless and watery. The 
thunder of the French Revolution echoed in 
low rumblings throughout the land of ruined castles 
and of ruined causes, just and unjust, to culminate in 
the outburst of '98. The Rebellion relieved the tense 
political atmosphere, and was followed by the calmer 
weather of the Union which, for good or ill, was 
brought about in 1800. Let us recall as briefly as 
possible the principal events which heralded the in- 
ternal warfare destined in the spring and summer of 
1798 to devastate both the country-side and the 
populous centres. 

The seeds of Jacobinism which an ill wind had 
blown across the Channel fell on thorny ground in 
England and Scotland, although a stubborn crop of 


sedition was raised under the diligent care of such men 
as Tom Paine, 1 Dr. Priestley, 2 Thomas Muir, 8 and 
Home Tooke. 4 Their efforts were aided by various 
clubs and associations, of which the Friends of the 
People, the Constitutional, Reform, and London Corre- 
sponding Societies, and the Society for Constitutional 
Information are typical examples. It was in the 
fertile soil of Ireland that the Republican flower 
blossomed in profusion. The fact that the Volunteer 
movement of 1778-82, originally formed to protect the 
island from a possible invasion by the French when 
the regular Irish troops had been drafted to America, 
had proved itself capable of weighing down the political 
scales on the side of legislative independence was by 
no means lost sight of by those who held advanced 

1 Thomas Paine (1737-1809). In 1790-2 he published The 
Rights of Man in answer to Edmund Burke's Reflections on the 
French Revolution, for which he was tried and found guilty. Became 
a member of the French National Convention, was thrown into 
prison by Robespierre, and in 1802 sailed for the United States, 
where he remained until his death. Large quantities of his Age of 
Reason were distributed gratis in Ireland. 

2 Joseph Priestley (1733-1804), theologian, philosopher and 
author of many controversial works. In 1791 some of his friends 
held a meeting to celebrate the fall of the Bastille, which so incensed 
the mob that a riot ensued, Priestley losing his manuscripts, library 
and apparatus by his house being wrecked. Like Paine, he ended 
his days in the United States. 

8 Thomas Muir (1765-1798), Parliamentary reformer. Arrested 
for sedition 1793, transported to Botany Bay and escaped in 1796. 
He died at Chantilly, the consequence of wounds received on board 
a Spanish frigate at Cadiz. 

John Home Tooke (1736-1812), politician and philologer. 
He was found guilty of libel in connection with an attack on the 
English ministry in the matter of the American War. Acquitted 
of high treason, 1794. His chief literary work is The Diversions of 


opinions. England's extremity was Ireland's oppor- 
tunity. In 1779 a new era of prosperity seemed about 
to follow one of stagnation and poverty. At last the 
sister kingdom was at liberty to sell and buy in the 
markets of the world, excepting only Great Britain, and 
even this embargo appeared likely to be removed by 
Pitt in 1785. Ireland was no longer the Ishmael 
of the nations. 

Unfortunately many manufacturers, especially in 
Lancashire, raised a hue and cry against commercial 
intercourse with the Emerald Isle, and the proposition 
was so pruned in its final stage that the Irish patriotic 
party would have none of it. As a consequence there 
was retrogression instead of progress, the peasants 
gradually lost heart, and when hope vanishes the in- 
dividual either becomes as a reed shaken by the wind, 
listless and without energy, the sport of every passing 
zephyr, or the primal instinct of self-preservation by 
fair means or foul asserts itself. Taking the nation 
as a whole, the latter rule obtained. While Henry 
Grattan * persistently held on his course of equal 
political rights for the debarred Roman Catholic as 
well as for the enfranchised Protestant, it soon became 
evident that oratory alone would not bring about the 
desired end, and Pitt's projects for Parliamentary 
reform did little to rectify matters. 

The coming event of 1800 cast its shadow in 1792, 
as is evident in two very important letters in Pitt's 

1 Henry Grattan (1746-1820). Called to the Irish Bar, 1772 ; 
Member of the Irish Parliament, 1775. After the Union he repre- 
sented Malton and subsequently Dublin in the House of Commons. 


handwriting discovered some years ago. 1 Although 
Sir Hercules Langrishe 2 introduced a Catholic Relief 
Bill, which " was passed unwillingly to please the 
English Cabinet," 3 Chatham's son, whom Macaulay 
calls " the first English Minister who formed great 
designs for the benefit of Ireland," makes it abun- 
dantly clear that the Protestant establishment was 
to be paramount. Writing to Lord Westmorland, 4 
the Lord-Lieutenant, on the 2Qth January, 1792, he 
admits that " We have thought only of what was the 
most likely plan to preserve the security and tran- 
quillity of a British and Protestant interest. . . . 

" In the present situation I am so far from wishing 
you to go farther than you propose that I really think 
it would be unwise to attempt it. If any [attempt] is 
made now or hereafter to gain more by force or menace 
than Parliament is disposed to give, we must and will 
resist it, or there is an end to all government. 

"As to what may be wise for the future, I still be- 
lieve that, not excluding a possibility even of further 
concessions, if circumstances should admit of it, would 
be the best security for the Protestant interest. But 

1 In the Fane Collection in the Record Tower at Dublin Castle. 
They were first printed by Mr. Henry Jephson in an able article on 
" The Irish Parliament of 1782," which appeared in the Nineteenth 
Century, No. 100, pp. 984-985. 

2 Sir Hercules Langrishe (1731-1811), first baronet, created 

3 The English in Ireland in the Eighteenth Century. By James 
Anthony Froude, M.A. (Ed. 1895), Vol. III., p. 60. 

4 John Fane (1759-1841), tenth Earl of Westmorland. Lord- 
Lieutenant of Ireland 1789-1795 ; recalled 1795 ; Lord Privy Seal 
1798-1827, excepting only from the 5th February, 1806, to the 
25th March, 1807. 


I have no difficulty in saying to you that my opinion 
will never be for bringing forward any concession 
beyond what the public mind and the opinion of those 
who are the supporters of British government or its 
present establishment are reconciled to. 

" I may have my own opinion as to expediency, 
but I am inclined myself to follow theirs, not to attempt 
to force it, and, as I have said already, every tumul- 
tuous attempt to gain more than Government or 
Parliament may be disposed to give must always be 

" Any pledge, however, against anything more in 
future seems to me to be in every view useless and 
dangerous, and it is what, on such a question, no 
prudent government can concur in. I say nothing on 
the idea of resisting all concessions, because I am in 
hopes there is no danger of that line being taken. 

" If it were, I should really think it the most fatal 
measure that could be contrived for the destruction 
ultimately of every object we wish to preserve." 

The second letter is dated Downing Street, i8th 
November, 1792 : 

" DEAR WESTMORLAND, . . . The idea of the 
present fermentation gradually bringing both parties 
to think of a union with this country has long been in 
my mind. I hardly dare flatter myself with the hope 
of its taking place, but I believe it, though itself not 
easy to be accomplished, to be the only solution for 
other and greater difficulties. 

" The admission of Catholics to a share of suffrage 


could not then be dangerous. The Protestant interest, 
in point of power, property, and Church establish- 
ment, would be secure, because the decided majority 
of the Supreme Legislature would necessarily be 
Protestant ; and the great ground of argument on the 
part of the Catholics would be done away ; as com- 
pared with the rest of the Empire, they would become 
a minority. 

" You must judge when and to whom the idea 
can be confided. It must certainly require great 
delicacy and management, but I am heartily glad 
that it is at least in your thoughts. 

" Yours ever, 

"W. PITT." 

Secret societies and discontent invariably flourish 
together. Ireland had been a warren of such re- 
ligious, political, or social reform organisations as the 
White Boys, Right Boys, Oak Boys, Whitefeet, 
Blackfeet, True Blues, Peep-o'-Day Boys, and the 
Defenders, while in 1791 the Society of United Irish- 
men had come into being in Belfast, followed by in- 
numerable Orange Lodges four years later. In 1793 
the franchise was extended to the Roman Catholics, 
but owing to the action of the United Irishmen in 
caDing a convention at Athlone a proposed political 
forcing-frame to raise further sprigs of concession 
an Act was passed to preclude such meetings. 1 Tumult 
and outrage in eleven counties, including Wexford, 
made the summer of 1793 a memorable one, and the 

1 33 George III., cap. 29. 


Irish Parliament voted a levy of 16,000 additional 
Militia. 1 Coming events were again casting their 
shadows before, but in a different direction. 

When Lord Fitzwilliam, 2 with many optimistic 
promises, took up his residence in Ireland at the be- 
ginning of 1795, affairs once more put on a rosier com- 
plexion. Popular enthusiasm, never at the best of 
times a particularly stable quality, sank to zero when 
the new Lord-Lieutenant, who had shown his trump 
card of Catholic emancipation too soon, was per- 
emptorily recalled in the February of the following 
year. A close study of Froude's chapter on " The 
Fitzwilliam Crisis " shows that Fitzwilliam acted on 
his own responsibility, and committed himself to a 
policy antagonistic to the instructions given to him by 
the home Cabinet. In other words, his crime was in 
endeavouring to govern Ireland on behalf of her in- 
habitants rather than from England's point of view. 
On the I2th February, 1795, Grattan moved for leave 
to bring in a Bill for " the relief of his Majesty's 
Roman Catholic subjects." If we may infer from the 
fact that not a single Protestant petition was presented 

1 A History of the British Army. By the Hon. J. W. Fortescue 
(London : 1906), Vol. IV., p. 217. 

* William Wentworth Fitzwilliam, second Earl Fi tzw illiam in 
England and fourth in Ireland (1748-1833). At first a Whig, he 
dissented from Mr. Fox when the latter approved of French revolu- 
tionary ideas. Appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland the loth 
December, 1794, and recalled. He landed at Dublin on the 4th 
January, 1795, and returned to England on the 25th March, 1795. 
President of the Council from the nth July to the i7th December, 
1794. Lord Fitzwilliam held the same office in the Grenville Ad- 
ministration from the igth February, 1806, to the 8th October of 
the same year. 


against it the scheme was certainly popular and would 
have supplied " a long felt want." x There were only 
three dissentients ; 2 opposition came from the Duke 
of Portland, 3 Fitzwilliam's immediate chief, who had 
entered into the coalition on the distinct understand- 
ing that he should have " the general management 
and superintendence of Ireland." 4 Fitzwilliam was 
sacrificed, and it is significant that the Irish House of 
Commons declared that he " merited the thanks of 
this House and the confidence of the people," 6 a 
sentiment approved by the Upper Chamber and ap- 
plauded at many a less important gathering. A recent 
writer remarks with reference to Grattan's proposition 
that " There can be little doubt that with the support 
of the Government it would have been carried ; but 
suddenly this policy of conciliation was reversed ; 
Lord Fitzwilliam was recalled, and a veto was put 
upon the further progress of the measure. There 
followed as a consequence the Catholic rebellion of 
1798, put down with ruthless force ; the Catholics 
were cowed and dismayed, and the occasion seemed a 
fit one to Pitt and the English Government to effect 

1 Two Centuries of Irish History, 1691-1870, with Introduction by 
James Bryce, M.P. (London: 1888), p. 138. 

2 Ibid., p. 136. 

3 William Henry Cavendish Bentinck (1738-1809), third Duke 
of Portland ; succeeded to Dukedom 1762 ; Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland 1782 ; Prime Minister 1783 ; Home Secretary 1794-1801 ; 
Prime Minister 1807-1809. The passing of the Act of Union with 
Ireland was largely due to his exertions. 

* Lord Fitzwilliam to Lord Carlisle, Plowden, Vol. II., p. 467. 
See also Irish Parliamentary Debates, Vol., XIV., p. 184. Ibid., 
P- 134. 

5 2nd March, 1795. 


the Union and to put an end to a separate Irish Par- 
liament." 1 

When Lord Camden 2 was appointed to succeed 
FitzwilKam as Viceroy, the Duke of Portland made it 
abundantly clear why his predecessor had failed. 
"As to the Catholic question," he writes, " it was 
understood that Lord Fitzwilliam was to prevent it 
being agitated at all. If he failed he was to use his 
diligence in collecting the opinions and sentiments of 
all descriptions of persons, and transmit them for the 
information of his Majesty. Things are no longer in 
the same state, but our general directions to you are 
the same." Grattan, as we have seen, was about to 
introduce a Bill for the further relief of the Roman 
Catholics, and Camden was advised not to negative its 
first reading. From what follows it is obvious that 
after this formality it was to be opposed tooth and 
nail. He was warned of the divisions among the anti- 
Catholics, but "provided the great body of the Pro- 
testants will exert themselves in the contest, you are 
authorised to give them the most decided and un- 
reserved support, and make every exertion they can 
desire to prevent the admission of the Catholics to 
seats in the Legislature." Seminaries for the education 
of Catholic priests 3 and provision for the Catholic 

1 " The Two Unions," by G. Shaw Lefevre, in the Contemporary 
Review, April, 1886, p. 575. 

2 Sir John Jeffreys Pratt (1759-1840), second Earl and first 
Marquis of Camden; Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1794-1798; 
Secretary of War 1804-1805 ; President of the Council 1805-1806 
and 1807-1812. Created Marquis of Camden 1812. 

3 The proposal was introduced by Mr. Pelham on the 24th 
April, 1795, and to which Maynooth owes its existence. 


parochial clergy were regarded as " measures likely 
to improve the condition and satisfy the minds of the 
Catholics, without endangering the Protestant Estab- 

Had Camden been an angel in disguise it must be 
conceded that no little difficulty would have been 
experienced by him in carrying out the Utopian 
advice so persuasively set forth in the concluding 
paragraph, which is preluded by the sentence, " One 
caution more," and may or may not reveal intense 
irony on the part of the Duke of Portland. It 
is as follows : " You will need all your prudence. 
Those who fancied they were about to be sacrificed 
will assume airs of exultation and triumph little suited 
to conciliate those who have been stopped in the 
career which they had just entered ; and the disap- 
pointment of the latter may be productive of great 
ill-humour and some violence. Moderate, soothe, con- 
ciliate these jarring spirits. We have great confidence 
in your judgment, firmness, and discretion." l 

Grattan's Bill, which boldly asked for a total 
repeal of the popery laws, was introduced on the 24th 
April. It was read a second time on the 4th May, 1795, 
and rejected by 155 to 84.2 There was a flood of 
oratory lasting all day and all night, " and the ques- 
tion of Catholic Emancipation was dismissed from the 
Irish Parliament, to be raised again as opportunity 
offered for purposes of faction, but never more with 

1 Instructions to Lord Camden, loth March, 1795. Froude, 
Vol. III., pp. 158-161. 

2 Memoirs of the Different Rebellions in Ireland. By Sir Richard 
Musgrave, Bart. (Dublin, 1801), p. 134. 


serious prospect of acceptance, as long as Ireland had 
a separate constitution." 1 We do not agree with the 
" faction " phrase, but entirely with the one follow- 
ing it. 

A Bill of considerable importance was introduced 
in the House of Commons in January, 1796, and be- 
came law in the following March. That it was necessary 
to stop the robberies and murders which occurred all 
too frequently is obvious, but the methods adopted 
were caustically drastic. Among other things it pro- 
vided for the registration of persons possessing fire- 
arms ; that when a district became disturbed the 
Privy Council was to proclaim the disaffected part, and 
that " all persons are required to keep within their 
houses between sun-set and sun-rise ; and are liable 
to be transported if found out of their houses in the 
night. " Musgrave, who does not enter into the political 
aspect of the rebellion to any great extent, preferring 
the details of war to those of peace, waxes eloquent in 
this matter. " In such parts of Ireland, as this salu- 
tary law was enforced, it completely put an end to the 
nocturnal ravages of the United traitors." 2 His belief 
in the curfew bell is such that " Every person, ac- 
quainted with the ferocious and sanguinary disposition 
of the lower class of people in Ireland, will agree with 
me, that this wise law should never be repealed." On 
the other hand it is clear that " This put at the mercy 
of every unscrupulous enemy, the life and liberty of 
members of the popular party in the country. The 

1 Froude, Vol. III., p. 173. 

2 Musgrave, p. 149. 


Ascendency faction had but to burn down a cabin : 
the expelled inmates were ' vagrants/ and could be 
banished for life. Mercenary foes had but to swear 
that a political or social antagonist had administered 
an unlawful oath, and the executioner was set to 
work." 1 

When Fitzwilliam left the scene of his brief but 
troubled career as Lord-Lieutenant, Ireland meta- 
phorically donned mourning. The old religious differ- 
ences became the burning topic of the hour, and God 
help the country where theology and politics are the 
alpha and omega of discussion. The United Irishmen, 
after having been quiescent and not quashed as Govern- 
ment had fondly hoped, suddenly took on a fresh and 
invigorated lease of life, becoming an octopus whose 
tentacles gradually spread throughout the length and 
breadth of the land. 

The forces at the disposal of the Government to 
combat the monster were extremely small. The 
Irish Military Establishment was fixed by Act of 
Parliament at 15,000 men, but in the years 1793 and 
1794 the ranks were depleted by 3,000 troops quartered 
abroad. According to Fortescue, our greatest living 
authority on such matters, the total for 1795, including 
regulars and fencibles, was 20,246, with 21,369 militia ; 
for the following year 19,012 regulars and fencibles and 
22,698 militia. 2 The weak state of defence and the 

1 Two Centuries of Irish History, p. 149. 

2 Fortescue, Vol. IV., Part 2, p. 938. The Irish Establishment 
signifies the number of troops for which the Irish Treasury provided 
pay. Many of them were abroad, in fact nearly all the regular 


difficulty in sending reinforcements may be gathered 
from the letters printed below, and now first published: 1 

" Horse Guards August 17 th 1796. 

" Sir, 

" I have the Honor to lay before Your Majesty 
the Weekly States as likewise the different Memoranda 
for Your Majesty's Approbation. 

" I have likewise to report to Your Majesty that 
Mr Pitt came to Me this Morning, and in the name of 
Your Majesty's Ministers acquainted Me, that in con- 
sequence of some very pressing Intelligence from the 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, it was deemed absolutely 
necessary that a Reinforcement should be sent from 
hence to Ireland as soon as possible. The only Rein- 
forcement which it is in Our power to send at present 
is the 6 th Dragoon Guards, and 12 th Light Drag 8 , and 
the Manx and Loyal Tay Fencible Infantry. 

" Your Majesty might likewise approve of the three 
Foreign Corps of Lowenstein Hompesch and Waldstein 
which are at present at the Isle of Wight, waiting to 
be sent to the West Indies, being ordered to proceed 
immediately to Cork, and to remain there till an 
Opportunity offers to send them on to their Destina- 
tion ; Should Your Majesty sanction these different 
Arrangements, the Troops may be ordered to proceed 
to Ireland immediately. 

" Mr Dundas has likewise acquainted Me that a 
Representation has been made both by M. Gen 1 
Gordon and M-General Sir Hew Dalrymple, that in 
case of any Accident happening to them, the Command 

1 Mr. Broadley's Georgian MSS. 


in both the Islands of Jersey and Guernsey, would 
fall upon the Colonels of Fencibles, and begging there- 
fore that a Brig. General might be appointed to each 
Island under Them, I beg leave therefore to mention to 
Your Majesty the Names of Colonels Burton and Monson 
to be appointed Brigadiers General in those Islands. 

" I mean to pay My Duty to Your Majesty at Wey- 
mouth next Sunday, and hope to be able to lay before 
You Sir, different Papers concerning the interior 
Arrangements in case of an Invasion, as likewise con- 
cerning the Reduction of most of the French Corps. 
" I have &c. 

" (signed) FREDERICK." 1 

" Weymouth Aug 4 19 h 1796. 

" My Dear Frederick, I approve of the 6 th Reg 4 of 
Dragoon Guards and the 12 th Light Dragoons return- 
ing to Ireland as also the Loyal Tay Fencible Cavalry ; 
the foreign Corps of Lowenstein Hompesch and Wald- 
stein now in the Isle of Wight may be sent to Cork till 
they can proceed to the West Indies. 

" I approve of Colonels Burton and Monson being 
placed as Brigadiers on the Staffs of Guernsey and 
Jersey as it would not be desirable the Commands 
should devolve to Fencible Colonels. 
' The Memorandas are all very proper. 
" I am glad you think of arriving here on Sunday, 
believe me ever 

" My Dear Frederick 

' Your most Affectionate Father 


1 On the 3rd April, 1798, the Duke of York was appointed 


"H.R.H. to the King. 

" London September 8 h 1796. 


" I have the Honor to transmit to Your Majesty 
the Monthly Returns, and Weekly States, and to lay 
before You, Sir, for Your Approbation the Recom- 
mendations for the vacant Commissions, I must at 
the same time humbly beg Your Majesty's pardon for 
not having sent these Papers Yesterday, but having 
had a very long Conference with Mr Pitt and Mr Dun- 
das, and afterwards with the Duke of Portland upon 
several points, I was too late for the Mail. 

" In the Conference I had with Your Majesty's 
Ministers, after due Consideration it was determined 
to offer the Command of the Army in Ireland to Sir 
Charles Grey, 1 but to My great Surprize when I men- 
tioned it to Him this Morning, He has absolutely 
refused it, and in a Manner which convinces Me, that 
He has completely made up His mind. He excuses 
Himself upon the precarious State of His Health, but 
thinks Himself fully adequate to continue in the Com- 
mand of the Southern District. Under these Circum- 
stances it is very difficult to know who to recommend 
to Your Majesty for the very important Situation of 
Commander in Chief in Ireland, and the least objec- 
tionable Arrangement in My opinion would be, to 
endeavor to persuade Lord Carhampton 2 to accept 
of it. 

1 Sir Charles Grey (1729-1807), called the " No-flint General," 
General 1795 ; created Baron Grey de Howick 1801 ; Earl 1806. 

8 Lord Carhampton accepted the post, resigning in November, 



"I am at present employed in making out the 
General Disposition of the Troops upon the Breaking 
up of the Camps, which I must humbly propose to 
Your Majesty may take place at the latter End of this 
Month, as not only it will hinder the Increase of 
Disease, which generally takes place in all Camps 
during the Autumn, but will likewise be a very con- 
siderable Saving in the Expence, as the Bargains with 
the Contractors for the Bread, Hay, Straw &c were 
made at the time when these Articles were at a most 
extraordinary price, Government now loses near five 
and Twenty pr Cent upon them. 

" As the Declaration is made out I shall have the 
Honor to lay it before Your Majesty. 

" (signed) FREDERICK." 

"On board the S* Fiorenzo, Sept. io h , 1796. 

" My Dear Frederick, Yesterday I received your 
Box containing the Monthly Returns and Weekly 
States ; I approve of the proposed douceur for Lieu- 
tenant General O'Hara whose Finances at the present 
moment must require that Assistance. I approve of 
the Memorandas. 

"It is curious so much interest was made that Sir 
Charles Grey might be appointed to the Command of 
the Forces in Ireland without its being known whether 
it would be agreable to Him, He having declined, I 
perfectly agree that the activity, tallents and local 
advantages that Lord Carhampton is the fittest person 
for that command. I have Sounded Sir William Pitt, 1 

1 Sir William Augustus Pitt (1728-1809). 

From a contemporary portrait in the collection of Mr. A. M. Broadley 


who assures Me from having seen his conduct in Ire- 
land that He is persuaded it will be an advantageous 
Choise, I therefore approve of Your forwarding this 
Arrangement ; but this will certainly make it not 
right to press David Dundas to go there, for Carhamp- 
ton is too active to require his private counsel, and 
his Services may be highly useful in this Country. 

" The Sooner the Troops can begin to get into 
Barracks the better. I ever remain 
" My Dear Frederik 

" Your most Affectionate Father 


" P.S. The accompanying Memorial I received this 
morning, Sir W. Pitt, Ld. Cathcart 1 and M. G. Gwynn 
speak highly of Him ; but how he can be brought for- 
ward I do not well see though I believe he is meri- 

" To the Km - " Horse Guards 

" October 28 th 1796. 

" Sir, 

" As it appears from the enclosed private Letter 
from the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland to the Duke of 
Portland, which I have the Honor to transmit to Your 
Majesty, that an Augmentation to the Staff of Ireland 
is absolutely necessary, which the Lord Lieutenant is 
desirous may take place as soon as possible, the Duke 
of Portland has desired Me not to delay taking Your 

1 Sir William Schaw Cathcart (1755-1843), tenth Baron Cath- 
cart in the Scottish peerage, and first Viscount and Earl Cathcart. 
He was Commander-in -Chief in Ireland, 1803-5. 


Majesty's Pleasure upon it, and to lay before Your 
Majesty the Names of Major Generals Loftus and Hut- 
chinson to be Major Generals, and of Colonel Ormsby 
Knox and the Earl of Cavan to be Brigadier Generals, 
according to the Recommendation of the Lord 
Lieutenant. ^.^ FREDERICK 

The majority of the prominent figures in the ranks 
of the United Irishmen were lawyers and not soldiers, 
although several of them had served as volunteers. 
The idea seems to have emanated from the resourceful 
brain of Theobald Wolfe Tone, 1 a man of considerable 
ability but lacking in many of the qualities which go 
to make up the successful commander. Protestants, 
Dissenters, and Roman Catholics were admitted, for 
civil and religious liberty coupled with national govern- 
ment was the original platform, to be changed from 
time to time until it became avowedly republican 
and military. In 1796, after an enforced journey to 
America, Tone went to France, and together with 
E. J. Lewens, 2 an accredited representative of the 
United Irishmen, entered into negotiations with the 
Directory for the help which had been promised soon 
after the declaration of war against England in 1793, 
but had been declined. This was the first time that 

1 Theobald Wolfe Tone (1763-1798). Called to the Bar 1789. 
Sentenced to death by a Court Martial. Committed suicide the 
1 9th November, 1798. 

2 Edward John Lewens (1756-1828), an attorney by profession. 
At the Union he was banished from Ireland, and taking up his 
residence in France ultimately became inspector of studies at Paris 


overtures had been made to the Great Nation, for it 
was foreseen that there was a likelihood of the allies 
turning conquerors, once they landed. The Junta 
(Directory) of the United Irishmen now consisted of 
Lord Edward FitzGerald, 1 the military chief who also 
paid a flying visit to the Continent with reference to 
the proposed assistance of the French O'Connor, 2 
Emmet, 3 McNeven, 4 and Bond. 5 Their enthusiasm for 
the cause they had so much at heart was scarcely ex- 
ceeded, if at all, by Wolfe Tone himself. After con- 
siderable delay an expedition was fitted out, and 
14,000 men and an armament of seventeen sail- 

1 Lord Edward FitzGerald (1763-1798), son of the first Duke 
of Leinster. M.P. for Athy 1783-1790, for Co. Kildare 1790-1797. 
He married Pamela, daughter of Egalite, Duke of Orleans, and 
Madame de Genlis. 

* Arthur O'Connor (1763-1852), M.P. for Philipstown 1791-1795. 
Tried for high treason 1798, acquitted. Fox, Grattan, Sheridan, 
Erskine, Whitbread, Lord Thanet and Lord John Russell (after- 
wards Duke of Bedford) testified to his loyalty. O'Connor was 
again arrested, and imprisoned at Fort George, 1799-1803. He 
afterwards entered the French army, rising to the rank of 
Lieutenant-General. He married the only daughter of Condorcet, 
the celebrated French philosopher. 

3 Thomas Addis Emmet (1764-1827). Called to the Bar but 
did not practise. Arrested 1798. Confined in Fort George 1799- 
1802. In 1804 he went to New York, where he became Attorney- 
General of the State of New York. 

* William James McNeven (1763-1841), physician. He visited 
the Continent on behalf of the United Irish cause. Arrested 1 798 ; 
was imprisoned at Fort George after giving evidence before the 
Committee of the House of Lords. On his release he entered the 
French army, but shortly afterwards went to America. He 
prepared an elaborate report on the state of Ireland which was trans- 
mitted to the French Government. 

5 Oliver Bond (1758-1798), woollen draper of Dublin. He was 
arrested on the i2th March, 1798 ; tried for high treason and found 
guilty ; died in prison the 6th September, 1798. 


of-the-line, thirteen frigates, and thirteen smaller 
vessels left on the I5th December, 1796, under the 
military command of Hoche. 1 What was fondly 
hoped to be a master stroke against England proved 
absolutely abortive, for Bonaparte's great rival did 
nothing but lose several ships and make the name of 
Ban try Bay for ever famous. 2 Napoleon afterwards 
gave it as his opinion that Hoche's army, once dis- 
embarked on Irish soil, would have been successful. 3 

Had there been no rebellion in '98 it would be easy 
to infer from the half-heartedness of the French 
Government and the failure of a complete and definite 
understanding with the United Irishmen that neither 
of the parties took the matter seriously. Why Bantry 
Bay should have been chosen as a rendezvous is not 
quite clear from a military standpoint, as the peasants 
in the south and west of Ireland were comparatively 
lukewarm to those of the north, and it was necessary 
to strike a heavy blow at English supremacy on land- 
ing, pour encourager les autres. Miles Byrne confesses 
that in the south " the United Irish system was scarcely 
known there at that time," although " the people 
everywhere sighed for that equality of civil and re- 
ligious liberty so long refused to them." But no 
amount of sighs will break fetters. If the evidence of 

1 Lazare Hoche (1768-1797). Having successfully pacified La 
Vendee and Brittany, and proved triumphant at Quiberon, he was 
appointed to the above command. His victories over the Austrians 
in the spring of 1797 were only arrested by the Peace of Leoben, 
1 9th April, 1797. 

2 A detailed account of this expedition will be found in the 
authors' Napoleon and the Invasion of England, Vol. I., pp. 5-23. 

3 Creasy's Invasions of England, Vol. II., p. 209. 


the London Gazette * is to be relied upon, the country 
people in that part of Ireland, far from being well- 
disposed towards the French, facilitated the march of 
the yeomanry and volunteer corps, cleared the roads 
of snow, shared their humble provender with them, 
and showed intense loyalty. " In short," says Lord 
Camden, the Lord-Lieutenant, " the general good 
disposition of the people through the south and west 
was so prevalent that had the enemy landed their 
hope of assistance from the inhabitants would have 
been totally disappointed. From the armed yeo- 
manry government derived the most honorable assist- 
ance." z 

Charles Hamilton Teeling, 3 at the time a state 
prisoner in Dublin, tells a different tale. " Hurry, 
confusion, and disorder, marked the advance of the 
army," he relates ; "all was terror, doubt and dismay ; 
troops disaffected, horses wanting, the munitions of 
war badly supplied, and even the bullet was unfitted 
to the calibre of the cannon, which a defective com- 
missariat had supplied. 4 . . . But the elements pro- 
tected the empire for Britain, and the country was 
preserved from the havoc of war. Hoche was sepa- 
rated from his troops by the winter's storm ; and the 
army having no instructions to land in his absence, 
the expedition returned to the ports of France. This 

1 See issues of the 3rd and 7th January, 1797. 

2 Ibid., 1 7th January, 1797. 

3 Charles Hamilton Teeling (1778-1850), brother of Bartholo- 
mew Teeling, a prominent rebel. 

* " Nine-pound shot was provided for six-pound cannon." 
Note by Teeling, p. 39. 


was a most interesting period for Ireland a single 
breeze might have rendered it the most eventful." 1 

In reality, two things conspired to thwart the am- 
bitions of Hoche, the foul weather which separated 
the fleet, and the indecision of Grouchy, 2 who had 
6,500 men under him when he reached Bantry Bay. 
Teeling's remark about " the army having no instruc- 
tions to land " may be technically correct, but Admiral 
Bouvet, Grouchy, and the remaining officers certainly 
held a council of war and agreed to disembark the 
troops, a decision which the military commander, who 
was supreme once the vessels were at anchor, failed 
to carry out, partly because of Bouvet's half-hearted 
support. 3 The visit of an Irish peasant to one of the 
ships who volunteered the information that there were 
20,000 troops in the neighbourhood of Bantry and 
that Lord Bridport's fleet was "off the Cape" was 
not encouraging. 4 If the entire French force of 14,000 
men had set foot in Ireland and been supported by 
the second expedition which Hoche had urged the 

1 History of the Irish Rebellion of 1798 : a Personal Narrative. 
By Charles Hamilton Teeling (Glasgow : Cameron and Ferguson), 
pp. 39-40. The book was first published in 1828. 

2 Emmanuel, Marquis de Grouchy (1766-1847), Marshal of 
France. For his services in connection with the pacification of 
La Vendee he was made General of division, 1793. Joined the 
Army of Italy under Joubert, 1798, and fought throughout the 
Napoleonic Wars. Created a peer, 1832. He is principally known 
to history as Napoleon's scapegoat at Waterloo. 

3 Projets et Tentatives de Debarquement aux lies Britanniques. 
Par Edouard Desbriere. (Paris: R. Chapelot et Cie, 1902.) Vol.1., 
p. 200. 

* A Journal of the Movements of the French Fleet, in Bantry 
Bay, from their first Appearance to their final Departure ; Compiled 
from Notes taken on the spot, by Edward Morgan (Cork, 1797), p. 54. 


Directory to equip, the independence of Ireland might 
have been accomplished, for the north would certainly 
have risen. The optimism of the Lord Lieutenant is 
not justified by figures, for when Grouchy was 
hesitating within sight of land there were but 3,000 
or 4,000 men to oppose him from Cork to Bantry, but 
two pieces of artillery, and a total lack of ammunition 
and provisions. 1 

According to Morgan's account, " there could not 
have been more than 400 troops in the town of Bantry, 
150 in Drumaleague, and about 1,200 in the town of 
Dunmanway, between which place and Bantry, half 
way, the intended stand was to have been made. This 
small army, when collected, might amount to 1,800 
men. Allowing this force to be very inadequate to 
the desperate nature of the service for which it was 
intended, and that it was augmented by the troops 
in the towns of Bandon and Cloghnakilty, both of 
which places were near twenty miles from Drumaleague 
bridge, the entire force then would not amount to 
more than 4,000 men, of which about 800 were 
Cavalry. Allowing this number of troops collected, 
and that they arrived at the disputed bridge in time 
to make the necessary dispositions to oppose the pro- 
gress of the enemy's march ; they must have laboured 
under a disadvantage which, in the opinion of some 
military men, must have rendered their defeat certain 
and decisive ; it was no less than (almost) the total 
want of cannon. The only ordnance the troops 
could have brought to the ground, were two incon- 

1 Auckland Correspondence, Vol. III., p. 376. 


siderable six-pounders, and which were never removed 
from the town of Dunmanway." J Even the British 
fleet was missing, and although Sir Edward Pellew, 2 
with two or three frigates, had watched the enemy at 
Brest, their armament had reached Bantry before 
Admiral Colpoys, 3 his senior officer, was aware that his 
quarry had left port. 

" It is quite fresh in my memory," Miles Byrne solilo- 
quises, " and I shall never forget it, the mournful 
silence, the consternation of the poor people at the 
different chapels on Christmas Day and the following 
Sunday, after learning that the French had not landed, 
and that the French fleet had returned to France. 
Had Hoche been in command of his troops in the Bay 
of Bantry, instead of Grouchy, he would have landed 
them immediately, and from that moment the then 
English Government was shaken to its centre." 4 

In a proclamation which Hoche issued " To the 
French Army destined to Assist the Irish Revolution " 
the day before the expedition set sail, the commander 
insisted that they were going to people who were 
friends, " that we must treat them as such, and not 
as a conquered people." A march to London to teach 
Pitt a lesson was to be the master-stroke. Pitt ever 
seems to have been the bete noire of the French at this 
period. Making due allowance for the good intentions 

1 Morgan, pp. 22-23. 

a Sir Edward Pellew (1757-1833). He was raised to the Peerage 
in 1814 as Baron Exmouth. 

3 Sir John Colpoys (circa 1742-1821), a prominent figure in the 
mutiny at Spithead, 1797. 

* Memoirs of Miles Byrne. Edited by his widow (Dublin: 
1907), Vol. I., p. 5. 

From a contemporary portrait in the collection of Mr. A . M, Kroadley 


of " the pacificator of La Vende'e," it is doubtful 
whether his Government would have allowed the Irish 
to manage their own affairs had the British yoke been 
thrown off. In all probability Ireland would have 
been made a base for French expeditions against 
" perfidious Albion." It was an age of international 
piracy. The Republic was not given to helping lame 
dogs over stiles without some ulterior object in view. 

Hoche continued to cherish thoughts of another 
expedition, but within nine months of his return he 
was a dead man. The Dublin Press, a fiery newspaper 
of the revolutionary type, published the following 
eulogy : 1 

" WEEP ! Gallia weep ! in sorrow droop thy head. 
Thy Hoche, thy hero, and thy friend is dead ; 
That man so truly great in freedom's cause, 
That brave defender of his country's laws ; 
Who, from her fields the Pitt-leagued tyrants chased, 
And all the hordes of slaves that laid them waste ; 
Made the crown'd robbers of his native soil, 
Shake on their blood-stain'd thrones and quit their spoil. 
Now pale and breathless, lo ! the hero lies, 
As envious fate had call'd him to the skies, 
But still unconquered, tho' resigned his breath, 
He springs immortal from the arms of death ; 
O ! friend of man, upon thy honoured bier, 
The good and brave shall drop a grateful tear ; 
Bright fame, thy virtues from oblivion save, 
And snatch thy honours from the silent grave, 
From age to age thy glorious deeds impart, 
And make thy monument each Patriot's heart." 

1 Popular Songs, Illustrative of the French Invasions of Ireland. 
Edited, with Introductions and notes, by T. Crofton Croker (London : 
The Percy Society, 1847), Parts III. and IV., p. 32 n. 


The Irish military returns for 1797 show an increase 
of 18,655 regulars and fencibles, the militia remaining 
at the same figure as in the previous twelve months, 
and a vote was taken also for yeomanry, both horse 
and foot. 1 Reinforcements were slow in arriving, 
however, and for the reasons stated in the following 
dispatch 2 : 

"Horse Guards 22 d Apl, 1797. 

" Sir, 

" I have the honour to acquaint Your Majesty 
that M r Dundas has just been with me by the desire 
of the Duke of Portland who is gone to attend Your 
Majesty at Windsor, to inform me that in consequence 
of the last dispatches from the Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland, Your Majesty's Ministers thought it absolutely 
necessary to recommend to Your Majesty that a re- 
inforcement both of Cavalry and Inf y should be sent 
to Ireland as speedily as possible. 

" Under the present circumstances of the Troops 
in this Country, it would be impossible to spare any 
regular Cavalry, and as almost the whole of the Re- 
cruits of the Infantry of the Line are Irish it would 
be by no means a Politic Measure to send any of y r 
Regular Battalions to Ireland. I should therefore 
humbly propose to Your Majesty that the Force to be 
immediately sent should consist of two Fencible Regi- 
ments of Cavalry and Three of Infantry. 

" Should Your Majesty approve of this Proposal 
I should recommend that the Romney and Ayrshire 

1 Fortescue, Vol. IV., Part 2, p. 938. 
* Mr. Broadley's Georgian MSS, 


should be the regiments of Fencible Cavalry for Ireland, 
both of whom have offered their Services, and that the 
Three regiments of Fencible Infantry should be the 
Dumbarton and Durham from Guernsey, and the 
Northumberland from Jersey. And in order not to 
diminish too much the Forces in these last Mentioned 
Islands, that the 6i st Regt. should be sent from 
Poole to Guernsey, and the Loyal Irish Fencible 
Infantry from the Coast of Yorkshire to Jersey. 
" I have the honor to be 


" (signed) FREDERICK. 
"To The King." 



When the people rebel the people are always right. 


FAR from forwarding the cause of Irish 
independence, the French attempt had an 
exactly opposite effect. Government took 
up a most arbitrary position, whereas it is 
quite possible that had concessions been granted the 
smoking flax might have been quenched. 1 The good 
behaviour of the peasants at Hoche's approach is 
sufficient evidence that the wish for a rising was by 
no means general. Martial law became the order of 
the day in several counties, and on the i3th March, 
1797, Lieutenant-General Lake, 2 then commanding 
the Northern District, gave notice that he had " re- 

1 See particularly Philip Harwood's History of the Irish 
Rebellion of 1798 (London: 1848), pp. 121-123. 

2 Gerald Lake (1744-1808), first Viscount Lake of Delhi and 
Leswarree. Served in the Seven Years' War, 1760-1762, in North 
Carolina, and in Holland, 1793. His first experience in Ireland 
was as aide-de-camp to General Sir Richard Pierson, and in 1794 
he was appointed Governor of Limerick. Commanded in Ulster, 
December, 1796- April, 1798. Commander-in-Chief from the 25th 
April, 1798, until the 2oth June, 1798. Commander-in-Chief in 
India, 1800-1807 (with a brief interval), and as such defeated 
the Mahrattas, reduced Agra, took from Scindia all his posses- 
sions beyond the river Chumbul, and defeated Holkar. 



ceived authority and directions to act in such manner 
as the public safety may require." This proclamation, 
half threat and half compromise, is so important as 
to warrant its reproduction in full : 

" Belfast, March 13, 1797. 

" WHEREAS the daring and horrid outrages in many 
parts of this province, evidently perpetrated with 
a view to supersede the laws and the administra- 
tion of justice by an organised system of murder and 
robbery, have increased to such an alarming degree, 
as from their atrocity and extent to bid defiance to 
the civil power, and to endanger the lives and proper- 
ties of his Majesty's faithful subjects ; and whereas, 
the better to effect their traitorous purposes, several 
persons who have been enrolled under the authority of 
his Majesty's commission, and others, have been 
forcibly and traitorously deprived of their arms ; it is 
therefore become indispensably necessary for the 
safety and protection of the well-disposed to interpose 
the King's troops under my command : and I do 
hereby give notice that I have received authority 
and directions to act in such manner as the public 
safety may require. I do therefore hereby enjoin and 
require all persons in this district (peace officers and 
those serving in a military capacity excepted), forth- 
with to bring in and surrender up all arms and ammu- 
nition which they may have in their possession to the 
officer commanding the King's troops in their neigh- 

" I trust that an immediate compliance with this 


order may render any act of mine to enforce it un- 

" Let the people seriously reflect, before it is too 
late, on the ruin into which they are rushing ; let 
them reflect upon their present prosperity, and the 
miseries in which they will inevitably be involved by 
persisting in acts of positive rebellion ; let them in- 
stantly, by surrendering up their arms, and by restor- 
ing those traitorously taken from the King's forces, 
rescue themselves from the severity of military au- 
thority. Let all the loyal and well-intentioned act 
together with energy and spirit in enforcing subordina- 
tion to the laws, and restoring tranquillity in their 
respective neighbourhoods, and they may be assured 
of protection and support from me. 

" And I do hereby invite all persons who are enabled 
to give information touching arms or ammunition 
which may be concealed, immediately to communicate 
the same to the several officers commanding his 
Majesty's forces in their respective districts ; and, for 
their encouragement and reward, I do hereby promise 
and engage that strict and inviolate secresy shall be 
observed with respect to all persons who shall make 
such communication, and that every person who shall 
make it shall receive a reward the full value of all 
such arms and ammunition as shall be seized in con- 
sequence thereof. 

" G. LAKE, Lieutenant-General 

" Commanding the Northern District." 

Two months later even more decisive measures were 
taken. A proclamation issued on the iyth May offering 


a general amnesty to all who would surrender and 
deliver up their arms on or before the 24th June was 
followed by an order which virtually handed over 
the country to the whims of the soldiery : 

" Adjutant-General's Office, i8th May, 1797. 

" In obedience to an order of the Lord-Lieutenant 
in Council, it is the Commander-in-Chief's commands 
that the military do act without waiting for directions 
from the civil magistrate in dispersing any tumul- 
tuous or unlawful assemblies of persons threatening 
the peace of the realm and the safety of the lives and 
property of his Majesty's loyal subjects wheresoever 
collected." l 

This was a terrible weapon to put in the hands of the 
military. Lake succeeded in collecting no fewer than 
29,583 firelocks, pikes, etc., in Ulster and Leinster 
alone. 2 The United Irishmen, intimidated but still 
undaunted, pursued the uneven tenor of their ways, 
mapped out the land, collected statistics likely to be 
of service, and made covert preparations for a coming 
finale. " It is evident," we are told in the Memoirs of 
Lord Edward FitzGerald, 3 " that there was still arms 
enough in their possession to give them confidence in 
their own strength, as their first impulse was to rise and 
employ them against their despoilers." Miles Byrne 
says that " United Irishmen were made by thousands 
daily," 4 and although this is probably an exaggera- 

1 Diary of Sir John Moore. Edited by Major-General Sir J. F. 
Maurice, K.C.B. (London : 1904), Vol. I., p. 285. 

2 Report of the Secret Committee, Appendix, No. XXXIX., p. 298. 

3 p. 239. 

4 Memoirs of Miles Byrne, Vol. I., p. 6. 



tion, it is certain that the number of recruits was 
rapidly growing. 

It is no good disguising the patent fact that, in the 
words of Alison, these threats " failed in producing any 
pacification." He mentions the proclamation of the 
i7th of May, but does not refer to the order issued on 
the following day. " In effect," he adds, " the search 
for arms was productive of the very worst results, and 
contributed more than any other circumstance to 
spread hatred at the English rule in the whole island. 
The regular military force being so small, it was only 
by the militia and yeomanry that the search could in 
general be made ; and it was just setting one portion 
of the population, in the highest state of exasperation, 
to lord it over the other. The living at free quarters, 
and the domiciliary visits in search of arms, conducted 
by these zealous but over-excited and disorderly 
bands, were too often executed with an amount of 
harshness and cruelty which awakened an uncon- 
trollable thirst for vengeance. 1 Above all, the cus- 
tom, which soon became too common, of inflicting 
military flogging in order to compel the disclosure and 
surrender of arms, excited universally the most in- 
dignant feelings, and has more than any other 
circumstance fixed hatred at the British Government 
in Ireland." 2 

1 Both Lake and Knox advocated the burning of houses. 
See A History of Ireland in the Eighteenth Century. By William 
Edward Hartpole Lecky (London: ed. 1892), Vol. IV., p. 203. 

2 Lives of Lord Castlereagh and Sir Charles Stewart. By Sir 
Archibald Alison, Bart. (Edinburgh : William Blackwood and 
Sons, 1861), Vol. I., p. 46. 


The yeomanry had been embodied as the result of 
a proposal made by Government towards the end of 
1796. In the Report from the Comynittee of Secrecy it is 
observed " with great satisfaction, that the estimate 
for the yeomanry as first laid before Parliament was 
for a number not exceeding 20,000 men that in the 
course of six months above 37,000 were arrayed ; and 
that the zeal of the country had so risen with its diffi- 
culties, that during the late rebellion, the yeomanry 
force exceeded 50,000 men, and might have been in- 
creased to a much greater extent. It is unnecessary 
to recal to the recollection and gratitude of parliament 
and of the country, the services they have performed 
during the unhappy struggle in which we have been 
engaged ; sharing all the hardships and dangers, and 
performing all the duties in common with the King's 
regular and militia forces." 1 As a general rule each 
company consisted of about fifty men, the majority 
of them cavalry, with a captain and two lieutenants. 
Those mounted on horses were provided with a pistol 
and a sword, sometimes a carbine, the infantry having 
weapons similar to those of the regular troops. 2 The 
following letters from Lord Mount Norris show that 
while he did not anticipate that Wexford was to raise 
the biggest crop of sedition, he was particularly 
anxious that his corps should be fully equal to any 
emergency that might arise : 

1 Report from the Committee of Secrecy. Reported by the Rt. 
Hon. Lord Viscount Castlereagh, Martis 21 die Augusti, 1798, p. 5. 

z History of the Rebellion in Ireland in the Year ifg8, etc. By 
the Rev. James Gordon (Dublin: 1801), pp. 62-63. 



" I have received your letter, and should be very 
sorry, my Dear Sir, to be of your opinion relative to 
the County of Wexford, where I do really believe 
the baneful Spirit of Defenderism had made some 
Progress, but not to that Degree you suppose. I never 
will suffer so narrow an Idea to warp my Mind ' that 
the Mass of the People have been corrupted/ for as 
a Christian I never can permit Suspicion to amount 
in my Breast to the Evidence of positive Fact, for I 
have no right to judge any man, nor to put the worst 
Construction on every man's actions, as that would 
argue a Distrust of all the World ! What a melancholy 
pitiful Predicament should we find ourselves in, were 
we to be cramped with Doubts of the Sincerity of every 
man's Sentiments and conduct ! Was I even to sport 
a Solicism on this occasion, nothing should induce me 
to forgo the Idea ! The Army are ready and every 
thing shall be prepared to prevent Delay in Dublin. 
As I shall be anxious to consult, on this and every 
future occasion, the Convenience of our Corps, you 
will have the Goodness to apprize Chillingworth two 
days before you set out, as he will have two Cars sent 
to Town for oats, and they can bring back the Arms. 
I have got so great an Inflamation in my left Eye, 
that I can scarcely see to add that I am, My dear Sir, 

" Your's faithfully, 

,TT ., . . r ,, " M* NORRIS." 

Write to me on receipt of this. 
[" Address : Lieut* Smyth, 1 

Camolin Cavalry, Bally duff."] 

1 In the Detail Book the name is invariably spelt " Smith." 


" Dear Sir, " March 9 th . *797- 

" I thank you for your letter. The Disappoint- 
ment about the Belts has been great to me, and the 
sad Illness with which I have been afflicted of late, 
has vexed me, having prevented my return to my 
Corps, at which I have been not a little vexed. I am 
glad to find that Peter Crannel is entered, and I beg 
he may [be] attested, as it is a proper form to go thro'. 
It is a pleasing Circumstance, to have Tennants and 
Neighbours of respectability in our Volunteer Associa- 
tion, in our common Cause. The Helmets may be 
given out whenever L 1 Bookey and you shall think 
proper. I only deferred the giving them out 'till I 
went down to the Country. You will please to give 
Crannel his, and also to reserve one for the other 
Person you wish to come into our Troop, who you w d 
not recommend to my Protection, did you not think 
him worthy of it. I have written this letter with a 
good deal of Pain, as I am slowly recovering from a 
Pleuresy, which was very violent. 
" I am, My dear sir, 

" very faithfully Yrs, 

" M* NORRIS." 

[Address : " Dublin March nine, 1797. Lieut 1 
Smyth, Camolin Cavalry, Ballyduff, Gorey. Mount 

" Dear Sir, " March l6th > *797- 

" You could not have introduced two young 
men into our Corps, of better Character than young 
Crannel and young Bass, and when we can pick a very 


few equally respectable, I shall be glad to have 
them substituted in the Room of those, who have been 
least diligent and attentive. I am recovering, tho' 
slowly. I long to be in the Country. 
" I am, my dear Sir, 

" faithfully Your's, 


" Give my Service to our brother Volunteers. Tell 
Jimmy Blake that I have not time to write to-day, 
but shall by next Post." 

[Address : " Dublin March Sixteen, 1797. L* Smyth, 
Ballyduff, Gorey. Mount Norris."] 

t( ~ ~. Dublin, March 20, 1797. 

" I thank you much for your letter, and for the 
requisition which young Brownrigg of Ballywater, 
young Crannel, and young Bass must be to any Corps. 
L* Bookey and you will consult who ought to be struck 
out of the Roll, to make room for them. Mess 18 
Clifford and Barrington, for non attendance, should 
be struck off the Roll, and I think that Carty can best 
be spared next to them. I will again write to George 
Sparks, who I trust will give due attendance, for un- 
less our Corps do appear on Duty, they are doing an 
Injury, instead of rendering a Service to me and to 
my Friends. I hope to be able to attend Parade on 
Sunday, God willing. 

" I am, Dear Sir, 

" Your's faithfully, 




[Address : " Dublin March Twenty one, 1797. L* 
Smyth, Camolin Cavalry, Ballyduff, Ballycanon, Gorey. 
Mount Norris."] 

" Dear Sir, March 28th > J 797- 

" Even if I had not had a Relapse, I should 
have been tempted to wait a few days for Sir F. Flood, 1 
with whom I am to set off, God willing, for my Troop 
on Thursday. Surely my young friend Fitz Henry 
cannot think of quitting our Volunteer Corps at this 
time, when we are upon the Eve, I may say, of being 
inspected, and when his appearance, as one of our 
Body, is so much to be desired. If this should be the 
Case, I am sure that he will not desert his Friends at so 
critical a Juncture, when the Honor of the Yeoman is at 
stake. I thank you for getting young Brownrigg, 
Crannel and Bass enrolled. There is nothing new in 
Town, but we are impatient for good Accounts from 
the British Fleets. 2 

" I am, Dear Sir, 

" Your's faithfully, 


[Address : " Dublin March Twenty Eight, 1797. 
L* Smyth, Ballyduff, Ballycanon, Gorey. Mount 

1 Sir Frederick Flood (1741-1824); M.P. for Co. Wexford 1776; 
created a baronet 1780 ; M.P. for Wexford in Imperial Parliament 
1800-1818. He took a prominent part in the Volunteer movement, 
and vigorously opposed the Union. 

8 The invasion of Wales by Hoche's Black Legion under Colonel 
Tate, on the 22nd February, 1797, was still " the talk of the town," 
and other attempts were thought imminent. For a full account 
of this expedition of jail-birds see Napoleon and the Invasion of 


In addition to the yeomanry corps there was the 
militia, made up of raw recruits for the most part, the 
term of enlistment having expired at a most unpro- 
pitious and unfortunate time, with the inevitable 
result that there was more than a suggestion of the 
ranks being tainted by sedition. All sorts and con- 
ditions of men were to be met with in this body, and 
as the majority of the militia were Roman Catholics 
and their officers Protestants who had " so little sense 
or prudence as not to conceal their prejudices," 1 the 
internal condition of some of the regiments may be 
imagined. Insubordination was almost as general as 
falling leaves in autumn. The rebels were frequently 
recruited by deserters from the militia, and they cer- 
tainly looked forward to the day when, augmented 
by their diffident French allies, that body would cede 
and become definitely attached to the Irish revolu- 
tionary cause. 

The troops under Lord Carhampton and General 
Lake lost all restraint, ran amok, plundered and 
pillaged, and put men, women, and children to the 
sword. The former officer resigned in November, 1797, 
and was succeeded by Sir Ralph Abercromby. 2 " That 

England, Vol. I., pp. 31-73. The British navy gave a good account 
of itself during the year. On the i4th February the fleet under 
Admiral Sir John Jervis won a magnificent victory over the Spanish 
fleet off St. Vincent, and on the nth October the Dutch fleet was 
crippled off Camperdown by Admiral Duncan. See post, p. 64. 

1 Diary of Sir John Moore, Vol. I., p. 275. 

2 Sir Ralph Abercromby (1734-1801), K.B. 1795 ; Lieutenant- 
General 1797. Served with the Duke of York in Holland ; com- 
manded the Egyptian expedition 1801. Defeated the French at 
Aboukir, the 8th March, 1801, and at Alexandria, the 2ist inst, 
when he was mortally wounded. 


fierce light which beats upon a throne" is as nothing 
compared to the searching rays which have been 
flooded upon the future hero of Aboukir and his policy 
in Ireland. To some historians he is a military Fitz- 
william, and would have been the saviour of the 
country ; to others, including Froude, he is scarcely 
more than a rebel in royalist clothing. But is Froude 
correct when he asserts that Abercromby was " entirely 
ignorant of Ireland " ? l Hay flatly contradicts the 
assertion by stating that, " having been quartered in 
Ireland, through most of his gradations of well- 
merited promotion, he possessed a perfect local know- 
ledge of the country." 2 In this he is supported by 
Lecky, who says : "He knew Ireland well, having 
been quartered there before the outbreak of the war 
of the American Revolution, and having remained there 
during the whole period of its continuance." 3 We 
know from Abercromby's letters to his son that he 
made a personal inspection of the districts which had 
been proclaimed, and far from seeing eye to eye with 
Camden, found few places where the slightest signs of 
disturbance were evident. Froude makes much 
capital out of the fact that he " forbade the soldiers to 
act anywhere under any circumstances in suppressing 
riots, arresting criminals, or in any other function, 
without the presence and authority of a magistrate." 4 
In other words, he disobeyed the order of the i8th 

1 Froude, Vol. III., p. 352. 

2 History of the Insurrection of the County of Wexford, A.D. 

By Edward Hay, Esq. (Dublin: 1803), p. 43. 

3 Lecky, Vol. IV., p. 197. 

4 Froude, Vol. III., p. 352. 


May, which order, in Gordon's opinion, was " a 
temporary violation of the political constitution for 
its ultimate safety." * This is merely a polite way of 
saying that it was illegal, and we think his judgment 
a just one. Abercromby certainly restrained his 
troops in this as in other matters. " Sir Ralph told 
me," says Moore, " that the proclamation and order 
in consequence of it, formerly issued in Lord Car- 
hampton's time, had never been acted upon [i.e. by 
Abercromby] ; but a special order and Act of in- 
demnity and pardon having since passed, they were 
considered as thereby annulled. In one instance only 
since his arrival at a place in the north had 
an officer acted without a magistrate, and he was 
immediately stopt." 2 While we cannot condemn 
Froude for not having knowledge of this particular 
document, there is one from Camden to Abercromby 
dated the i5th March, 1798, in which the former says, 
" You have had the candour to acknowledge that you 
did not consider the proclamation of May 18 as then 
in force," 3 which he ignores. 

Froude further remarks that " In issuing an order 
in direct contradiction of the Lord-Lieutenant, Sir 
Ralph Abercrombie was himself setting a most signal 
example of the insubordination which he condemned ; 
and had he been as right essentially as he was utterly 
wrong and headstrong, his manner of proceeding 
would have been without excuse." 4 He then pro- 

1 Gordon, p. 25. 

2 Diary of Sir John Moore, pp. 286-287. 

3 Dunfermline's Abercromby, p. 101. 

4 Froude, Vol. III., p. 353. 


ceeds to tell us that Camden, without saying a word 
to Abercromby or to the Cabinet, renewed his own 
instructions. The command of the Lord-Lieutenant 
being supreme in military, as in other matters, he 
presumably had a right to do so, but it was an unjust 
procedure from Abercromby's point of view and left 
him in a very unhappy position. It is evident from 
Camden's reply to Portland when the latter got to 
hear of the affair, that the Viceroy did not wish to 
stir up strife. " He had therefore passed it over and 
explained it away, and in Ireland it was already for- 
gotten." 1 Then why did the home Government 
raise the question so persistently ? Ireland and 
Camden being satisfied, England should have ceased 
to probe the wound. 

Lecky shows us the other side of the shield, and 
points out that Abercromby not only accepted the 
command with great reluctance, but wrote to England 
" that he understood that, with the exception of the 
patronage, the army was to be totally under his com- 
mand ; and that he must come to a clear understand- 
ing on this point, as a command divided between him- 
self and the Lord-Lieutenant was entirely incom- 
patible with good administration ; while Camden 
wrote confidentially that Abercromby was not easy 
to get on with, and very peremptory about managing 
military matters himself." 2 The historian also admits 
that, while many of the outrages were " mere isolated 

1 Froude, Vol. III., p. 354. 

2 Dalrymple to Pelham, igth Nov. ; Knox to Pelham, 29th Nov. ; 
Abercromby to Elliot, 2$th Dec. ; Camden to Pelham, 26th Dec., 
I797- Lecky, Vol. IV., p. 198. 


acts of drunken or half-disciplined soldiers ... a 
large class, of which the burning of houses formed the 
most conspicuous example, were illegal acts of violence 
deliberately carried out in places where murders had 
been committed or where arms had been concealed, 
and deliberately screened by men in authority from 
the intervention of the law courts." x Abercromby's 
famous general orders enjoining all commanding offi- 
cers " to compel from all officers under their command 
the strictest and most unremitting attention to the 
discipline, good order, and conduct of their men, such 
as may restore the high and distinguished reputation 
the British troops have been accustomed to enjoy in 
every part of the world," are noticed elsewhere. 2 
Lecky says that these orders were " certainly not un- 
called for by the circumstances of the case," 3 and 
quotes part of Pelham's defence in Parliament, which 
Froude ignores. The same authority goes further by 
drawing our attention to the various unscrupulous 
methods of the cabal against the man whom Clare 4 
called " this Scotch beast." 5 He thinks that Aber- 
cromby " greatly underrated the extent of the con- 
spiracy, and the real imminence of the danger," 6 but 
of the honest purpose of the Commander he has no 

1 Lecky, Vol. IV., pp. 201-202. 

2 See post, p. 301. 

3 Lecky, Vol. IV., p. 204. 

* John Fitzgibbon (1749-1802), Baron Fitzgibbon 1789 ; Earl 
of Clare 1795 ; Lord Fitzgibbon in England 1799 ; Attorney- 
General in Ireland 1783 ; Irish Chancellor 1789-1802. 

5 Auckland Correspondence, Vol. III., pp. 393-397 (quoted by 
Lecky, Vol. IV., p. 207). 

6 Lecky, Vol. IV., p. 213. 


doubt. Lecky thus concludes : " Abercromby is 
nearly the last figure of any real interest that, in the 
eighteenth century, flitted across the troubled scene 
of Irish politics. He left Ireland towards the end of 
April, just a month before the rebellion broke out, 
and he was replaced by Lake, who, more, perhaps, 
than any other military man, was associated with the 
abuses which Abercromby had tried to check. The 
reign of simple force was established beyond dispute, 
and the men whose policy had driven Lord Fitzwilliam 
from Ireland, and Grattan from Parliament, were now 
omnipotent." 1 Froude gives us a different epitaph : 
" He [Abercromby] seemed to have come to Ireland 
to effect the utmost extremity of mischief which his 
opportunities allowed him." 2 

There can be little doubt that Camden was dis- 
appointed in the promotion of Abercromby to the 
post of Commander-in-Chief. He had hoped, with 
some reason, that Cornwallis 3 would have occupied 
the position. Writing to the latter on the 23rd May, 
1797, urging him to do so, he says " that that patriotism 
would be still more extended if you could be prevailed 
upon to accept the Lord Lieutenancy of this kingdom." 
One must not infer that this was a mere passing 
pleasantry, but it is significant that Camden adds 

1 Lecky, Vol. IV., pp. 214-215. 

2 Froude, Vol. III., p. 375. 

3 Charles Mann (1738-1805), first Marquis and second Earl 
Cornwallis. Commanded in American War, forced to surrender 
1781 ; Governor of Bengal 1786-1793 ; Viceroy and Commander- 
in-Chief in Ireland 1798-1801 ; negotiated Peace of Amiens 1801- 
1802 ; Governor-General of India, 1805. 


that he understands that Cornwallis would on "no 
consideration " accept the post. " The commission 
which I hold," he goes on, " renders my name and 
assent necessary to the official forms of business. 
If I knew in what manner consistent with that com- 
mission to divest myself of that part of my duty, I 
should immediately adopt it, but if I am constrained 
to keep it, I beg to deliver over to your Lordship every 
military regulation, and to put that part of my office 
into your hands." * If Camden was willing to allow 
this to Cornwallis, why did he not extend the same 
favour to Abercromby ? The question apparently 
admits of two answers : either he did not like the 
general, or he had not sufficient reliance on his military 
skill, in which case he should have raised a strong 
objection at Downing Street. Cornwallis was a more 
easy-going individual, and not so likely to dispute with 
" the king of the Castle " in this case, of Dublin 
Castle. " For your private ear," Cornwallis tells 
Major-General Ross on the 3Oth March, 1798, " Aber- 
cromby is coming from Ireland. He has been ex- 
ceedingly wrongheaded." 2 Wrongheaded in not 
making friends with Camden presumably, for we know 
that Cornwallis censured the behaviour of the troops 
himself when he came face to face with the problem. 

Abercromby resigned the command when it was 
obvious that under the present system little could be 
done to calm the popular indignation or curb the law- 
lessness of the troops. According to Froude he " closed 

1 Cornwallis Correspondence, Vol. II., pp. 327-328. 
* Ibid., p. 335. 


a petulant defence of his conduct with an abrupt 
resignation." * In reality he surrendered his post 
and explicitly stated his reasons at the same time to 
the Duke of York, the Commander-in-Chief of the 
British Army. His alleged abruptness did not pre- 
clude him from continuing in his almost untenable 
position until his successor was appointed. " The 
loss of Abercromby," writes Elliot, 2 "will not easily 
be repaired." 3 We cannot but feel that Lord Hol- 
land's* 4 remarks on this particular affair are just. 
" His recall," writes the champion of the Whigs, " was 
hailed as a triumph by the Orange faction ; and they 
contrived about the same time to get rid of Mr. Secre- 
tary Pelham, 5 who, though somewhat timeserving, 
was a goodnatured and prudent man. Indeed, sur- 
rounded as they were with burning cottages, tortured 
backs, and frequent executions, they were yet full of 
their sneers at what they whimsically termed the 
' clemency ' of the Government, and the weak character 
of their Viceroy, Lord Camden." 6 

1 Froude, Vol. III., p. 355. 

2 William Elliot (or Elliott), Under Secretary in Ireland 1797- 
1801 ; Chief Secretary 1806-1807. 

3 Elliot to Pelham, 3rd June, 1798. Lecky, Vol. IV., p. 397. 
* Henry Richard Vassall Fox (1773-1840), third Lord Holland. 

Lord Privy Seal 1806-7. He was nephew of Charles James Fox, 
and an ardent Whig and Napoleonic partisan. 

5 Rt. Hon. Thomas Pelham (1756-1826), Chief Secretary in 
Ireland 1783 and 1795, resigned the 2nd November, 1798, but 
remained Secretary of State for Ireland. Became second Earl 
of Chichester 1805. 

6 Memoirs of the Whig Party during my Time, Vol. I., p. 112. 
This book was not published until after Lord Holland's death. 

When they be bad, you shall no where meet with worse ; if they 
be good, you can hardly find better. GlRALDUS CAMBRENSIS. 

IN the autumn of 1797 it became evident that 
the general dissatisfaction of the Irish people 
had spread to Wexford. The discovery that a 
number of blacksmiths had been paying more 
attention to the manufacturing of pike-heads than to 
the more legitimate work of shoeing horses and mend- 
ing vehicles was as disconcerting as it was unexpected. 
The county people began to fear for their safety, and 
at a meeting of magistrates held at Gorey on the 20th 
November, 1797, 16 out of 142 parishes were pro- 
claimed. 1 Lord Mount Norris and seven other magis- 
trates were in the minority, and wished to quell the 
turbulent Roman Catholics by more peaceful methods. 
Accompanied by several colleagues the former made 
a tour of the neighbouring chapels during the time of 
service and endeavoured to conciliate the congrega- 
tions. We are therefore not inclined to agree with 

1 Hay (p. 52) gives this number, Musgrave (p. 320) states it 
as 19. Sir Richard Musgrave (circa 1757-1818), first baronet 1782 ; 
M.P. for Lismore 1778. Although so pro-English he opposed the 



Sir Richard Musgrave, although he was Lord Mount 
Norris's brother-in-law, that his lordship was per- 
suaded " that the popish inhabitants and their priests 
were perfectly innocent." x Were this so there would 
have been no reason for the visits. On the contrary, 
Taylor states that the Earl, " like a true friend to his 
country, expostulated with them on the unreasonable- 
ness of their proceedings. His Lordship pointed out 
to them the happiness resulting from the constitution 
under which they lived ; that a man of any persuasion 
whatever, though his descent were ever so mean, who 
should advance himself by honest means in the world, 
and from nothing acquire abundance, would be pro- 
tected by it, and that it was very wicked and ungrateful 
to attempt to destroy those protectors of our persons, 
rights and freedom ; that the laws of the realm pro- 
tected the poorest cottager from the cruelties of a 
rich oppressor ; and that there was no such thing as 
wanton barbarity in our land. His lordship entreated 
them to surrender the weapons of their rebellion, and 
invited them to come in and take the oath of allegiance ; 
he proposed to give them certificates of the same, and 
hoped they would return to their duty. They all 
seemed to be convinced, and several of the neighbour- 
ing parishes accordingly assembled, headed by their 
respective priests, and his Lordship administered to 
them the oath." 2 

1 Musgrave, p. 320. 

2 A History of the Rise, Progress, and Suppression of the Rebellion 
in the County of Wexford in the Year 1798. By George Taylor (ed. 
Dublin, 1829), p. 1 8. 


Taylor was a staunch member of the Church of 
England, 1 and his narrative is based on personal 
knowledge and from information " received from 
gentlemen of the strictest veracity." 2 Hay, who was 
a Wexford man, and as intensely Roman Catholic as 
Taylor was loyalist, insinuates that Lord Mount Norris 
did not carry on his propaganda from purely patriotic 
motives. He remarks that the Earl " must be natur- 
ally supposed to feel substantial reasons for his oppo- 
sition to have the part of the county proclaimed 
wherein his property principally lay ; and it is to be 
fairly presumed, (whatever ground may be had by 
some reflecting people for thinking otherwise) that his 
lordship was not influenced on this occasion at least, 
by motives of opposition to Lord Ely, 3 his successful 
rival in the patronage of the county. Shortly after 
this meeting at Gorey," he adds, " I spent some days 
at Camolin Park, the seat of Lord Mount Norris, while 
he was soliciting the people, from parish to parish, to 
take the oath of allegiance. His lordship requested I 
would use what influence I might possess with the 
priests in my neighbourhood, to induce them and 
their flocks to join in this general test of loyalty, in 
order, as he said, to put the catholic interest in the 
county of Wexford on the most respectable footing ; 

1 A History of the Rise, Progress, and Suppression of the Rebellion 
in the County of Wexford in the Year 1798. By George Taylor (ed. 
Dublin: 1829), p. 177. 

2 Ibid., p. v. 

3 Charles, first Earl of Ely of the second creation (1738-1806). 
M.P. for Clonmines ; Teller of the Exchequer 1777-1793 ; Joint 
Paymaster-General in Ireland 1789-1806; created Lord Loftus in 
England 1801. 


suggesting at the same time, that from his ' great 
consequence and influence, his representation of facts 
must counteract and outweigh the misrepresentations of 
others.' He also showed me the oaths he usually 
administered on these occasions, and which he stated 
himself to have improved from time to time by several 
alterations : he produced one, in particular, which he 
conceived to be wrought up to the highest perfection 
of loyalty. Although I agreed with his lordship so far 
as really to think the county was then in a state of 
perfect peace and tranquillity, (and therefore thought 
this overweening parade unnecessary) yet I never 
believed him, notwithstanding all his lordship's strong 
professions to that effect, a sincere friend to catholics : 
I was rather strongly of opinion, that he affected a 
shew of concern for their interests, at this critical 
period, in mere opposition to the noble lord his com- 
petitor for influence. 

" I therefore took the most civil means in my power 
of declining the interference to which his lordship 
would have directed my exertions. Lord Mount Norris, 
however, was not singular in courting catholic popu- 
larity at that time, for all the newspapers of the day 
teemed with addresses from the catholics throughout 
the island, published, not at the desire or at the ex- 
pence of the subscribers, but by the political man- 
oeuvrers who took the trouble of procuring them, to 
answer their private purposes, by playing them off 
against the schemes of other opponents." J 

In the Authentic Detail of the Extravagant and In- 

1 Hay, pp. 52-53- 


consistent Conduct of Sir Richard Musgrave, Baronet; 
with a full Refutation of his Slander against " Edward 
Hay," which is printed as an appendix to the latter's 
History of the Insurrection, the author gives Lord Mount 
Norris credit for having been " remarkably active in 
suppressing the rebellion [he] possessed a greater 
landed property than any other person in the county 
of Wexford, is a governor of that county, and a privy- 
counsellor of Ireland." * If historians had a special 
gift which enabled them to peer into the secret motives 
of a man's heart we should be able to refute or cor- 
roborate the above statements, but there is certainly 
nothing in the Mount Norris Correspondence which 
leads us to believe that the writer of the letters was 
a man whose only concern was for the safety of his 
own personal property. We presume that patriotism, 
like charity, begins at home, but true patriotism, un- 
like false charity, does not stay there. The documents 
are singularly clear of references to any damage the 
Earl may have suffered, although he was particularly 
intimate with Lieutenant Smyth, to whom most of 
them are addressed. We are by no means satisfied 
with Hay's cynical opinion that Lord Mount Norris 
" affected a shew of concern " in the interests of the 
Catholics. A martinet if you will, but intensely loyal 
by nature, the Earl was sufficiently a statesman to 
make pacific overtures before resorting to less humane 
measures. That many of the Catholics saw fit to dis- 
semble after they had sworn allegiance at his instiga- 
tion is a crime which cannot be laid at the door of the 

1 p- is- 


man who administered the oath. There is no gain- 
saying the fact that the nobleman was himself de- 
ceived, and unwittingly misled others, as to the loyalty 
or peaceable intentions of the Romanists of Wexford. 
This is fully borne out by Gordon, whom Lecky de- 
scribes as " the most truthful and temperate of the 
loyalist historians." 1 The same authority even sug- 
gests that Lord Mount Norris's satisfactory reports 
had not a little to do with the defenceless condition of 
the county when the rebellion broke out. 2 

On the other hand, it is perfectly evident that he 
was no milksop. In a curious little volume entitled 
The Principles of Peace, Exemplified in the Conduct of 
the Society of Friends in Ireland, during the Rebellion 
of the Year 1798? the author, Dr. Thomas Hancock, 4 
relates an occurrence which can only refer to his 
lordship : 

" A party of militia," he writes, " being stationed 

at Ferns, the Earl of M , who commanded, came 

to this Friend, and desired he would give up part of 
his house, which was then used as a store, for a guard- 
house for the soldiers. The requisition being sudden, 
the Friend was put to a stand what he should answer ; 
and, although he might have refused it on the ground 
of its being occupied as a store, yet, knowing that this 
inconvenience could be obviated, he was not easy to 
cloak the real cause of objection with any disguise or 

1 Lecky, Vol. IV., p. 353. 

2 Gordon, p. 87. 

3 Thomas Hancock (1783-1849), M.D. of Edinburgh. 

* Second ed., London, William Phillips, 1826. The first edition 
was published in the previous year. 


subterfuge. Considering, therefore, that this was a 
fit opportunity to lift up the standard of Peace and 
to bear his testimony against War, he honestly told 
the commander ' that the apartment he requested 
was occupied as a store-room, but besides, that the 
purposes for which it was wanted, were such as he 
could not unite with, having a conscientious scruple 
against War, and every thing connected with it." 

Upon this, the Earl of M grew very angry, and 

desired the soldiers who were with him to afford the 
Friend no protection, in case any disturbance should 
arise. To this observation, the latter replied, that 
' he hoped he should not trust to, or apply for, military 
protection.' The commander went away greatly dis- 
pleased, and seemed to mark out this Friend as a dis- 
affected person ; indeed, he did not know how soon 
a prison might be his lot ; especially as one of the 
militia-men, who was quartered at his house for many 
weeks, being entertained at free cost, propagated 
many false reports of him, with respect to political 
matters ; so that his situation became increasingly 
perilous." J 

It is interesting to know that the Quaker in question 
was not visited by the dire pains and penalties he 

An address signed by a number of priests and their 
parishioners, dated 26th November, 1797, appealed to 
the Earl " as our neighbour, as a magistrate, and as a 

1 The Principles of Peace, Exemplified in the Conduct of the 
Society of Friends in Ireland, during the Rebellion of the Year 
PP- 56-57. Second ed., London, William Phillips, 1826. 


friend to humanity, to receive our oaths of allegiance, 
and to assure his Excellency, the Earl of Camden, that 
we are as firmly attached to the constitution, as any 
other members of the community, whatever our ene- 
mies may insinuate to the contrary." The recipient 
was also asked to " accept of our tribute of gratitude " 
for his opposition at the meeting held a few days before, 
and to convey " our acknowledgments to the seven 
other magistrates, who so liberally stepped forward, 
to justify us from an imputation which we reprobate 
as unprovoked and unmerited." 

In all good faith, Lord Mount Norris and his col- 
leagues administered the oath to Fathers Nicholas 
Redmond, Nicholas Synnott, Francis Kavenagh, John 
Murphy, Michael Lacy, David Cullen, Michael Murphy, 
John Redmond, Nicholas Stafford, and Edmond 
Redmond. 1 We shall see how some of these priests 
kept their vow as the narrative proceeds. Mus- 
grave prints a copy of the oath used on this oc- 
casion. It runs as follows : 

" I DO sincerely promise and swear, upon the Holy 
Evangelists, that I will be faithful and bear true 
allegiance to his majesty King George the third, and 
to the succession of his illustrious family to the throne. 
That I will, to the utmost of my power, support the 
constitution as by law established. That I will use 
every possible exertion to prevent and suppress all 
tumult, riot, or secret conspiracy. That I am not an 
United Irishman, and that I never will take the oaths 
of the United men. That I will give up all kinds of 

1 Musgrave, Appendix No. XVII., pp. 79-80. 


firearms, or offensive or defensive weapons, in my 
possession ; and that I will inform against any man 
keeping arms without being registered. All the above 
I most solemnly swear, in the presence of the Almighty, 
and as I hope to be saved, through the merits and 
mediation of my blessed Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ, without any equivocation or mental reserva- 
tion whatsoever. So help me God." 1 

Taylor makes the following statement : " The 
parish of Boulavogue refused at first to comply, as the 
oath was so strict ; but Lord Mount Norris being dis- 
pleased with their refusal, made use of some expres- 
sions, signifying, that if they would not be persuaded, 
and take the oath, he would have the country so strongly 
defended, by quartering military in it, that they 
should then demean themselves as peaceable subjects 
through fear, if they would not now do it for love. 
This alarmed them, and they also conformed with the 
other parishes." 2 This would certainly seem like a 
threat did we not know that Father John Murphy 3 

1 Musgrave, Appendix No. XVII., p. 80. 

2 Taylor, pp. 18-19. 

3 The Rev. John Murphy, coadjutor-priest of Boulavogue, 
was the son of Thomas Murphy, a farmer at Tincurry, a parish 
of Ferns. He was educated at a hedge-school kept by a man named 
Gun, and afterwards studied in Seville University, where it is 
supposed he took his degree of Doctor of Divinity. Murphy re- 
turned to Ireland in 1785. " Father John was rather under than 
over the ordinary stature of his countrymen," Kavanagh (p. 97) 
tells us, " but broad-chested and strong-limbed, of remarkable 
activity as well as strength. His complexion was florid, his features 
rather handsome, but their beauty lay more in the expression than 
in the shape. His white forehead rose over bright blue eyes, which, 
though they usually beamed with a cheerful smile, could at times 
flash forth a glance that indicated the fiery and intrepid soul which 


and his flock not only took the oath of allegiance, but 
on the Qth April, 1798, on behalf of himself and 757 
inhabitants, signed an address to the Viceroy, which 
was duly presented by the Earl and Sir Thomas 
Esmond, " thus publickly to declare our unalterable 
attachment to his sacred Majesty King George the 
third ; and we do hereby declare, and in the most 
solemn manner pledge ourselves, to support with our 
lives, fortunes and influence, his Majesty's happy 
government established amongst us, determined as 
we are to exert ourselves for the suppression of re- 
bellion and sedition." Protestants were assured " of 
our sincere affection for them, and our absolute deter- 
mination to co-operate with them in every means in 
our power, for the support of this happy constitution, 
the suppression of rebellion, the welfare of his Majesty's 
government, and in love and loyalty to his sacred 
person." 1 

According to Musgrave, the same address was also 
adopted by Father Michael Murphy of Ballycanew, 2 

in a just cause defies danger, and boldly confronts death itself. 
To personal advantages he united a most determined spirit, and 
a power, invaluable in a leader, of inspiring confidence into his 
followers." Father John must not be confused with a priest of 
the same name who acted as his aide-de-camp and was killed in 
the action at Kilcomney Hill (see Maxwell, p. 185). 

1 Musgrave, Appendix No. XVII., p. 81. 

2 Father Michael Murphy, curate of Ballycanew. He was 
born at Killnew, near Kilmuckridge, and was educated at a hedge- 
school on Oulart Hill. He displayed conspicuous ability, and was 
ordained in 1785 in the diocese of Ferns. Murphy afterwards 
entered the Irish College at Bordeaux, then under Abbe Glynn. 
Killed at the battle of Arklow, and interred in Castle Ellis church- 


and all the priests who had signed the letter of 26th 
November, 1797, with the exception of Fathers John 
Redmond and David Cullen. 1 Taylor, however, gives 
a different version of the declaration of loyalty made 
by Father Michael Murphy and the inhabitants of 
the parish of Ballycanew, which differs more in form 
than in substance from that noted above. It is dated 
the ist April, 1798 : 2 

" May it please your Excellency, 

" WE, the Roman Catholic inhabitants of the 
parish of Ballycanow, in the county of Wexford, this 
day assembled at the chapel of Ballycanow, holding in 
abhorrence the barbarous outrages lately committed, 
and seditious conspiracies now existing in this kingdom, 
by traitors and rebels, styling themselves United 
Irishmen, think it incumbent on us, thus publicly 
to avow and declare, our unalterable attachment and 
loyalty to our most revered and beloved Sovereign, 
King George the Third, and our determined resolution 
to support and maintain his rights and our happy 
Constitution. And we do further pledge ourselves 
to co-operate with our Protestant brethren of this 
kingdom, in opposing to the utmost of our power any 
foreign or domestic enemy, who may dare to invade 
his Majesty's dominions, or disturb the peace and 
tranquillity of this country. 

" Resolved, that the above declaration be signed 
by our pastor, the Rev. Michael Murphy, and a few of 
the principal parishioners ; and that the same be sent 

1 See ante, p. 55. 
z Taylor, pp. 21-22. 


to the Right Hon. Earl Mount Norris, with a request 
that his Lordship will transmit it to his Excellency the 
Lord Lieutenant. 


" Coadjutor Priest." 

[Here follow fourteen signatures.] 

Had such f ulsomeness been less common in addresses 
intended for official eyes in this century of laudatory 
utterances it is probable that suspicion would have 
been aroused, for the superlative often hides a multi- 
tude of sins. The Lord-Lieutenant replied through 
Lord Castlereagh x in a polite note to the Earl, dated 
Dublin Castle, i6th April, 1798, expressing " his entire 
reliance on the loyalty and zeal manifested by the 
persons who have subscribed it." Father Michael 
Murphy was duly informed, and the following covering 
note was also sent : 

" Lord Mount Norris felt highly gratified by being 
employed to convey the address of the Catholic in- 
habitants of Ballycanow 2 to government, which was 
a striking test of their attachment to the constitution, 
and which from his perfect knowledge of their senti- 

1 Robert Stewart (1769-1822), Viscount Castlereagh. Keeper 
of the Privy Seal in Ireland 1797 ; Chief Secretary for Ireland 
1799-1801 ; President of the Board of Control 1802-1805 ; Sec- 
retary for War and Colonies 1805- January, 1806, and from 
March, 1807, to September, 1809 ; Secretary for the Foreign 
Department 1812-1822. From February, 1797, until April, 1799, 
Lord Castlereagh acted as Secretary to the Viceroy, owing to Mr. 
Pelham's illness. On the death of his father in 1821 Lord Castlereagh 
succeeded him as the second Marquis of Londonderry. 

2 Ballycanew. 


ments, as well as from the proof given by their oath 
of allegiance, he is convinced they are as anxious to 
support the constitution, as any other members of the 
community : should occasion require their aid, he 
means to call upon them, persuaded of their anxiety 
to preserve the public welfare. 

" April 27th, 1798." * 

The above documents go to prove the duplicity of 
the men who may well be called the master-minds of 
the rebellion on the side of the insurgents. The 
majority of the high ecclesiastical authorities of the 
Roman Catholic faith stood loyally by Government, 
and entreated the priests to do all in their power to 
suppress any disloyal tendencies that might manifest 
themselves in their flocks. Many of the prelates saw 
that a rebellion would be neither prevention nor cure 
for the ills of Ireland, and the sufferings of the Church 
in France augured ill should the friends of the Revolu- 
tion set foot in the land of St. Patrick. Sermons were 
preached, pastoral charges delivered, and meetings 
convened for the purpose of dissuading would-be 
disturbers of the peace. But it is easier to counsel 
pacific measures than to bring them about, and no 
amount of theological theorising can stem the stream 
of human passion when the political volcano begins to 
rumble in real earnest. To encourage sedition openly 
in chapel was practically impossible, and was almost 
certain to reach official ears at Dublin. Misrepresenta- 
tion was rife, nevertheless, and on one occasion the 

1 Taylor, p. 23. 


Roman Catholic Bishop of Ossory 1 was obliged in 
self-defence to send the MS. copy of a sermon to Sir 
Charles Asgill 2 and the mayor of the town in which 
it had been read before they were convinced that it 
contained no references directly or indirectly against 
Government. According to the bishop, the fear of 
assassination prevented many of the priests from 
denouncing the propaganda of the United Irish- 
men. 3 Dr. Edward Dillon, Roman Catholic Bishop of 
Kilmacduagh and Kilfenora, issued a stirring address 
exhorting obedience, and warning the laity of his 
diocese of the wicked intentions of their potential 
allies, adding that " the wrath of Heaven could scarcely 
visit us with a more dreadful scourge." 4 The Roman 
Catholic Archbishop of Dublin, 5 " in the present awful 
and alarming period," penned a similar document 
"to be distinctly read at each Mass " on the fatal 
Whit-Sunday of '98. The speculations of Tom Paine 
are anathematized and a sane patriotism invoked in 
the following terms : 

" Let no one deceive you by wretched impracticable 
speculations on the rights of man and the majesty of 
the people, on the dignity and independence of the 
human mind, on the abstract duties of superiors, and 

1 John-Lanigan (1758-1828), Irish ecclesiastical historian. 

a Sir Charles Asgill (circa 1763-1823). Served in American 
War and in Flanders ; Staff- Brigadier in Ireland 1797 ; Major- 
General 1798 ; Commander of Dublin 1800 ; General 1814. 

3 Castlereagh Correspondence, Vol. I., pp. 160-162. Dated 
Ballyragget, loth March, 1798. 

4 Ibid., Vol. I., pp. 172-176. Dated Kilcornan, 6th April, 1798. 

5 Most Rev. John Thomas Troy, D.D. (1739-1823), consecrated 
Archbishop of Dublin 1784. 


exaggerated abuses of authority fatal speculations, 
disastrous theories ; not more subversive of social 
order and happiness, than destructive of every principle 
of the Christian religion. Look at the origin and 
progress of these detestable doctrines. Their atheistical 
authors, seeing the intimate connexion between re- 
ligious and civic principles, beheld with the envious 
malignity of demons the mutual support they afforded 
to each other for the spiritual and temporal advantage 
of man ; and, accordingly, prepared the dreadful 
career of anarchy, by the propagation (too successful, 
alas !) of impiety and licentiousness. 

" We bitterly lament the fatal consequences of this 
anti-Christian conspiracy. But surely, my brethren, 
your known attachment to the principles of religion 
ought to have preserved you from the destroying 
influence of such complicated wickedness. Yes, 
dearest Catholics, it is to the benign principles of the 
Christian religion that we recal your serious attention 
at this important crisis. They will shield you from 
the evils which surround us. Submission to estab- 
lished authority and obedience to the laws are amongst 
the duties prescribed by religion ; every violation of 
these duties is highly criminal. Wherefore, if any 
amongst you have been unfortunately seduced into 
a combination against the State, under any pretext 
whatsoever, you are bound in conscience to instantly 
withdraw yourselves from it, and by sincere repentance 
and future loyal conduct atone for your past sinful 
temerity. Without this sincere sorrow and promise 
of amendment, you cannot expect absolution in the 


tribunal of penance, nor mercy from Government. 
Neither one nor the other is extended to impenitent 
sinners or offenders, without profanation or injustice. 

" Resolve then, we beseech you, to deliver up your 
arms of every kind, without delay or reluctance, to 
those appointed to receive them. Unite with all your 
loyal and peaceable fellow-subjects to put down and 
crush the wicked spirit of insurrection, so disgraceful 
to the character of Irishmen. 

" It has already produced the most horrid effects. 
Assassinations, murders, atrocities of every kind, have 
been committed. Lose not a moment to manifest 
your detestation of the principles and causes leading 
to such consequences. The shortest delay in comply- 
ing with this religious duty will be justly considered as 
an indication of disloyalty ; you will be considered as 
enemies to the State, and subjected to a sudden death, 
under the operation of martial law, already proclaimed. 
Your property, your very existence, are endangered 
by a suspicious or equivocal conduct. It must be 
open, candid, and decided in supporting Religion and 
the Constitution. . . ." x 

In the calmer days of 1799, when declarations in 
favour of the Union were being made by counties and 
individuals, Dr. Edward Dillon complained to his 
confrere of Dublin that he was styled " an Orange 
Bishop, the tool of Government, well paid for my 
services, &c." because of the active part the Church 
was then taking in a purely political movement. " I 
am actually employed in performing a very painful 

1 Castlereagh Correspondence, Vol. I., pp. 209-211. 


duty," he concludes, " visiting the parishes which 
have contracted the greatest weight of guilt during 
the late rebellion." 1 

We have purposely forestalled events in order to 
preserve the sequence of the religious aspects of the 
strife, and we must now retrace our steps a little. 
After Hoche's failure to land his substantial forces in 
the winter of 1796, Holland was requisitioned as an 
ally by the continental representatives of the United 
Irishmen with some success, but Duncan's victory off 
Camperdown on the nth October, 1797, promptly 
put an end to the hopes of the disaffected Irish and 
of those who sought to revive the moribund sea power 
of the country which once sent a fleet to the Thames 
to threaten London. Shortly afterwards the French 
Directory decided to place an army at Bonaparte's 
disposal for the invasion of England, the subjugation 
of which would have snapped the slender ties, now 
almost strained to breaking point, between Ireland 
and the Motherland. After weighing the matter 
thoroughly and visiting the ports most serviceable for 
the purpose of embarkation, the embryo Emperor 
came to the conclusion that the time had not arrived 
for such an experiment. " If instead of the expedition 
to Egypt," he told Las Cases 2 at St. Helena, " I had 
undertaken that against Ireland, what could England 

1 Castlereagh Correspondence, Vol. II., pp. 347-348. Dated 
Cong, Qth July, 1799. Dr. Dillon was then Roman Catholic Arch- 
bishop of Tuam. 

2 Emmanuel Augustin Dieudonne Marie Joseph, Comte de Las 
Cases (1766-1842). He accompanied Napoleon to St. Helena, 
and wrote the celebrated Memorial de Sainte-H6l&ne. 


have done now ? On such chances do the destinies of 
empires depend." Napoleon turned his attentions 
to the dazzling East, saw visions of a vast dominion 
in Asia whose wealth and power would be summed up 
in his own person, and was as callous as regards the 
independence of Ireland as he was of that of Poland in 
the years which were to come. Lewens and Wolfe Tone 
interviewed him three times on the subject of the pro- 
posed attempt on the United Kingdom, but received 
no satisfaction. 

Blissfully unaware that the so-called Army of Eng- 
land now massing on the coast of France was in- 
tended for any other place than its high-sounding 
name implied, the hopes of the Irish recalcitrants 
ran high. The Great Nation was sending succour at 
last ; it mattered little whether the troops travelled 
via London or Belfast so long as they came. The 
peasantry was being armed gradually, notwithstand- 
ing the depredations made from time to time by the 
soldiery under official instructions, bullets were cast 
in out-of-the-way places, and preparations made for 
the approaching coup d'etat. The yeomanry was also 
getting ready for the civil war now thought to be in- 
evitable in many quarters, 1 hence the following com- 

1 According to Fortescue (Vol. IV., Part 2, p. 939), the Irish 
Military Establishment in 1798 was made up of 39,620 regulars, 
26,634 militia, and 37,539 yeomanry. Moore's figures, given in 
his Diary (Vol. I., p. 270), under date 8th December, 1797, repre- 
sent the troops actually in the island, in fact the Irish Garrison, 
which was a very different thing, in time of war, from the Irish 
Establishment. They are as follows : " Regulars and Fencible 
Cavalry 5,805 ; Infantry 1,803 ; English and Scotch Fencible 
Infantry 10,993; Militia 21,590; English Artillery (two com- 


munication from Lord Mount Norris to Lieutenant 
Smyth : 

" March 3 d , 1798 
Dear Smyth, 

" I have written to our brother Officer, Bookey, 
about getting the Muskets, promised to me by you 
and him, put into proper order, and conveyed to 
Wexford, getting a Receipt for them from the Officer 
commanding there. I also wrote to him that a Lieu- 
tenant Guard of Thirty must come for them, by way 
of Escort, and that they should be the picked men of 
our Troop. Should the Expedition suit your's better 
than Bookey's Convenience, I would advise you to 
come up, as it may tend to advance your object, 
which I have much at Heart. I am, 
" Dear Smyth, 

" Your's faithfully, 


[Address : " Dublin March the Third, 1798. Lieu* 
Smyth, Camolin Cavalry, Ballyduff, Gorey. Mount 

The news of the arrest of Arthur O'Connor 1 and 
two of his comrades at Margate, where they were 

panics) 200 ; Irish Artillery, about 1,400; Yeomanry, computed 
35,000. Total 76,791, of which it is thought that from 18,000 to 
20,000 are cavalry." The Irish Treasury provided pay for the 
Establishment. Nearly all the regular infantry were abroad. 

1 Arthur O'Connor was arrested on the 28th February, 1798, 
in company with Father James O'Coigly (1762-1798) and an- 
other individual. On his trial at Maidstone (2ist May) he was 
acquitted, but rearrested and detained during the rebellion (see 
ante, p. 2 in.). In her Diary Madame D'Arblay gives us a glimpse of 


endeavouring to obtain a vessel to take them to France, 
was an unexpected blow to the rebel cause. This was 
followed by the still more startling and important 
announcement of the arrest of the provincial com- 
mittee of Leinster at the instigation of one of its 
members, who sold his principles and his friends for 
gold. Mention is made of the former event in the 
Mount Norris Correspondence in a letter which also 
holds out the hope of a probable cessation of hos- 
tilities between the Republic and Great Britain : 

tt T. c " Dublin, March io th , 1798. 

Dear Smyth, 

" I thank you much for having obtained, 
amongst our Friends, the quantity of Musquets neces- 
sary for compleating the number of Firelocks, to be 
given to Government for Carbines. The moment the 
Guns have been put into proper Order, I must request 
a party may escort them to Wexford, where they are 
to be lodged with the commanding officer, whose 
Receipt for same must be taken, and sent to me. As 
I should be extremely sorry to inconvenience my 

the consternation at Court. She notes that the Queen's look " was 
serious and full of care, and, though perfectly gracious, none of 
her winning smiles brightened her countenance, and her voice 
was never cheerful. I have since known that the Irish conspiracy 
with France was just then discovered, and O'Connor that very 
morning taken. No wonder she should have felt a shock that 
pervaded her whole mind and manners ! If we all are struck with 
horror at such developments of treason, danger, and guilt, what 
must they prove to the royal family, at whom they are regularly 
aimed ? How my heart has ached for them in that horrid business ! " 
(see The Diary and Letters of Madame D'Arblay, Warne, 1892, 
Vol. III., pp. 166-167). 


brother Troopers in any particular, I will, for the 
Reasons you assign, postpone troubling a Party of 
them to come up to Town 'till after the assizes, which 
are to commence at Wicklow (where the Judges are 
allowed to stay a week) on the ig th . O'Connor's 
Capture and the Imprisonment of his vile Associates 
is likely to be productive of much useful Information. 
Peace is still talked of, and it is probably not far off, 
as the Directory begin to be jealous of Bonaparte's 
Power. The Town is very quiet, and the military are 
numerous and active. The frequent Assassinations 
we hear of, are melancholy Proofs of the many Mis- 
creants who bid Defiance to the Laws. 
" Lbeg you will believe me to be, 
" My Dear Sir, 

" Your's faithfully, 


[Address : " Dublin, March the Tenth, 1798. Lieu* 
Smyth, Camolin Yeoman Cavalry, Ballyduff, Gorey. 
Mount Norris."] 

Writing in his diary under date of 26th March, 1798, 
Wolfe Tone, now Adjutant-General in the Armee 
d'Angleterre, is constrained to note that the arrest of 
the committee " is by far the most terrible blow which 
the cause of liberty in Ireland has yet sustained. I 
know not whether in the whole party it would be 
possible to replace the energy, talents, and integrity 
of which we are deprived by this most unfortunate of 
events. I have not received such a shock from all 



that has passed since I left Ireland." l Four days later 
we find Lord Grenville, 2 Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs, warning Lord Camden of the extreme urgency 
of legislative interference, " the present moment and 
circumstances in Ireland being certainly such as to 
require (if ever) the interposition of Parliament, to 
check by any constitutional exercise of its authority 
the progress of a rebellion, which is almost disputing 
for pre-eminence and superiority of power with the 
lawful government." 3 

Lord Edward FitzGerald succeeded in evading detec- 
tion for some time, but eventually the authorities got 
to hear of his whereabouts in Thomas Street, Dublin. 
A desperate struggle ensued when Majors Sirr and 
Swan, together with Captain Ryan and eight soldiers, 
went to arrest the military chief of the United Irishmen 
on the igth May, and blood was spilt on both sides, 
Captain Ryan receiving a wound which proved mortal. 
Lord Edward was conveyed to the Castle and after- 
wards to Newgate jail, where he died of fever on the 
4th June, 1798, the consequence of a wound received 
in his right arm during the fray. 4 In Dublin the effect 

1 The Autobiography of Theobald Wolfe Tone, 1763-1798, Vol. II., 
p. 296. 

2 William Wyndham (1759-1834), Baron Grenville 1790 ; 
Chief Secretary of Ireland 1782-1783 ; Speaker of the English 
House of Commons 1789 ; Secretary of State for the Home Depart- 
ment 1789-1790; Foreign Secretary 1791-1801; First Lord of 
the Treasury 1806-1807. 

3 Dated Cleveland Row, 3Oth March, 1798. Castlereagh 
Correspondence, Vol. I., p. 163. 

* The Rt. Hon. George Wyndham, M.P., late Chief Secretary for 
Ireland, possesses a diamond pin, a sword-stick, and a seal engraved 
in Paris, which belonged to Lord Edward FitzGerald, his great- 


was salutary. In several other districts the inhabitants 
laid down their arms, but the rising had already been 
fixed to begin on the night of the 23rd May, and 
desperate men are not easily repressed. Reports were 
spread far and wide that the French were getting 
ready, and that the troops would embark about the 
middle of April. 1 Here were incentive and inspiration, 
the silver lining of the cloud. 

By a peculiar coincidence the magistrates of the 
county met at Wexford but a few hours before the 
rebel thunderbolt was to fall, and issued their final 
warning : 

" NOTICE. We, the high sheriff and magistrates 
of the county of Wexford, assembled at sessions, held 
at the county courthouse in Wexford, this 23rd day 
of May, 1798, have received the most clear and un- 
equivocal evidence, private as well as public, that the 
system and plans of those deluded persons who style 
themselves, and are commonly known by the name of, 
United Irishmen, have been generally adopted by the 
inhabitants of the several parishes in this county, who 
have provided themselves with pikes and other arms 
for the purpose of carrying their plans into execution. 
And whereas we have received information that the 
inhabitants of some parts of this county have, within 
these few days past, returned to their allegiance, surren- 
dering their arms, and confessing the errors of their past 

grandfather. All the family papers dealing with his ancestor, 
including some notes written by Mr. Wyndham's mother, have 
been published by his cousin Mr. Gerald Campbell in his admirable 
Life of Lord Edward FitzGerald. 

1 Memoirs of Lord Edward FitzGerald. p. 289. 


misconduct. Now we, the high sheriff and magistrates 
assembled as aforesaid, do give this public notice that 
if, within the space of fourteen days from the date 
hereof, the inhabitants of the other parts of this county 
do not come in to some of the magistrates of this 
county and surrender their arms, or other offensive 
weapons, concealed or otherwise, and give such proof 
of their return to their allegiance as shall appear suffi- 
cient, an application will be made to Government to 
send the army at free quarters into such parishes as 
shall fail to comply, to enforce due obedience to this 

" (Signed) Edward Percival, Sheriff, Courtown ; 
John Henry Lyster, James Boyd, George Le Hunte, 
Thomas Handcock, John James, John Pounden, 
Hawtrey White, James White, Ebenezer Jacob, 
William Hore, Edward D'Arcy, John Heatly, John 
Grogan, Archibald Jacob, Edward Turner, Isaac Cor- 
nock, Cornelius Grogan, 1 Francis Turner, William 
Toole, Richard Newton King, Charles Vero." 2 

It was too late for the olive branch ; King Revolt 
had come into his own. 

1 Cornelius Grogan (1738 P-I798). M.P. for Enniscorthy 1783- 
1790. Commissary-General to the Wexford rebel forces and for- 
merly High Sheriff of the county. His wealth was large, being 
variously estimated at from 6,000 to 8,000 per annum, and was 
afterwards confiscated. Grogan was over seventy years of age 
when he was executed at Wexford on the 28th June, 1798. His 
two brothers commanded yeomanry corps. 

* A Popular History of the Insurrection of 1798- By the Rev. 
Patrick F. Kavanagh (Cork : Guy, 1898, Centenary Edition), 
pp. 87-88. 



"There never was in any country so formidable an effort on the 
part of the people." CASTLEREAGH. 

WITH the operations of rebel and royalist 
in the counties of Kildare, Meath, and 
Carlow we have nothing to do ; but the 
first attempts at warfare on the part of 
the insurgents were far from encouraging. The pro- 
posed attack on Dublin Castle and the release of 
State prisoners in Newgate jail proved little more 
than an episode ; while the rebels were beaten at 
several other places, excepting only Prosperous, a 
little town situated some seventeen miles from the 
capital. In Wexford the rebellion assumed its most 
ugly form. It is certain that the unexpected hap- 
pened in this instance, for a mere handful of the 
regular army and militia amounting, perhaps, to six 
hundred men were quartered in the county, 1 and its 
defence was practically left to the yeomanry in the 
early stages of the campaign. The Rev. Patrick F. 
Kavanagh, in his interesting but partisan book, prints 
in the Appendix a description of the men of '98 from 
the pen of " A Correspondent," who writes : 

1 Gordon, p. 86. 



" The Wexfordmen who composed this army aver- 
aged six feet, lathy and bony, rather long oval features, 
very good-looking generally, brown-haired, felt flower- 
pot hats, grey frieze swallow-tailed coats, brown 
mohair vests, double-breasted ; frieze or corduroy 
knee breeches, blue or green garters, pepper-and-salt 
stockings, shoes with a buckle on the outside and in 
front of ankle, brass buttons, that are nearly out of 
fashion now unless in wild districts. Some of them 
had trustys, or cotha mores, made of frieze, of a pecu- 
liar shape, and white ivory buttons. I saw some of 
those coats ; if they were not very handsome, they 
were very comfortable. Those poor men carried raw 
wheat in their pockets as provisions, and it was buried 
with them in Mountainstown and Raffan, and the 
following season it grew out of the graves and renewed 
itself for the second year. I think that this much was 
never published. It is traditionary, but, I am as sure 
as I live, 'tis true. . . ." 1 

If there was nothing particularly picturesque in the 
costumes of the insurgents, the military passion for a 
distinctive uniform asserted itself, and some of them 
must have looked like Red Indians in all the glamour 
of war-paint. " Most persons," Hay tells us, " were 
desirous to wear ornaments of some kind or other, 
and accordingly decorated themselves in the most 
fantastical manner with feathers, tippets, handker- 
chiefs, and all the showy parts of ladies' apparel : 
green was the most favourite and predominant colour, 
but on failure of this, decorations of almost any other 

1 Kavanagh, pp. 341-342. 


colour were substituted ; and as to their flags or en- 
signs, they were also generally green or of a greenish 
hue, but on account of a deficiency in this respect, 
they displayed banners of all colours except orange, 
to which the people shewed the most unalterable dis- 
like, aversion and antipathy : even blue, black, red 
and yellow, were remarked among their banners. 
Many damsels made an offering of their coloured petti- 
coats for the public service, and to make these gifts 
the more acceptable, they usually decorated them 
according to their different fancies, and from the 
variety thus exhibited, there appeared not two sim- 
ilar banners in the whole. Several loyal ladies too, 
both in town and country, displayed their taste in 
richly and fancifully ornamenting ensigns, to ingratiate 
themselves with the people ; but many of them, not 
having time to perfect their chef d'ceuvres before the 
insurrection was suppressed, have since thought it 
prudent, I suppose, to destroy these and the like 
specimens of elegant accomplishment, at which I had 
opportunities of observing them earnestly employed, 
during the short-lived period of popular triumph." l 
At the battle of Arklow " each company had a 
green flag or colour about two feet square, with 
a yellow harp in the centre. Some, however, were 
party-coloured, and equal in size to the King's 
colours." 2 

Kavanagh records a conversation with his grand- 
father, Mr. John Prendergast, a rebel of '98, who died 

i Hay, pp. 132-133- 
* Musgrave, p. 441. 


at Knottown, near Wexford, in 1855. l According to 
this authority, the majority of the insurgents of Wex- 
ford were between twenty and thirty years of age, and 
their height above the average. Abnormal physical 
proportion is not necessarily an advantage on the 
field of battle, and a Goliath is more likely to be a 
billet for a bullet than the less conspicuous David. 
It is abundantly clear that there was a woeful de- 
ficiency of ammunition, both of powder and ball, and 
what muskets the rebels possessed were therefore of 
little use to them. At close quarters the pike was 
terrible in execution, but worthless before coming up 
with the enemy, except for clearing purposes. ' They 
were from eight to twelve feet long," says Prendergast, 
" blade and all. Some of them had a hook at the side, 
which was very useful in cutting the leather bridles of 
the cavalry. I heard that they afterwards got steel 
chains instead. From what I saw no cavalry could 
stand the pike, for when the horse got a prod he 
reared and the rider was either thrown out of the 
saddle, or could not use his sword, so that we had 
him at our mercy." 2 

Gordon, also with the authority of an eye-witness, 
shows that the loyalists were likewise at a disadvan- 

1 So recently as January, 1909, the Clerk of the Limerick 
Board of Guardians was notified of the death of Mrs. Johanna 
Leonard, aged 118 years. She could recall impressions of the 
rebellion of '98 and the attempted insurrection of 1820, as well as 
the risings of 1848 and 1867. In October, 1908, the death was 
reported of Mrs. Catherine Kierans of Newton Butler, Co. 
Fermanagh, who had vivid recollections of the incidents following 
the rebellion of '98. 

2 Kavanagh, p. 302. 


tage in some respects, due to that want of foresight 
apparently inherent in British military matters. " In 
the formation of the companies or corps of yeomen," 
he notes, " to appoint the far greater part of them 
cavalry was an error, as the event clearly proved ; 
for in the rebellion which ensued, the yeoman infantry, 
supported by regular troops, fought steadily against 
the foe ; while the horsemen, from the nature of the 
country, uneven with hills, and every where inter- 
sected with ditches, their want of proper subordina- 
tion and discipline, and the facility of escape, were of 
little use except for patroles or expresses, though their 
horses were superior to those of the regular cavalry 
in the traversing of ditches and fields. If these 
troops had been habituated to dismount and engage 
on foot with carbines, their service might have 
been of considerable effect ; but, as the matter 
was, they could hardly ever be brought to a 
charge on the rebels, or to make a retreat with 
regularity." l . 

When asked to give his opinion as to the nature of 
the force to be sent from England, Lieutenant-General 
Lake answered that " from the nature of this country, 
inaccessible to cavalry in many parts, owing to mor- 
asses, craggy mountains, woods, and narrow passes, 
(of which the rebels have already discovered sufficient 
knowledge to avail themselves) it appears to me that, 
although an increase of cavalry must always be ac- 
ceptable, it is desirable the reinforcement intended for 
this country should consist more of infantry than of 

1 Gordon, p. 63. 


cavalry." l " As to the cavalry," comments Miles 
Byrne, " in a country like Ireland, so fenced every- 
where with hedge-rows and ditches, there was nothing 
to be feared." 2 " No country in the world," he says 
in another place, " except La Vendee in France, offers 
the same advantages for making war against cavalry 
as Ireland, on account of the smallness of the fields, 
and the very high fences with which they are sur- 
rounded in every part. How curious it is, we had no 
instance of those bold fox hunters 3 who composed 
the yeomen cavalry corps (and whose horses never 
refused leaping any kind of fence), making a charge 
through fields to attack even twenty of our pikemen 
who kept well together ; but a single isolated man 
was sure to be pursued and cut down by them." 4 

As already noted, the commissariat of the insur- 
gents when they were campaigning was pitiable, and 
the utter disregard for paper money was such that 
bank-notes were used as spills for lighting pipes and 
as waddings for fire-locks. 5 When the town of Wex- 
ford fell into the hands of the rebels some attempt 
was made to regulate the supply of food, as will be 
shown in a subsequent chapter ; but in the field 
business-like methods were apparently impracticable. 
Cattle were driven into the camps and slaughtered 

1 Lieut. -Gen. Lake to Lord Castlereagh, Dublin, ist June, 1798, 
Castlereagh Correspondence, Vol. I., p. 213. 

2 Miles Byrne, Vol. I., p. 138. 

3 This has special reference to Hunter Gowan, whom Byrne 

4 Miles Byrne, Vol. I., p. 181. 

5 Hay, p. 131. 


wholesale, with the result that there was much waste, 
and the stench arising from decomposing carcases be- 
came on occasion almost unbearable. 

At the outbreak of the rebellion some of the men 
formed themselves into parish divisions, securing any 
weapons and horses they could find ; but of definite 
organisation there was very little. Many peasants 
wandered about the hills until they allied themselves 
with the first body of insurgents which happened to 
be sighted, and after a defeat the gathering together 
of the scattered units was not always successful, little 
unattached bands marching from place to place, with 
no apparent object in view other than giving the 
loyalists as much trouble and annoyance as possible. 
Statistics of the number of men engaged in the further- 
ance of the rebel cause are, of course, approximate 
only, and malcontents from the counties of Wicklow, 
Dublin, King's, Queen's, Kildare, Carlow, Kilkenny, 
and Waterford reinforced those of Wexford on the 
eve of hostilities. Taylor gives the number of the 
disaffected under arms as loo^oo. 1 

On the 26th May fires lighted on the hills of Cor- 
rigrua and Boulavogue, 2 the former by Father John 
Murphy, flashed the signal for a general rising, 3 and 
the pent-up fury of religious passion burst forth in all 
its hideous might. Much ink and ingenuity has been 
used in an endeavour to prove that Father John 
Murphy did not take the field until he was practically 

1 Taylor, p. 171. 

2 Also spelt Boolavogue in some works. 
8 Maxwell, p. 87. 


forced to do so by the ferocious proceedings of some 
of the yeomanry, but, as we have already noted, so 
late as the gth April, 1798, he and his parishioners 
declared their loyalty. 1 Harwood asserts that the 
priest's " Saturday evening's preparations for Whit- 
suntide mass and sermon were disturbed by the 
irruption of a troop of Orange yeomanry, who burned 
forthwith his chapel, his house, and some twenty 
farm-houses in the place. . . . Father John Murphy 
rebelled that moment, rose against these yeomen with 
a strong party of his parishioners, and two officers of 
the marauders were killed. It was no use preaching 
' peace, peace/ after that. The Whitsuntide mass and 
sermon were left to shift for themselves ; the priest 
and his flock, and a crowd of other fugitives and ' dis- 
affected persons ' from the country round, assembled, 
and encamped for the night on Oulard [Oulart] Hill, 
about ten miles north of Wexford and the Wexford 
Rebellion was begun." 2 If the affidavits of two rebels 
named Rossiter and Crawley, which Musgrave cites, 
are to be believed, the priest's house was not set on 
fire until several hours after the death of Lieutenant 
Bookey, 3 whose residence, called Rockspring, situ- 
ated some seven miles from Gorey, was burned by the 
rebels. As will be seen by the Detail Book, the chapel 
was destroyed on the following day, and after the 
bodies of Lieutenant Bookey and Private John 
Donovan had been found. 4 

1 See ante, p. 57. 2 Harwood, p. 173. 

3 Musgrave, Appendix No. XVIII., p. 85. 
* See post, p. 86. 


Intentional or otherwise, the outbreak speedily 
assumed a religious complexion. In Wexford, writes 
Castlereagh on the I2th June, 1798, " it is perfectly 
a religious phrensy. The priests lead the rebels to 
battle : on their march, they kneel down and pray, 
and show the most desperate resolution in their 
attack. . . . They put such Protestants as are re- 
ported to be Orangemen to death, saving others upon 
condition of their embracing the Catholic faith. It is 
a Jacobinical conspiracy throughout the kingdom, 
pursuing its object chiefly with Popish instruments ; 
the heated bigotry of this sect being better suited to 
the purpose of the republican leaders than the cold, 
reasoning disaffection of the northern Presbyterians." 1 
In reviewing the situation a year later, the same states- 
man remarks that " The religious complexion of the 
Rebellion in the South gradually separated the Pro- 
testants from the treason, and precisely in the same 
degree appeared to embark the Catholics in it." 2 

The story from the loyalists' point of view will 
now be told by the Camolin Yeomanry Detail Book 
and the Mount Norris Correspondence, supplemented 
as occasion arises by particulars necessary to a clear 
understanding of the War in Wexford in 1798. The 
original spelling and punctuation have been retained 
in both instances. Entries of mere routine orders and 
regimental details of no historical importance or in- 

1 Lord Castlereagh to Mr. Wickham, Dublin Castle, i2th June, 
1798. Castlereagh Correspondence, Vol. I., p. 219. 

z Lord Castlereagh to the Duke of Portland, Dublin Castle, 
3rd June, 1799. Ibid., Vol. II., p. 326. 


terest have been deleted ; this accounts for all missing 


" Though the different Corps of Yeomanry of the 
County of Wexford were not put on Permanent Duty 
by any General Officer 'till the latter end of May 1798, 
yet in defence of their lives and properties, they were 
obliged to undergo constant and severe duty from the 
beginning of the month. In the beginning of May an 
order arrived from the Castle of Dublin, ordering a 
Subaltern and 20 men of the Camolin Cavalry imme- 
diately to proceed to Dublin for 60 Carabines, 60 
Sabres, and ammunition for the above Corps, and on 
the 7 May, the detatchment under the command of 
Lieutenant Smith marched for Dublin. On their 
arrival back in Camolin, the Arms, &c. were deposited 
in the Guard-room there, and a party of the Troop 
obliged to mount Guard on them day and night. To- 
wards the latter end of May the Camolin Cavalry were 
ordered by the Magistrates to do Duty in the neigh- 
bourhoods of Ballycanew 1 and Camolin, and detatch- 
ments from it were obliged almost every day to escort 
United Men to either Wexford or Enniscorthy, to have 
them put on board a Prison Ship, then moored in the 
Harbour of Waterford near Duncannon Fort. 2 Yeo- 

1 Also spelt Ballycannoe, Ballycanoe, Ballycanew, and Bally- 

2 Wexford was proclaimed to be in a state of rebellion by the 
magistrates of the northern baronies who met at Gorey on the 2$th 
April, and orders were issued for all arms to be delivered up. Some 
of the peasantry took this opportunity to withdraw from an ap- 
parently untenable position, but as the number of weapons sur- 



man Cavalry ordered by the Magistrates to Parole the 
Country by Night. 

" May 25. Camolin Cavalry ordered by the Magis- 
trates to assist them in receiving Pikes from the United 
Men, who came in numbers to Camolin for that pur- 
pose. Lieut. Smith and 20 Men ordered to Killena to 
burn the dwelling house of John Lawless, a retailer of 
Pikes dined at free quarters at the house of Daniel 
Dempsey, who informed the Party that he supposed 
his sons had fled the Country, as he had not seen them 
for some days before. Lieut. Bookey and another 
party of the troop pulled down a Smith's forge in 
Camolin, where Pikes had been made. All parties 
repaired to Camolin in the evening, where they 
mounted Guard. 

" May 26. United Men coming in with their con- 
cealed Arms, and taking the Oath of Allegiance ad- 
ministered to them by the siting Magestrates, Sir 
Frederick Flood, and Henry Brownrigg Esq. An 
officer and 20 men ordered to burn the house of Miles 
Leary near Killena did not burn it, as he promised 
to deliver up all the Arms in his possession early the 

rendered was not commensurate with the population believed to 
possess them, a more stringent order was given on the 23rd May 
to the effect that companies of soldiers would be marched to dis- 
tricts not complying within fourteen days, and take up free quar- 
ters. The horrors of martial law in 1798 may not have surpassed 
those of the Inquisition, but the accounts of Hay, Byrne, and 
Gordon contain the most gruesome pen-pictures of legalised savagery. 
The " pitched cap," the cat-o'-nine-tails, the hangman's rope, and 
the flaming torch were used with sickening effect. Many rebels 
were arrested and transported. It is to be feared that this method 
of teaching the people a salutary lesson only made them more 
determined to cast off the yoke which galled them. 


next morning dined at free quarters at the house of 
Bryan Lacy's Killena-mill, where the detatchment 
[was joined] by a Corporal and four men, who had 
been sent towards Courtown to bring in the body of 
Catharine Murphy, charged with having administered 
the United Oath to several Men. On the party's 
march to Camolin, they were met by a messenger 
from Lieut. Bookey, mentioning that the long ex- 
pected Rebellion had broke out in several parts of 
the country, and that an entire family of Protestants 
had been murdered by the Insurgents near Scara- 
walsh. Party hastened to Camolin (leaving the 
Prisoner in charge with some Loyalists who lodge 
her safe in Camolin), where they receive an order from 
Isaac Cornock, Esq., a Magistrate, to repair to Ferns, 
and there join an Officers' guard of the North Cork 
Regiment of Militia. On arrival in Ferns, Lieut. Smith 
and a party x was ordered towards Scarawalsh, where 
the Murders were committed, to see if this information 
was true, and Lieut. Bookey with another Party 2 
rode towards the Harrow, where he met a large party 
of the Insurgents armed with Pikes and some Arms. 
The Lieut, rode before the Party, and ordered the 
Rebels to surrender, and deliver up their Arms, on 
which they discharged a volley at the Party, accom- 
panied with a shower of stones, some of which brought 
Lieut. Bookey from his horse, as also John Donovan, 
a private in the Corps. The party after firing a few 

1 Consisting of eighteen or twenty yeomanry cavalry (see Lecky, 
Vol. IV., p. 355). 

2 Taylor (p. 26) gives the number as seventeen or eighteen. 


shots, finding themselves overpowered by the Rebels, 
retreated to Ferns, where they remained 'till day 
break, melancholy spectators of the devastation com- 
mitted by the Rebels. The information of the Murders 
at Scarawalsh found to be true." 

The way in which Father John entrapped Thomas 
Bookey, first lieutenant of the Camolin cavalry, shows 
that he had a very good idea of the elements of strategy. 
A few men were detached from the little band and left 
to blockade the road with two cars as soon as the last 
yeoman had passed, thus cutting off all hopes of re- 
treat. Some distance further a rough barricade was 
made which effectually stopped the unsuspecting 
horsemen, who were piked before they could defend 
themselves. After this sanguinary fray, Camolin Park 
was looted to good effect, for the Earl of Mount Norris 
was the custodian of the pikes which had been pre- 
viously surrendered, and a number of carbines ready 
for distribution amongst his own corps were also 
stacked. These weapons were of the greatest value 
to the insurgents, who looked upon them as a God- 
send. Pat Murray, of Crane, secured the colours of 
a Volunteer corps of 1782 which were in the Earl's 
possession, and marched off with them in triumph. 
The banner was subsequently used by the Monaseed 
corps of rebels. The men next surrounded the fallen 
lieutenant's house of Rockspring, which was bril- 
liantly defended by two servants. As a last resource 
the rebels set fire to the building, but the inmates 
managed to effect their escape. Byrne makes no 


mention of this in his Memoirs, although he makes 
much of the raid on Camolin Park. 1 " From this 
commencement of hostility," writes Gordon, " the 
commotion spread rapidly on all sides ; and the col- 
lection of rebel parties was greatly promoted by the 
reports disseminated of numbers of people shot in the 
roads, at work in the fields, and even in their houses, 
unarmed and unoffending, by straggling parties of 
yeomen. Influenced by these reports, which were not 
without some foundation, great numbers took refuge 
with their friends in arms. . . ." 2 One of the rebels, 
disguised as a groom, and carrying letters fictitiously 
addressed to Lord Mount Norris, took the news to 
Castlebridge, and from thence it soon spread, to the 
great advantage of the Irish cause. 3 

" May 27. This morning at the dawn, the Country 
presented a frightful appearance houses in flames on 
every side, and loyal families flying into Ferns for 
protection. Camolin Cavalry march from Ferns to- 
wards the Harrow, where they found the bodies of 
Lieut. Bookey and John Donovan mangled in a bar- 
barous manner by Rebel Pikes joined by the Ennis- 
corthy 4 and Healthfield Yeoman Cavalry, 5 they took 
a circuit thro' the country, killed a great number of 

1 See Vol. I., p. 34. 

2 Gordon, p. 89. 

3 Kavanagh, p. 101. 

4 Under Captain Richards. 

6 Under Captain John Grogan. Taylor also mentions a third 
corps, the Scarawalsh infantry, commanded by Captain Cornock 
(Taylor, p. 30). 


the Insurgents, 1 who seemed as if collecting in a body, 
and burnt upwards of 170 houses belonging to Rebels 
whose inhabitants had fled, and also the Popish 
Chapel of Boulavogue, whose Priest, John Murphy, 
head[ed] the Rebels the night before at the Harrow. 
At 3 o'clock the Camolin Cavalry arrived at Camolin, 
where they found the Carabines and Sabres had been 
incautiously distributed to improper Persons. The 
troop finding Camolin not tenable, 2 marched for Gorey, 
followed by all its loyal inhabitants. This evening a 
reinforcement from Arklow arrived in Gorey, consist- 
ing of one Troop of Yeoman Cavalry and 30 Antrim 
Militia, under the command of Lieut. Elliott 3 of the 
Antrim [Militia]. News arrived that a large detatch- 
ment of the North Cork Militia marched out of Wex- 
ford to Oulart, met the Insurgents in force on a hill 
near Oulart, 4 an action commenced, in which [the] 

1 Musgrave says about 150. The rebels mentioned were evi- 
dently those who had gathered on Killthomas Hill, about nine 
miles to the west of Gorey, led by Father Michael Murphy. Ka- 
vanagh (p. 104) asserts that about 300 of them were killed, but this 
seems to be an exaggeration. 

2 Guided by Father Francis Kavanagh, the Roman Catholic 
inhabitants of Camolin, who had managed to conceal a large num- 
ber of weapons, although they had surrendered several hundred 
pikes before the actual breaking out of the rebellion, proceeded on 
the 27th May to show their sympathy with the general movement 
of their fellow compatriots by sacking the town. Captain White 
of the Ballakeen cavalry had assembled his corps at Gorey the 
previous day, which, in addition to his own men, was defended by 
a body of yeoman cavalry, infantry, and supplementary men 
embodied by the Earl of Courtown at his own expense in October, 
1796 (see Gordon, p. 104, and Musgrave, pp. 335-6). 

3 Usually spelt Elliot. 

* About eight miles to the north of Wexford a.nd ten to the 
south of Gorey. 


military was almost entirely cut off. The Military 
stood to their Arms all night. 

" May 28. Early this morning information was re- 
ceived by some fugitive Loyalists that the Insurgents 
had totally defeated the detatchment of North Cork 
Militia at Oulart, and possessed themselves of all their 
arms and ammunition that they had murdered the 
Rev. Robert Burrowes, his Son, and Edward D'Arcy, 
Esq., and burned their houses, and that they had 
marched in full strength to attack Wexford. A meet- 
ing of the different Officers took place, when it was 
resolved to abandon the town, and fall back to Arklow, 
previous to which some Prisoners who were in the 
Guard-room, were taken out and shot. Between Cool- 
greny and Arklow a small force from the latter place 
was met coming to the relief of Gorey, however, they 
did not think it prudent to advance on to Gorey, but 
the whole proceeded to Arklow. All the fugitive 
Loyalists who had arms were obliged, on entering 
Arklow, to surrender them at the Barrack gate by 
order of the Commanding Officer. 1 Camolin Cavalry 
ordered to proceed to the house of Thomas Murray 
near Arklow, to remain there 'till morning at free 
quarters, and to keep up a guard and patrole to 
march to Arklow early the next morning." 

The murder of Dr. Burrowes, the rector of Kilmuck- 
ridge, and the Loyalist defeat at Oulart, warrant 
more detailed notice. If no further proof were forth- 
coming of the religious nature of the war in Wexford, 

1 Captain Rowan. 


this fact alone would warrant one to assume that such 
was the case. It seems also to have been a more or 
less personal matter, for Kilmuckridge is close to the 
scene of Father John's ministerial labours, although 
it is doubtful whether the Protestant ever poached on 
the Catholic preserves. Froude certainly describes the 
rector as " a harmless gentleman." 1 

On being informed that his death had been planned, 
Dr. Burrowes promptly gathered together his family 
and as many parishioners as his house at Kyle would 
hold, and after having barricaded it, the little band 
prepared to sell their lives as dearly as possible. The 
mob came early on the morning of Sunday, the 27th 
May, and finding that the rector and his colleagues 
offered a stubborn resistance, the insurgents set fire 
to the place. On the priest promising that all they 
required was surrender, and that no one would be 
harmed, the defenders left the house and Dr. 
Burrowes and seven others were butchered, 2 the 
rector's son receiving a severe wound from which he 
ultimately died. 3 

By no means satisfied by this accomplishment, 
Father John and his horde proceeded to Ferns, the 
seat of Dr. Cleaver, 4 the Protestant bishop. The 
inhabitants of the town had fled to Enniscorthy, 
escorted by militia and yeomanry under Captain 
Cornock. Finding that the various members of the 

1 Vol. III., p. 435. 

2 Taylor (p. 29) says that five only were murdered. 

3 Musgrave, pp. 330-32. 

4 Euseby Cleaver (1746-1819), Bishop of Cork and of Ferns 
1789 ; Archbishop of Dublin 1809. 


episcopal family had also effected their escape the 
mob, after having thoroughly regaled themselves at 
the prelate's expense, entered the library and tore the 
contents to shreds, preserving the vellum bindings 
for the utilitarian purposes of saddlery. They then 
set fire to the palace, which speedily became a mound 
of smoking ruins. Still not satisfied, many of the 
smaller houses were ransacked or destroyed. 

These preliminary successes, if they may be so 
termed, encouraged Father Michael Murphy, curate 
of the adjoining hamlet of Ballycanew, to join forces 
with his namesake, and as events proved, the alliance 
was particularly propitious. These brethren of the 
Church militant speedily showed that whatever 
triumphs they may have had in spiritual warfare were 
as nothing compared to their achievements against 
the Protestant hosts of Satan in combat with flesh 
and blood. Oulart now being the next stage of their 
journey to Enniscorthy and the Mecca of Wexford, 
the four or five thousand insurgents made their way 
there, and divided into two bands, one of them taking 
up a favourable position on Oulart Hill, and the other 
on Killthomas Hill. On the 27th May the latter camp 
was attacked by the Carnew garrison of between 200 
and 300 men, who successfully wreaked their vengeance 
for the death of Lieutenant Bookey, but on the same 
day the insurgents at Oulart scored a decided victory, 
although the number of loyalists engaged was numeri- 
cally weak. Colonel Foote had marched from Wexford 
with no men of the North Cork Militia under his 
command, and coming up with Colonel Le Hunte and a 


troop of the Shilmalier yeomanry cavalry, determined to 
attack. Advantage was with the militia at the onset, 
and the rebels, of whom there were several thousands, 
beat a hasty retreat. As the soldiers were nearing the 
summit of the hill, Father John saw his opportunity. 
He harangued his flock to good purpose, and such a 
bold stand was made that but five of the North Corks 
escaped with their lives, including the lieutenant- 
colonel and a sergeant. The Shilmalier cavalry effected 
their retreat to Wexford, shooting at all and sundry 
as they went. 

Foote's account of the affair clearly shows that had 
there been a little less zeal and more caution, the 
honours of the day would have remained with the 
loyalists. In a letter to a friend the Lieutenant- 
Colonel details what our twentieth century newspapers 
would doubtless call a " regrettable incident " : 1 

" I marched to a hill called Oulart, where between 
four and five thousand rebels were posted. From 
their great superiority of numbers, it was not my 
intention to have attacked them, unless some un- 
foreseen favourable circumstances would warrant that 
measure ; however, my officers were of a contrary 
opinion. I met here part of a yeoman cavalry corps, 
about sixteen ; the remainder, with their serjeant, 
having that morning joined the rebels. I halted with 
this corps, while I sent a note by their trumpeter to 
Wexford, with orders for two officers and forty men 
to march thence to us to support our detachment ; 
apprehending that the rebels, from their numbers, 

1 Musgrave, pp. 341-342. 


might intercept our retreat. Afterwards, when I 
joined the party, I found that they were moved for- 
ward by the officer next in command j 1 and the 
soldiers cried out, that they would beat the rebels 
out of the field. By this movement we were im- 
mediately engaged with the rebels, who fired from 
behind the hedges, without showing any regular front. 
We beat their advanced party from one hedge to 
another, which they had successively occupied, and 
fired from on us, killing great numbers of them, till 
they retreated in much disorder to the main body, 
which consisted mostly of pikemen. I considered this 
a favourable opportunity of forming the detachment, 
for the purpose of retreating, or of receiving the enemy 
in a good position ; and I used every exertion to effect 
it ; but unfortunately the too great ardour of the men 
and officers could not be restrained. They rushed 
forward, were surrounded, and overpowered by num- 
bers. They displayed great valour and intrepidity, 
and killed a great number of the rebels. 2 Of this 
detachment, none have as yet returned to Wexford, 
but myself, a serjeant, and three privates. I received a 
wound from a pike in my breast, a slight one in my 
arm, and several bruises and contusions." 

1 Major Lombard. 

2 Hay, the Romanist historian, gives the number of rebels 
killed as five, and two wounded (p. 84). Musgrave says there 
were seven killed (p. 342 n.). Gordon states that when the military 
charged only three insurgents were killed and six wounded (p. 92), 
which agrees with Miles Byrne (Vol. I., p. 37). Musgrave makes 
a curious error by referring to " Whitsunday, the day after this 
defeat " (p. 342). 


Gordon 1 asserts that Father John had received 
intelligence of the near approach of Captain Hawtrey 
White with a band of cavalry from Gorey, hence the 
priest's appeal for a last desperate resistance. That 
officer had certainly set out in the hope of meeting 
the rebels, but he was totally unaware of Foote's 
movements, and when he had ascertained that the 
contesting force was very considerable the dis- 
parity in numbers caused him to order a retreat to 
Gorey, his own scanty resources being some eighty 

After spending the night on Carrigrew Hill, an 
advance was made by Father John's army to Camolin, 
which, it will be remembered, had been abandoned 
the day before by the King's forces, and to Ferns, 
which was also desolate. After resting for a short 
time on the hill of Balliorrell, where they were joined 
by Father Michael Murphy and the remnants of his 
band, they proceeded to Enniscorthy, a town of 4000 
inhabitants and doing a considerable amount of 

Gordon, who was an eye-witness, gives a graphic 
account of the evacuation of Gorey on the 28th May : 
" As the order to retreat was very sudden," he writes, 
" on account of the imagined rapid approach of a 
resistless and ferocious enemy, a melancholy scene 
of trepidation, confusion, and fright was the conse- 
quence ; the affrighted crowd of people running in 
all directions for their horses, harnessing their cars 
and placing their families on them with precipitation, 

1 pp- 91-2. 


and escaping speedily as possible from the town. The 
road was soon filled to a great extent with a train of 
cars loaded with women and children, accompanied 
by a multitude on foot, many of whom were women 
with infants on their backs. The weather being hot 
and dry, the cloud of dust raised by the fugitive 
multitude, of whom I with my family was a part, 
rendered respiration difficult. The reception which 
we found at Arklow was not well suited to our calami- 
tous condition. Almost fainting with hunger, thirst, 
fatigue, and want of sleep, we were denied admittance 
into the town, by orders of the commanding officer of 
the garrison, Captain Rowan of the Antrim regiment ; 
and great part of the poorer fugitives retiring, took 
refuge that day and night under the neighbouring 
hedges ; but the better sort, after a little delay, were 
admitted, on condition of quitting the town in half 
an hour. The loyalists, on permission to enter Arklow, 
were obliged to deliver their arms at the gate of the 
barrack to the guard, who promised to restore them ; 
but, instead of this, they were afterwards formed into 
a pile in the yard of the barrack and burned. A man 
named Taylor, clerk of Camolin church, who made 
some scruple to surrender his arms, was shot by the 
guard. After our admission our situation was not so 
comfortable as we might have expected, for no re- 
freshment could be procured by money for men or 
horses, and the hearts of the inhabitants in general 
seemed quite hardened against us. But, for my own 
part, I found very humane treatment." 1 

1 Gordon, pp. 105-106. 


" May 29. Troop returned to Arklow early this 
morning, when they received orders to be in readiness 
to be inspected by Major Hardy, Commander of the 
County of Wicklow. At one Major Hardy arrived, 
inspected all the Yeomanry from Gorey, and informed 
them, as they had quit their districts, they were now 
to be considered as Soldiers, and to act as such. 
Yeomanry ordered on Permanent Duty. Received 
some ammunition, and the Yeomanry from Gorey to- 
gether with 30 Antrim and 30 North Cork, ordered 
back to Gorey, to be under the Command of Lieut. 
Elliott. At 5 o'clock the Army marched, and arrived 
in Gorey about 10, which they found in the same state 
as they left it. 1 

" May 30. Information was this morning received, 
that the Insurgents, in number upwards of 10,000, 
had attacked the town of Enniscorthy, and after a 
conflict of three hours, the King's forces were obliged 
to evacuate the town and fly to Wexford. This action 
took place on the 28 May Instant. In consequence of 
which Reconnoitreing parties were sent out, with 
orders to act with caution. Camolin Cavalry marched 
to Camolin Park, 2 and there heard that a large 
body of the Insurgents had been there that morn- 
ing, and that they had plundered the house of 
various articles of value among whom (sic) was 
Father John Redmond. Brought the Standard 

1 Lecky, (Vol. IV., p. 374) says that the militia and yeomanry 
did not return to Gorey until the 3ist, which, according to the 
above, is incorrect. 

2 The seat of the Earl of Mount Norris. 


presented by Lady Mount-Norris to the Camolin 
Cavalry away." 1 

As the " King's forces " at Enniscorthy numbered 
some 300 yeomanry and militia only, it is not astonish- 
ing that they were ultimately forced to surrender, 
although they made a most determined stand and 
behaved with great gallantry. The Duffry gate, ably 
defended by the yeoman infantry, was first attacked, 
and the rebels beaten back again and again before 
the defenders were obliged to withdraw into the town, 
which had been set on fire by those of the enemy who 
had entered at less well-protected spots. For a time 
the fate of Enniscorthy trembled in the balance, and 
the rebels were obliged to evacuate it. This apparent 
advantage proved of little worth to the loyalists, who 
had paid for their success so dearly that they were 
forced to make a hurried exit and push with all speed 
towards Wexford. There being no opposition, the 
insurgents entered the town, taking good care to 
form a camp on Vinegar Hill, a point of considerable 
strategic value, which henceforth became a per- 
manent centre until the 20th June, when it was 
broken up. " The town," says Musgrave, " the 
morning after the rebels got possession of it, presented 
a dreadful scene of carnage and conflagration ; many 
bodies were lying dead in the streets, and others 
groaning in the agonies of death ; some parts of the 
place were entirely consumed, and in others the flames 

1 Musgrave states that a numerous body of rebels attacked 
Gorey on the soth, but were repulsed (p. 344). 


continued to rage with inextinguishable fury ; no 
less than 478 dwelling houses and cabins were burned 
in the town and its suburbs [Templeshannon and 
Drumgoold], besides a great number of stores, malt- 
houses, and out-offices." 1 The writer of the Detail 
Book seems to have exaggerated the number of 
insurgents, which Lecky puts at 6,000 or 7,000 men. 2 
Authorities also differ as to the losses incurred on both 
sides, but the same historian roughly estimates them 
at " three officers and rather more than eighty soldiers," 
and from " one hundred to five hundred " insurgents. 3 
Father John Murphy, bent on making his triumphal 
entry into Wexford with the least possible delay, did 
not wait to indulge in the orgies which were now to 
form so conspicuous a part of the daily round at 
Vinegar Hill. Leaving 10,000 men there, and taking 
16,000 rebels with him, 4 he marched on the 2gth to 
the Three Rocks, at the foot of Mt. Forth, and about 
three miles from his destination. Before starting he 

1 Musgrave, p. 357. 

2 Lecky, Vol. IV., p. 359. 

3 Ibid., p. 360. Byrne says that when Father John crossed 
the Slaney he was " joined by crowds," including Ned Fennell, 
John Doyle of Ballyellis, Nick Murphy of Monaseed, Michael 
Redmond and Murt Murnagh, from Little Limerick, and Thomas 
Synnott, of Kilbride, all of whom were valuable adjuncts to the 
cause. He states that the casualties were nearly equal on both 
sides, and that at the Duffry gate more than 100 of the King's 
troops were killed, with several officers (see Miles Byrne, Vol. I., 
pp. 38 and 46). 

4 "The insurgents were increasing with marvellous rapidity, 
and their numbers soon amounted to tens of thousands." " The 
number of armed men who could be counted upon was practically 
unlimited " (see Froude, Vol. III., pp. 444 and 454). 


received Edward Fitzgerald, of Newpark, 1 and John 
Colclough, of Bally teigue, 2 both of whom had been 
released from Wexford jail by Captain Boyd of the 
Wexford Cavalry on the understanding that they should 
use their persuasive powers with the insurgents and 
endeavour to get them to disband without further 
bloodshed. As the officer had no power to do so, he 
could not promise any terms ensuring their acquittal 
from the consequences of rebellion, and Father John, 
proud of his success as a chieftain and flushed with 
victory, not unnaturally rejected the overtures. Fitz- 
gerald, who was styled " Lord " by the rebels, joined 
the republican army, but Colclough was faithful to 
the promise they had both made, and returned. 
Father John's next feat of arms made him still more 
optimistic. It took place on the 3Oth May at the 
Three Rocks. He surprised and cut to pieces two 
companies of the Meath regiment, sent by Major- 
General Fawcett 3 as an advance guard from Dun- 
cannon Fort for the relief of Wexford, and drove off 
the contingent under Colonel Maxwell, which had 
marched from that town to effect a junction with the 

1 After leaving Trinity College, Dublin, Fitzgerald had been 
called to the Irish Bar. He was a man of considerable property, 
and inherited the estate of Newpark, Co. Wexford, from his father. 
He surrendered on the i2th July, 1798, and was obliged to leave 
Ireland. Fitzgerald died at Hamburg in 1807. 

2 John Henry Colclough, a Catholic who joined the rebels. 
When the insurgents fled from Wexford on the 2ist June, he and 
B. B. Harvey escaped to the Saltee Islands, where they were dis- 
covered on the 24th inst. Colclough was executed on the 28th June, 

3 Sir William Fawcett (1728-1804). His name is frequently 
given as Faucitt or Faucett. 



former. On the following day Father John entered 
the gates of the terror-stricken town, 1 for Maxwell, 
having found it untenable, had fallen back on Dun- 
cannon Fort. During the tramp of twenty-three miles 
some of the troops deserted to the enemy, while others 
got beyond control and wreaked their vengeance on 
innocent peasantry. 2 

A letter written at this time to Mr. Addington 3 by 
Dr. Butson, Dean of Waterford, who had enlisted 
and accoutred a corps of mechanics, " chiefly Metho- 
dists," to help in the defence of the port, amplifies 
these particulars : 4 

" Waterford, May 3ist. 

" Nothing can exceed the melancholy aspect of this 
place. The insurgents in our neighbouring county of 
Wexford are so numerous as to have taken possession 
of and destroyed the town of Enniscorthy not a 
house remaining ; men, women, and children murdered 
and burnt, particularly the clergy. A gentleman has 
informed me that he saw the bodies of Mr. Hayden, a 
clergyman past eighty years of age, and of Mr. Nun, 

1 It is curious that such conscientious historians as Lecky and 
Froude should disagree as to the actual date on which the rebels 
entered Wexford. The former gives the 3Oth May (Vol. IV., p. 366), 
which agrees with Byrne (Vol. I., p. 59), while the latter says the 
3ist (Vol. III., p. 452). 

2 Gordon, p. 102. 

3 Henry Addington (1757-1844), Speaker of the House of 
Commons 1789 ; Prime Minister 1801-1803 ; President of the 
Council 1805 ; created Viscount Sidmouth 1805 ; Secretary of 
State for the Home Department 1812. 

4 The Life and Correspondence of the Right Honble Henry Adding- 
ton, first Viscount Sidmouth. By the Honble George Pellew, D.D., 
Dean of Norwich (Murray : 1847). Vol. I., pp. 207-208. 


a very respectable rector, lying unburied in the street, 
the day after their entrance, with 400 more dead 
bodies. Some detachments sent from hence have been 
defeated : from one under the command of General 
Faucett, 1 they took two fieldpieces. The rebels 
amount to 15 or 16,000 ; march in a disciplined 
manner, have a squadron of cavalry, and fire their 
cannon with precision. These circumstances I give 
on the authority of officers who have been beaten 
back. Every tide brings us in boats full of wounded 
and fugitives. Yesterday the rebels were in possession 
of Wexford ; thus a port is open to the French, but 
it is a very bad harbour. At New Ross, ten miles 
from hence, about 1000 troops and some artillery are 
got together : the insurgents are around Wexford, 
about twenty-eight miles from thence. As yet, from 
the spirit of the principal inhabitants and clergy uniting 
to guard it, this city has not risen." 

Father John Murphy may be well styled the master- 
mind of the rebellion in the south of Ireland. It is 
evident that he was what is comprehensively called " a 
born leader of men," and he possessed an intuitive 
knowledge of guerilla warfare not usually associated 
with those who are supposed to be adepts in the art 
of peace. In his choice of lieutenants Father John 
was scarcely less fortunate. He gave the command 
of the rebel band which he now proposed to leave in 
Wexford to Captain Matthew Keugh, an ex-officer 
of the British army. Thus, by a strange turn of 
Fortune's wheel, a Protestant soldier who had fought 

1 Fawcett. 


against the American colonists in the War of Inde- 
pendence became the commander of men whose 
aspirations were by no means dissimilar. 1 A committee 
of seven, with Bagenal Harvey 2 as president, was 
appointed, Keugh being governor. A sub-committee 
was responsible for the affairs of the town. As for 
Father John, he was no more disposed to rest on his 
laurels at Wexford than he had been at Enniscorthy. 
A much-needed supply of ammunition and arms 
having been secured from vessels at anchor in the 
harbour, his followers were in high spirits. The Re- 
publican air-castle seemed to have assumed a tangible 
form. With crucifix upraised the militant defender of 
the Faith left the scene of his latest triumph on the 
3ist May, sighing for other towns to conquer and larger 
game to run to earth in county Wicklow, which happy 
hunting-ground he hoped to reach by way of Arklow. 

" May 31. Camolin Cavalry, with 20 North Cork 
Militia, and 10 Gorey Infantry, under the command 
of Lieut. Swaine ordered to reconnoitre towards Cor- 

1 Matthew Keugh (Miles Byrne spells it Keogh) was formerly 
Captain-Lieutenant of the 65th Regiment. " He was about five 
feet nine inches high," Musgrave tells us (p. 444), " and rather 
robust. His countenance was comely, his features were large, 
and indicative of an active, intelligent mind. Joined to a very 
happy and persuasive manner of expressing himself, he had an 
engaging address, and great affability of manner." 

2 Beauchamp Bagenal Harvey (1762-1798), of Bargay Castle, 
was a Protestant, and, like Fitzgerald, a man of means. Educated 
at Trinity College, Dublin, he was called to the Irish Bar. According 
to Musgrave (p. 388), " His figure was small, and his countenance, 
though ugly and rather mean, was expressive. He was universally 
allowed to be a man of humanity, and of the strictest honour and 
integrity." Harvey was executed on the 27th June, 1798. 


rigrua Hill Lieut. Elliott with a party of Gorey and 
Ballaghkeene Cavalry, 20 Antrim Militia, and 10 Gorey 
Infantry, march towards Camolin. On the approach 
of the former party to Corrigrua, the Rebels posted 
there appeared in force, and placing their hats on their 
pikes, gave several dreadful yells. Express sent to- 
wards Camolin to inform Lieut. Elliott. Party advance 
to the Crosses of Ballymore, and thence to the summit 
of the Hill, where no Rebel was to be seen, they having 
fled in all directions. Cavalry pursue, and kill a great 
number of them. Return to Gorey 1 thro' Ballycanew, 
the latter place seemed deserted by all parties. Cavalry 
patrole to commence at 9 o'clock, and continue 'till 
five Loyalists to take part of the town duty." 

There were now two permanent camps, namely, on 
Vinegar Hill and at the Three Rocks, and two bands 
of rebels having special objects in view, in addition 
to Father John's forces. The successes of the in- 
surgents had gathered many to their standards. Each 
loyalist defeat also added to the material strength of 
the malcontents, and enabled them to secure rations, 
ammunition, weapons, and sometimes one or two 
pieces of artillery. Independent corps came into being, 
and some of the larger corps divided. It is not always 
easy, therefore, to trace their individual efforts, 
especially as contemporary accounts frequently dis- 
agree. There was much coming and going, small bands 

1 According to Hay (p. 137), some of the yeomen pillaged the 
surrounding country to no inconsiderable extent, " brought away 
as much as they could carry, driving off numbers of cattle, some 
belonging to Lord Mount Norris. ..." 


joining larger ones, only to become scattered units 
when defeat precluded concentration. On the 3ist 
May, the commanders held a council of war at the 
Three Rocks, when it was decided that three main 
bodies should be constituted. The two Murphys, with 
head-quarters on Ballymenane Hill, and Anthony 
Perry, moving from Corrigrua Hill, were to secure 
Gorey and force their way into Wicklow, where they 
expected large reinforcements. A second division 
under Bagenal Harvey, until recently a fellow-prisoner 
of John Colclough in Wexford jail, with Father Philip 
Roche 1 as second in command, was ordered to take 
New Ross, and raise the counties of Kilkenny and 
Waterford. Their chief station was on Carrickbyrne 
Hill. Father Kearns, 2 with Captains Doyle and Red- 
mond, were to start from Enniscorthy, secure Newtown- 
barry, march through Carlow and Kildare, and, if 
possible, enter Dublin. His force amounted to about 
2,500 men. 3 Miles Byrne entertained a very good 
opinion of Kearns, of whom he says : " Had he been 
bred to the military profession in a country like France, 
where courage and merit were sure of being recom- 
pensed, he would have been a Kleber, and soon have 
been raised to the front rank in any army he made 
part of." 4 

1 Father Philip Roche had been curate to the Rev. John Synnott, 
of Gorey, but was removed on account of his intemperate habits. 
He afterwards became curate to the Rev. Thomas Doyle, Bantry. 
Gordon (p. 140) draws attention to his humanity and courage. 

2 Father Kearns was in Paris during the Reign of Terror ; 
executed at Edenderry on the i2th July, 1798. 

3 Miles Byrne, Vol. I., p. 63. 
* Ibid., p. 64. 


Although there was much discussion, not unmixed 
with criticism, amongst the more important men of 
the rebel army as to the wisdom of the different 
schemes of campaign, all were enthusiastic in the 
cause, and enthusiasm behind a weapon, be it carbine 
or pike, doubles its effectiveness. With light hearts 
they set out for their various bases on the last day of 
May. The Croppy War in Wexford had taken on a 
very serious aspect indeed. 

The military situation is summed up in the following 
communication from Lord Castlereagh to Mr. Wick- 
ham, 1 dated 3ist May, 1798 : 

" The rebels still continue in force in the Counties 
of Wicklow, Wexford, Kildare, Carlow, Meath, and 
King's County; it is difficult to bring them to any 
decisive action. They commit horrid cruelties, and 
disperse as soon as the troops appear. Should the 
insurrection confine itself within the present limits, a 
short time will dispose of it. There are some un- 
pleasant appearances in certain parts of the North, 
but as yet all is in fact quiet in Ulster, Munster, and 
Connaught. . . . The spirit of the country rises with 
its difficulties. Should the rebellion prove only partial, 
aided by the reinforcements expected from England, 
I look with confidence to the issue, which, if fortunate, 
cannot fail to place this kingdom, and of course the 
empire, in a state of security much beyond that in 
which it has stood for years past." 2 

1 William Wickham (1761-1840), Under-Secretary in the Home 
Department 1798-1800; Chief Secretary in Ireland 1802-1804; 
Member of the Treasury Board 1806-1807. 

2 Castlereagh Correspondence, Vol. I., p. 212. 



"All religions that I fell in with in Ireland seemed to me too 
irreligious : really, in sad truth, doing mischief to the people 
instead of good." CARLYLE. 

"W" UNE i. The Patrole of last night gave infor- 

mation that they saw a large fire on Corrigrua 

Hill, and heard great shouting about the dawn 

*^ of the day. Ordered that Lieut. Smith, and 20 
men of the Camolin Cavalry do proceed on a recon- 
notreing party towards Corrigrua Hill and return to 
Gorey by Ballycanew. On the party coming in sight 
of Corrigrua, the Rebels kindled a large fire, for the 
purpose of (as we supposed) calling their Pickets in, as 
men were seen running and galloping to the Hill from 
all directions. Patrole took another route from that 
they intended, and coming to the Crosses of Ballymore, 
saw the Hill thickly planted with Rebels, and another 
party after setting fire to Mount-Howard house, and 
Cabbins occupied by Protestants. Between this and 
Ballycanew, a large party was observed burning all 
the Protestant houses in Tommagaddy, but on their 
seeing the cavalry the[y] hastened to Ballycanew to cut 
of [f] their retreat to Gorey, whilst the entire body from 



the Hill came pouring down in the same direction. At 
Ballycanew the Patrole was attacked by the town guard 
of Rebels, but were defeated without any loss on their 
side Patrole had one Man and his horse slightly 
wounded. Patrole arrived in Gorey and reported. A 
meeting of the Officers held, when it was determined to 
march out meet the Rebels, and not give them time to 
make a formal attack. Trumpets sounded and Drums 
beat, and in about 10 minutes a party consisting of 20 
Antrim, 20 North Cork, 20 Gorey Infantry, 46 Gorey 
Cavalry [Lieut. Woodroofe], 36 Ballaghkeen x Cavalry 
[Captain White], and 46 Camolin Cavalry [Lieut. 
Smith], all under the direction of Lieut. Elliott, 
marched out to attack them. From the Hill of 
Ballymenane, midway between Ballycanew and Gorey, 
the Rebel force was observed they had formed a 
Camp and were refreshing themselves after their march 
advancing down the hill towards Essex Bridge, 
they met the Rebels driving a vast number of Horses 
and other Cattle before them, whilst the ditches inside 
the road were lined with their Gunsmen. The action 
now commenced, and for an hour was maintained with 
great spirit, but at length the Rebels gave way and fled 
in all directions. The Cavalry then pursued them over 
a large scope of the country, and killed a great number 
of them. 2 Infantry entered Ballycanew, and there set 
fire to several houses, among which was that belonging 
to James Kenny, a Man who was strongly suspected 

1 Sometimes written Ballakeen by contemporary historians. 

2 Lecky states that " the victorious army abstained from 
pursuit" (Vol. IV., p. 384). Taylor asserts that about 150 rebels 
were killed (p. 48). 


of having a great hand in the Conspiracy He was 
taken by some of the Suplimentary Yeoman and Shot. 
Rescued two of Gorey Cavalry, and some Loyalists 
who had been prisoners with the Rebels reported, that 
their numbers were upwards of 1000, that they were 
headed by Priest Murphy of Ballycanew, who, tho' 
they had more Officers of high rank, he had the chief 
command that they were to have encamped on 
Ballymenane Hill that night, and being joined by a 
large force from Corrigrua, under the command of 
Anthony Perry, 1 were to have attacked Gorey early 
on the following morning. Lieut. Elliott got a slight 
wound by a fall from his horse one of his Men a 
wound in the thigh, and one of the Gorey Cavalry 
a wound in the Arm. Party returned safe to Gorey, 
driving before them a vast number of Horses, Mules 
and Asses, and bearing a variety of Standards taken 
from the Rebels. 2 Strong Patroles, and double Sentries 
mounted this night." 

The force under Father Kearns 3 which marched 
from Enniscorthy towards Newtownbarry on the 
morning of the same day met with no better fortune. 
The loyalist garrison there had been hastily des- 
patched from Dublin, and consisted of but a few 

1 Anthony Perry, a Protestant who had been arrested and con- 
fined at Gorey previous to the rebellion, liberated on the 28th May, 
1798. His house being entered by yeomen, he joined the insurgents, 
and afterwards paid the penalty by being hanged at Edenderry, 
King's County, " a little before the end of the rebellion." 

2 According to Taylor (p. 48), over 100 horses, some guns and 
pikes, and two green standards. 

3 Called Father Kern by Froude (see Vol. III., p. 459). 


hundred men, made up of King's County militia, 
yeoman infantry, volunteers, Newtownbarry and 
Carlow cavalry, and a few of the 4th Dragoons, com- 
manded by Colonel L'Estrange of the King's County 
regiment. The rebels posted themselves on a near- 
by hill, but as the point did not prove so advantageous 
as they had hoped, owing either to the short range 
or the bad serving of their artillery, they descended 
and prepared to rush the town. By a skilful manoeuvre 
Colonel L'Estrange retreated towards Carlow, where- 
upon the insurgents poured into Newtownbarry, making 
the place a veritable inferno with their yells, and the 
crackling of wood and the volume of smoke soon made 
it evident that their old practice of setting houses on 
fire was in operation. The loyalists who had re- 
mained shot at the disorderly mob from whatever 
point of vantage they could secure. Colonel L'Estrange, 
urged on by his troops rather than seizing the op- 
portunity on his own initiative, charged into the 
town, to the complete dismay of the captors, who, 
according to some reports, were celebrating what 
they thought was a complete victory by imbibing 
whatever liquor they could discover. 1 They fled in 
the wildest confusion, and were followed for four 
miles by the troops, who thus prevented the junction 
with the Carlow and Kildare rebels which was to 
have been effected the following day. Well may 
Taylor refer to the yeomen who behaved with such 
conspicuous gallantry on this occasion as " the mili- 
tary saviours of their country, and the bulwark of 

1 Byrne indignantly denies this charge (see Vol. I., p. 65). 


the Irish nation." 1 The scattered units of Reams' 
army succeeded in making their way in detached 
bands to Vinegar Hill, where the majority of them 
arrived on Saturday, the 2nd June. On the following 
day they joined John Murphy, Redmond, Perry, and 
Roche at Corrigrua Hill, 2 whose men were now in 
one body, and being drilled by yeomen who had either 
resigned or been dismissed from their corps before 
the breaking out of the rebellion. 3 

" June 2. Advices was this morning received that 
the Rebels to the amount of 30,000, had on Wednesday 
the 30 Ultimo, attacked the town of Wexford, com- 
pleatly routed the Garrison there, and destroyed the 
town. Reconnoitreing parties ordered to patrole to- 
wards Ballycanew, Corrigrua Hill, and Camolin, to 
act with the greatest caution. Private intelligence 
was this day in circulation, that a large Brigade of 
Military were on their March, and to arrive in Gorey 
this evening -No Military arrived. Strong Patroles 
and double Guards on all the leading Avenues to the 
town to Report every two hours. 

" June 3. A party from each Yeomanry Corps of 
Cavalry to patrole from hence towards Corrigrua Hill, 
to be commanded by an officer Lieut. Smith of the 
Camolin Cavalry, from his knowledge of the Country, 
chosen on this Service. A Detatchment of the Antient 
British Light Dragoons, commanded by Colonel Sir 

1 Taylor, p. 45. 

2 Byrne, Vol. I., p. 67. 

3 Ibid., Vol. I., p. 71. 


Watkin Wynne J arrived in town. The party ordered 
to Corrigrua returned Lieut. Smith reported that 
on his coming in view of the Hill the Rebels posted 
thereon set their hats on their Pikes, and having 
lighted several fires, as he supposed for signals, they 
set up a most dreadful Yell he proceeded as far as 
M rs Donovan's gate at Ballymore, when a band of 
Rebels rushed from the house, inclosures, &c. and 
fired several shots at his party, on which they re- 
treated. In the evening, a considerable force of Mili- 
tary arrived at Gorey, consisting of the Dumbarton 
Fencible Infantry, detatchments of the Londonderry, 
Armagh, and Antrim Militia, Tyrone and Suffolk 
Light Companies, and the Arklow Yeoman Cavalry 
and Infantry, under the Command of Major-General 
Loftus and Colonel Walpole 2 Yeomanry ordered to 
provide two days provision, and to be in readiness for 
marching at 9 o'clock tomorrow morning. Strong 
Patroles and double Sentry's on all the leading 
Avenues to the town and to Report. 

" June 4. Three file from each Yeomanry Corps 
of Cavalry ordered to attend as Guides to the Army 
who are preparing to surround the Rebel Army 
posted on Corrigrua Hill. Some information re- 
specting the Plan formed by the Rebels for an attack 
on Gorey, 3 was communicated to Col. Walpole by 

1 Colonel Sir Watkin Williams Wynne. 

2 Colonel Lambert Theodore Walpole (1757-1798), aide-de-camp 
to Lord Camden. 

3 Their ambition was now to capture Gorey and New Ross, in 
order " to open out a communication to other counties, and thus 
to produce that general insurrection throughout Ireland without 


John Doolin of Clogh, 1 a Loyalist, for which he was 
order[ed] into confinement. At half past nine, the 
line was inspected by Col. Walpole preparatory to 
their march he objects to having any of the Camolin 
Cavalry to attend the Army, but on Captain White's 
representing them as Men of strict loyalty and con- 
duct, he consents to their moving with the Army. At 
10 the Army, consisting of 1500 men with five pieces 
of Cannon, under the command of Gen. Loftus and 
Col. Walpole march out of Gorey for the purpose of 
surrounding and cutting off the Rebels on Corrigrua 
the division under Gen. Loftus march in the direction 
of Ballycanew, to surround the Hill on one side 
Walpole's division march through Clogh to take another 
side of the Hill, but are met at Tubberneering by the 
entire Rebel force from Corrigrua, and totally defeated 
Col. Walpole killed by a ball thro' his head the 
remnant of Walpole's Army (which was by much the 
weakest) having lost three pieces of Cannon, retreated 
in confusion to Gorey, and as they passed down the 

which the Wexford rebellion was manifestly hopeless " (Lecky, 
Vol. IV., p. 384). Perry sent urgent messages to Vinegar Hill 
and Wexford requesting immediate reinforcements. Taylor (p. 
48) says that 12,000 insurgents under the two priests Kearns 
and Redmond were accordingly sent to Corrigrua Hill, where 8,000 
were already stationed under Perry. Many detached and indepen- 
dent bodies also came to swell the augmented host, including that 
portion of the Shilmalier cavalry under Sergt. Edward Roche 
which had deserted a week before. 

1 Gordon states that this intelligence was given by "a re- 
spectable farmer, named Thomas Dowling," and that the rebels 
also knew of the intended movements of the army, owing to the 
incautious publicity given to them in the town, which the dis- 
affected passed on (p. 114). 


street, were fired at from the windows, by persons who 
had in the morning, every appearance of Loyalty. 1 
Army retreat out of Gorey with difficulty, and proceed 
to Arklow, the inhabitants of which used the fugitive 
Loyalists in a very ungenerous manner. Lieut. Smith 
and Serjeant Nesbit after encountering great diffi- 
culties, arrive safe at Arklow. The entire Army stood 
to their Arms, and at a Council of War held at 12 o'clock 
at night, it was there resolved to evacuate the town, 
and proceed immediately to Wicklow. Orders ' No 
person to quit the town, untill the Garrison marches 
over the Bridge.' 

" June 5. After having burned every thing military 
which the[y] could not take with them, the Military 
commenced their march at 2 o'clock, taking with them 
several Prisoners who were confined in the Guard Room 
on charges of Rebellion. Arrived in Wicklow about 
10 o'clock, where the Army and Loyalists received all 
the kindness their calamitous conditions required. 
At 7 in the afternoon, Major General Needham, 2 with 
the Cavan Regiment of Militia, Col. Maxwell, arrived 
in Wicklow, having travelled in Carriages, &c. hired 
for the purpose, from Loughlinstown Camp. This 

1 Loftus sent a detachment to support Walpole, who assumed 
separate command, but he himself did not reach the scene of the 
disaster until all was over. Feeling his army too weak to attack 
Gorey, where the rebels at once took up a strong position, he 
retreated to Carnew, and later to Carlow. The loyalist cause lost 
over fifty men. In this battle Father Philip Roche played a promi- 
nent part. 

2 Major-General the Hon. Francis Needham (1748-1832), M.P. 
for Newry 1806-1818 ; twelfth Viscount Kilmorey 1818 ; Earl of 
Kilmorey 1822. 


Evening, Captain Earl Mount Norris arrived from 
Dublin, and joined his Corps of Yeoman Cavalry. 
' Orders The Garrison to march for Arklow, to- 
morrow morning at 10 o'clock.' Strong Patroles and 
double Sentry's on all the leading Avenues to the town. 
The Marching Army to be exempt from Duty this 
night." l 

When the insurgents were in complete possession of 
Gorey it was not long before they secured both liquor 
and plunder. Taylor, the Protestant historian, had 
the misfortune to be taken prisoner, and although the 
account of his terrible experiences makes heartrending 
reading, the vividness of the picture perhaps justifies 
a lengthy quotation. 

" I passed through many of the rebels," he writes, 
" saw a great number of Protestants' houses burning 
between me and home, and heard many shots fired 
round the country, which I supposed to be levelled at 
the poor inhabitants who were escaping from the 
flames. I proceeded, however, without meeting any 
opposition, until I got within three miles of my mother's 
house ; just then a man followed me, whom I knew 
not, and called out, ' where are you going, young 
Taylor ? ' ordering me to stop. I obeyed, and thus 
fell into the hands of the rebels. This was on Wed- 
nesday the 6th of June. I was then taken to Gorey, 
and confined in the market-house : at night the guards 
that were placed over us, tied our arms behind, and 

1 The total force now amounted to 1,500 or 1,600 effective men 
(Lecky, Vol. IV., p. 428). 


confined us to certain bounds which we should not pass. 
The same evening they brought in another prisoner, 
whom the merciless wretches shot next morning in the 
street ; I saw him fall, and was shocked at the sight, 
not knowing how soon it would be my own case. 
Next day we had liberty to walk the room, our arms 
being untied. 

" The rebel camp was about half a mile from the 
town, on an eminence which commanded the entire 
country, and their numbers were increasing every day. 
My Papist neighbours hearing I was in confinement, 
came to see me ; wished me a speedy deliverance and 
told me how to procure it ; namely, to be baptized by 
a priest, and embrace the holy Roman Catholic faith, 
(as they called it,) and join them in arms to fight for 
the cause of liberty : many told me I would be shot 
if I did not turn papist, and made use of great per- 
suasion to prevail upon me. I told them I was obliged 
to them, and doubted not that it was good nature 
which induced them to speak as they did, but I was 
baptized before, and had no reason to condemn the 
Church of England ; yet if they could convince me of 
its errors, I would freely renounce it, and until then, 
they could not expect me to turn from it. To others 
I said it required a little consideration, that such a 
thing should not be done precipitately. . . . While a 
prisoner here, they brought in a yeoman of the Castle- 
town cavalry, whom they had just taken, and without 
allowing him more than ten minutes to call on the 
Lord, shot him in the street. Mr. Perry, the rebel 
commander at Gorey Camp, would give him no longer 


time to prepare for eternity ! ' The mercies of the 
wicked are cruel.' 

" A few days after my being taken to Gorey, they 
stript me of a suit of black, and gave me a soldier's 
old jacket, waistcoat and small-clothes ; they also 
took from me my hat, neckcloth and shoes ; and 
having thus plundered me, they left me to meditate on 
what was likely to follow : all the prisoners were 
served the same way. Having thus stripped us, 
they led us forth to the camp to be shot. Providen- 
tially two days prior to this, Mr. Harvey, the com- 
mander-in-chief of the rebel forces in the county of 
Wexford, issued a proclamation from Carrigburne 
camp, one of the articles of which was, ' It is also 
resolved, that any person or persons who shall take 
upon him or them, to kill or murder any person or 
persons, burn any house, or commit any plunder, 
without special written orders from the commander- 
in-chief, shall suffer death.' 

" Just as we were ranged on our knees, and our 
executioners in their appointed places, with pikes and 
musquets to put us all to death, a man came into the 
camp, with the above proclamation ; which was 
immediately read, and proved the means, under God, 
of saving our lives. Nevertheless we were near being 
sacrificed by these blood-thirsty men ; being so enraged 
with disappointment, they would hardly let us return to 
our prison alive. Some they stabbed, at others they 
fired : one man received five wounds from a pike, 
and had three ribs broken ; another was shot through 
the shoulder ; and I being arrayed with the soldier's 


coat, was struck several times, and received a stab in 
the back, and after being thus abused we were ordered 
to the guard-house. . . . 

" I cannot ascertain the number of rebels that were 
in the camp, which was so extensive that it covered 
many acres of ground. It was distressing to see no 
military force then in the country sufficient to engage 
them ; it also distressed me to see their colours flying, 
and to hear their drums and trumpets, not knowing 
where it would end. . . . God was indeed very kind 
to me here ; for the next morning they cut the hair 
off the prisoner's heads, and put pitched caps on them 
all ; but they meddled not with me ; though even a 
minister of the Church of England, who was a fellow 
prisoner, was served the same way. On Saturday the 
9th of June, the whole body of the rebels prepared to 
attack Arklow ; and as they marched from the camp 
through the town, the guards thrust the prisoners half 
out of the windows, that the insurgents might see their 
heads shorn and pitched ; at which they shouted so 
loud, that it seemed to pierce the very skies. . . . 

" Our bed in this place was only a truss of straw, 
and that bestowed with a very scanty hand ; which 
notwithstanding might have afforded some refreshment, 
only that it was swarming with vermin. Our food 
also was very scanty ; no man got as much in twenty- 
four hours as would suffice for one meal ; but this 
I say, they treated me with more attention than the 
rest of the prisoners." 1 

1 Taylor, pp. 176-180. 


" June 6. Camolin Cavalry received one Guinea 
each Man from their Captain Earl Mount Norris, on 
account of their pay. At 10 o'clock the troops 
consisting of the Cavan Militia and the defeated Army 
at Tubberneering, commanded by Gen. Needham, 
marched from Wicklow to Arklow burned some 
houses on and near the road Ordered by the General 
to burn no more his orders not strictly obeyed a 
private of the Arklow Yeoman Infantry put under 
an arrest for burning a house contrary to orders. 
Within three miles of Arklow, observed some boats 
in the Offing, and by the help of glasses saw they were 
Men and Women arrived at Arklow about five 
o'clock, and found the town almost destitute of 
inhabitants were informed that as soon as they heard 
of the Army marching towards the town, they quit 
their habitations and took to boats, thinking that 
the Army would destroy them all. Ordered by Gen. 
Needham to come ashore, return to their habitations, 
and that he would protect them from the Army, 
which was much enraged All the Spirituous Liquors 
in the town, put under requisition, lest the military 
would make to[o] free with it a Court Martial called, 
and the Yeoman of Arklow Infantry, put on trial 
sentenced for Execution, and on the Evening Parade 
brought out to suffer, but thro' the interference of 
Colonel Maxwell, he was pardoned Col. Maxwell read 
the Articles of War to the Military and Yeomanry." 

" June 7. One file from the Dragoons and each of 
the Yeoman Cavalry Corps, ordered as an escort to 
Wicklow, with the Carriages in which the Cavan 


Regiment came down. Patroles of Dragoons and 
Yeoman Cavalry sent out on Reconnoitreing Parties. 
Yeomanry began to draw Rations from Commissary's 
stores this day. Detatchments from the 5th & gth 
Dragoons march into town this day." 

On the yth the rebel army left Gorey, and marched 
to attack Carnew, which Loftus had evacuated the 
day before. An encampment was at once formed on 
Kilcaven Hill, and part of the town set on fire, which 
Byrne sensibly calls a " useless retaliation." 1 When 
information of the reoccupation of Arklow came to 
hand the foolishness of this march became apparent, 
and leaving Carnew on the 8th the insurgents again 
encamped on Gorey Hill, preparatory to attacking 
the troops at Arklow. 

" June 8. The following Orders were issued this 
morning, and directed to be, (with all other Orders) 
entered in the Orderly-Book : 

" ' General Orders, Arklow, June 8, 1798. 

' As none of the Yeomanry Corps have given in 
Reports of the duty they have done the day before, 
excepting the Earl of Mount-Norris's troop, they are 
required to be more attentive in future to Orders. 
They are not on any account to ride their horses fast 
through the Street, nor are they to use their horses 
except when on Duty. The General requires more 
particular attention from the Yeomanry Corps on the 
Patroles, which he thinks and finds are neither 

1 Byrne, Vol. I., p. 88. 


numerous nor frequent enough. Whenever a par- 
ticular patrole is ordered during the day or night, a 
report is to be made immediately to the General. An 
Orderly from each Yeomanry Corps in town to attend 
at the General Quarters 'till the Major of Brigade of 
Yeomanry shall dismiss him. All Returns to be made 
to Captain Howard, Brigade Major of Yeomanry.' 

" Two file from each Yeomanry Corps of Cavalry, 
with dispatches from Major Gen. Needham to Wicklow, 
from thence to be forwarded to Lord Castlereagh, 
Dublin Castle. A General Inspection of Yeomanry, 
ordered [to] take place this day at 12 o'clock Corps 
to be on the Inspection ground at half-past eleven 
o'clock. The inspection took place at 12 o'clock, after 
which the several Cavalry Corps were ordered out on 
Reconnoitreing Parties. 

" June 9. From the Morning Parade, 'Patroling 
parties ordered to ride slowly on Arklow Rock Road, 
Coolgreny road, and the road leading to Poolahoney 
Wood, and remain 'till relieved by the Night Patroles. 
At i o'clock the Loyal Durham Regiment of Fencible 
Infantry, commanded by Col. Skerrit, 1 arrived in town, 

1 Colonel Skerrett, who succeeded the Marquis of Huntly in 
the command at Gorey. Gordon (p. 198) says that Colonel Skerrett 
" observed so strict a discipline, that nothing more was heard of 
military depredation." Musgrave (p. 437) gives the strength of the 
detachment of the Durham Fencibles as 300 effective men. In the 
list which he prints on the following page the number is given as 
245 rank and file. The Dumbarton infantry of 105 rank and file 
also formed part of Skerrett's division, but no mention is made of 
the Gorey Yeoman Cavalry. Lecky (Vol. IV., p. 430) states that 
there were 360 Durham Fencibles. The same authority (p. 428) 
gives the total loyalist force as 1,500 or 1,600 effective men, and 
that of the insurgents at 25,000, 30,000, or even 34,000 men. General 


and in an hour after the Gorey Yeoman Cavalry, 
commanded by Lieut. Woodroofe, marched in from 
Dublin. At 3 o'clock a Dragoon from the Rock Road 
galloped into town, and informed Gen. Needham that 
a crowd of Men who they (his party) supposed to be 
Rebels were approaching their post at the Rock. In a 
few minutes, the other patroles galloped into town 
with the same information, and shortly after the whole 
body of the Rebels from Gorey made their appearance. 
Two file of Dragoons dispatched with the intelligence 
to Wicklow. Dragoons and Yeoman Cavalry under 
the command of Col. Sir Watkin Wynne, ordered to 
take post on the sandy hills beyond the Bridge, but 
they were so exposed to the fire of the enemy, he 
ordered that they should take shelter in the vallies 
between the hills, 'till they would be ordered to make 
a Charge. Rebels set the houses in the Fishery 1 on 
fire. Cavalry ordered to Charge a body of Rebels 
who were advancing to the town by the Beech 
compleatly routed them with slaughter, in which 
Captain [Thomas] Knox [Grogan] of the Castletown 
Yeoman Cavalry, and two of his Men were killed. 

Needham estimated them at about 19,000 (Lecky, Vol. IV., p. 428). 
Musgrave says 25,000 (p. 440) ; Gordon 27,000 (p. 129) ; Kavanagh 
20,000 (p. 183) ; Byrne 20,000 (p. 98). A like discrepancy exists 
with regard to the weapons of the rebels. Gordon asserts that they 
had nearly 5,000 men with firearms, and three serviceable pieces of 
artillery ; Kavanagh gives 2,000 firearms, " many of which were 
out of order and of little use," 3,000 only had pikes, the remainder 
fighting with scythes, pitchforks and other farm implements. Byrne 
maintains that there were not 2,000 firelocks, and only between 
3,000 and 4,000 " tolerably well mounted pikes." 
1 The lower part of the town. 


Dragoons and Yeoman Cavalry took their former 
station, ordered to Charge again, and again returned 
to their station. Rebels beginning to retreat, in which 
they set fire to the dwelling house of the Rev. Edward 
Bayley, Rector of Arklow, and an active Magistrate, 
by which it was burned to the ground. At 8 o'clock 
the Rebels were completely routed. 1 Infantry stood 
to their arms 'till 4 next morning, Dragoons and 
Cavalry patroled 'till the same hour. 

" June 10. At 4 this morning the Troops were in 
part relieved from Duty, to refresh themselves and 
their horses went to view the dead bodies, all of 
which had a homed appearance one of the Slain 
was recognised to be Priest Murphy of Bally canew ; 2 
he was torn across the body, it was supposed by a 
cannister shot. Dead men and horses were lying in 
heaps in the fields, on the roads, and in the ditches. 
Orders given to the Suplementary Yeoman and 
Followers to remove the Dead bodies and bury them ; 
numbers taken in cars and thrown into the Sea. Two 
file from each detatchment of Dragoons and Yeoman 
Cavalry ordered with dispatches for Wicklow, Newtown 
Kennedy, Bray, Loughlinstown Camp, and Dublin. 
Detatchmentsfrom the Antrim Militia and 7th Dragoons 

1 Over 1,000 insurgents were killed in the battle of Arklow, 
according to the conservative estimate of General Needham, and 
but few on the loyalist side, including Captain Thomas Knox Grogan, 
who commanded the Castletown Yeoman Cavalry. The latter was 
a brother of Cornelius Grogan, a Wexford rebel who paid the full 
penalty for his misdeeds. Froude gives the most graphic descrip- 
tion of the contest. See Vol. III., pp. 480-482. 

2 Father Michael Murphy. Michael Redmond was also killed. 


march into town from Rathdrum. Yeomanry paraded 
at 10, when the following Orders were read, and ordered 
to be Coppied by each Corps of Yeomanry in their 
Orderly Books : 

" ' General Orders, Arklow, June 10, 1798. 

" ' Major General Needham takes the earliest 
opportunity of returning his thanks to the Com- 
missioned, non-Commissioned Officers and Privates 
of the several Yeomanry Corps, who he had the honour 
to command yesterday, for their cool and spirited 
conduct when in the front of a most cruel and ferocious 
enemy, and he hartily congratulates them on the 
happy issue of their meritorious exertions. 

" ' Reconnoitreing parties sent out, with orders to 
act with caution, and not to advance to[o] far from 
town. The Military which arrived in town this 
morning ordered to return again to Rathdrum.' ' 

According to Miles Byrne, who was present, the 
battle of Arklow was lost by the rebels because there 
was no definite commander-in-chief, orders being 
issued by various men indiscriminately, and apparently 
with no thought of concerted action. Father Michael 
Murphy was certainly very conspicuous, and led his 
column with his usual daring, and John Hay, 1 Esmond 

1 Colonel John Hay, of the loth Lancers, brother of Edward 
Hay the historian. Kavanagh (p. 309) asserts that after taking 
part in the defeat of Walpole at Clogh, he made his way to Dublin 
and rejoined his regiment. Kavanagh says he was assured of the 
fact by a nephew of Esmond Kyan. Harwood (p. 174) says that 
John Hay had been an officer in the French Army. 


Kyan, 1 Dick Monk, 2 Thomas Dixon, 3 and William and 
Garret Byrne 4 were also present. 5 If Kavanagh is to 
be believed, Father John Murphy was of opinion that 
" Wexford ought to fight in defence of Wexford alone," 6 
and this is the reason why he did not accompany this 
band. The statement is supported by Taylor, who 
tells us that " Priest Murphy of Boolavogue met them 
retreating, and told them that he knew they would be 
defeated; yet they would not take his advice." 7 On 
the other hand, Byrne positively asserts that Father 
John played a prominent part in the field, and he waxes 
eloquent on the subject. " Father John Murphy," he 
notes, " apparently with the simplicity of a child, was 
a lion in the fight ; in short he knew not, nor cared, 
nor feared danger, from the moment he was forced 
to take the field to save his life from the tyrants who 
had burned his house, his chapel, and all he possessed, 

1 Esmond Kyan, rebel captain of artillery. Youngest son of 
Howard Kyan, Esquire, of Mount Howard, Co. Wexford. He was 
wounded at the battle of Arklow. 

2 Richard Monaghan, alias Dick Monk, formerly a recruiting 

3 Thomas Dixon, son of a publican of Castlebridge, near Wex- 
ford, and master of a vessel owned by his brother, who was a pros- 
perous merchant. He was the most notorious of the many men who 
played a prominent part in the town of Wexford when it was in the 
hands of the rebels. His subsequent career is shrouded in mystery, 
but Kavanagh (p. 263 n.) states that Dixon fled to America and died 
many years afterwards. 

4 William Michael Byrne (1773-1798). Formerly a yeoman in 
the Mount Kennedy Corps. Executed the 28th July, 1798. Garret 
Byrne (circa ijj^.-circa 1829). He eventually surrendered to 
General Moore, and was perpetually exiled. 

6 Taylor, p. 89. 

6 Kavanagh, p. 322. 

7 Taylor, p. 97. 

ollection of Mr. A. M. Broadley, 



on the 26th of May : and this day at Arklow he was 
seen in every critical situation encouraging the men 
and exposing himself to the greatest danger, wherever 
he thought his presence could be useful. He was so 
well known that the moment he was perceived there 
was a general burst of joy and enthusiasm throughout 
the ranks of the army. Thus it may be fairly said of 
Father John, that he contributed most powerfully to 
the success of the day at Arklow." 1 

From the above evidence we think that Byrne's 
memory must have failed him when he sat down to 
describe the battle of Arklow, for his Memoirs were 
not written until years after the event. Teeling, 
Musgrave, Harwood, Gordon, Hay, Maxwell, and 
Lecky make no mention of Father John, and Kavanagh 
positively asserts that he was at Castletown. 2 Froude's 
reference is inconclusive. 3 

Badly equipped to meet an army well provided with 
firearms and artillery, the pikemen were mown down 
before they had an opportunity of showing their skill 
at close quarters. Almost in despair, the rebels cried, 
" Boys, we have no one to lead us." Whereupon 
Father Michael, whose baton seems to have been a 
riding-whip, although at the beginning of the battle 
he bore a green flag with a white cross and the motto 
" Death or Liberty," 4 seized a pike and led a charge 
Kavanagh speaks of him on the authority of an eye- 
witness as falling " literally riddled with bullets " 

1 Miles Byrne, Vol. I., p. 102. 

2 Kavanagh, p. 186 n. 

3 Froude, Vol. III., p. 479-82. 

4 Lecky, Vol. IV., p. 430. 


before he reached the enemy's lines. 1 The death of 
their hero so disheartened the insurgents that they 
began to retreat immediately. " For my own part," 
Byrne remarks, " I never could ascertain who it was that 
gave the order to our army to march back to our camp 
at Gorey Hill, at the moment the battle was gained 
and the King's forces quitting the town and retreating 
on the road to Wicklow. The Durham Fencibles 
that were left to cover this retreat only waited till it 
became dark to begin their retrograde march un- 
perceived. . . . How melancholy to think a victory 
so dearly bought should have been abandoned 
for which no good or plausible motive could ever be 
assigned." 2 

It is generally understood that there was a hesi- 
tancy on the part of General Needham, which was 
amply amended by the dashing bravery of Colonel 
Skerrett, the second in command. 3 Byrne himself 
admits that the rebels had practically exhausted their 
ammunition, but thinks that if fires had been lighted, 
the enemy would have evacuated the town, believing 
another attack imminent. He refers to the King's 
troops as "in a state of disorder and panic struck," 
which is drawing the long-bow too taut. 

Another rebel who rendered good service was Esmond 
Kyan, who held the rank of captain and commanded 

1 Several of the dead priest's relatives carried his body from 
the field to Castle Ellis churchyard for interment (Kavanagh, 
P- 307)- 

2 Byrne, Vol. I., pp. 103-104. 

3 Rise and Fall of the Irish Nation. By Sir Jonah Barrington, 
p. 448. 


what little artillery the rebels possessed, but Anthony 
Perry was the nominal leader. 1 With true Hibernian 
humour Kyan remarked when his artificial arm was 
taken off by a cannon-shot, " My loose timbers are 
flying God bless the mark ! and now for the right 
arm of the British line." 

An unpleasant incident is narrated by Taylor as 
having taken place after the battle of Arklow, and it 
has been copied from him by most of the contemporary 
historians. It is to the effect that Murphy's head was 
struck off by order of Lord Mount Norris, and his body 
thrown into a burning house. " Let his body go 
where his soul is ! " the Earl is reported to have said. 2 
The present writers are unable either to contradict or 
affirm the truth of the story, and can only hope with 
Gordon that " the writer was misinformed, and that 
the noble earl, remarkable for his liberality to Roman- 
ists, was not the author of this act." 3 Musgrave makes 
no mention of the matter, while Hay thinks it probable 
" that his lordship was induced, by this coup de main, 
to prove to the world that he had not, though he 
was supposed to have been, a friend to Catholics." 4 
It is also asserted that some of the Ancient Britons 
mangled the priest's remains in a most atrocious 

Had the honours of the day rested with the rebels, 
a march on Dublin would have been made immediately, 

1 Taylor, p. 88. 

2 Ibid., p. 96. 

3 Gordon, p. 213. 

4 Hay, p. 182. 


and so serious was the situation in the metropolis 
that the Lord-Lieutenant sent his wife and children 
to England, an example followed by many of the 
bishops and other notabilities. Writing from Dublin 
on the ist June, Lake had already sounded a warning 
to Government by asserting that " the insurrection 
throughout the whole of this part of the country being 
so general, and appearing rather to increase than to 
subside, it is certainly highly desirable that as many 
troops as can be spared from other service should 
be sent to reinforce the army here, and that with 
as much despatch as possible, effectually to disconcert 
the plans of the rebels, and disperse them before they 
become more formidable from numbers, or acquire 
confidence from any other circumstance." 1 Now that 
the serious aspect of the rebellion was obvious, the 
English authorities began to wake up, and in a private 
communication from Mr. Wickham to Lord Castle- 
reagh, dated " Duke Street, Friday, June 8, 1798. 
3om. past 10, P.M.," the latter is informed that " in 
addition to the reinforcement of 3000 infantry and 
1000 cavalry, already under orders, and in part, I hope, 
arrived in Ireland, his Majesty's ministers have this 
day advised the King to send 5000 more infantry 
(2000 of the Guards) without delay to such parts of the 
kingdom as his Excellency, in his despatches of to-day, 
seems to point out as standing most in need of rein- 
forcement, viz., the Guards to Waterford, embarking 
at Portsmouth, (I hope, on Wednesday or Thursday 
next) and the remaining 3000 from Scotland to the 

1 Castlereagh Correspondence, Vol. I., p. 213. 


North of Ireland." 1 " There is no doubt an intention 
to attempt a rising within the city," Camden writes to 
Pelham on the nth, " The country is lost unless a 
very large reinforcement of troops is landed." 2 In 
corroboration of the designs of the insurgents on 
Dublin, a note to an acquaintance residing there is 
alleged to have been found on the body of Father 
Michael Murphy, and is printed by Musgrave : 3 

T? j TT " Gorey, 6th June. 

Friend Houston, 

" Great events are ripening. In a few days we 
shall meet. The first fruits of your regeneration must 
be a tincture of poison and pike, in the metropolis, 
against hereticks. This is a tribunal for such opinions. 
Your talents must not be buried as a judge : Your sons 
must be steeled with fortitude against heresy, then we 
shall do ; and you shall shine in a higher sphere. We 
shall have an army of brave republicans, one hundred 
thousand, with fourteen pieces of cannon, on Tuesday, 
before Dublin ; your heart will beat high at the news. 
You will rise with a proportionable force. 

" Yours ever, 

" Decipher, B. I. K. M. Q. Y. * * * " 

Grattan's son, in his biography of his distinguished 
father, tells a curious story usually overlooked by the 
historians of the rebellion. According to him, " Two 
of the chiefs had rode early one morning to a respect- 

1 Castlereagh Correspondence, Vol. I., p. 215. 

2 Pelham MSS. cited by Lecky, Vol. IV., pp. 432-433. 

3 Musgrave, p. 435. 


able and wealthy farmer in the county of Wexford, 
in order to induce him to join them. During their 
conversation they disclosed their plan of advance 
along the coast of Dublin. Except at Arklow, there 
was scarce any stronghold on the line ; the way lay 
open along the sea, and the march upon Dublin would 
have been easily accomplished, as the military were 
mostly in a distant part of the country, and the 
insurgent force coming from Wexford exceeded 30,000 
men. The brother of the person from whom I got the 
anecdote, happening to be present, concealed himself 
in the farmer's house, through fear of detection, and 
overheard the conversation. On the departure of the 
chiefs and their party, he wrote out a statement of the 
occurrence, secured it inside his shoe, and proceeded 
with every expedition across the country, till he 
delivered it to the next military commander. Upon 
the receipt of this intelligence in Dublin, every possible 
exertion was made, and every sort of soldier, on every 
sort of vehicle, was dispatched from the metropolis." 1 

" The battle of Arklow was the last in which the 
rebels had any real chance of success," says Lecky, 
" and from this time the rebellion rapidly declined." 2 
The defeated Irish army fell back on Gorey Hill, from 
which centre many a marauding expedition set out. 
Some of them were successful, while others fell into 
the hands of the King's troops and were summarily 
dealt with. 

1 Life of Grattan. By his Son. Vol. IV., p. 395. Cited by 
Harwood, p. 186. 

2 Lecky, Vol. IV., p. 431. 


We must now rapidly follow in the footsteps of the 
insurgents under Bagenal Harvey. From June ist 
to the 4th they were on Carrickbyrne, whence they had 
moved from the Three Rocks, being reinforced from 
many quarters, but losing much valuable time in the 
process. The unwieldy mob got out of hand, for 
Harvey was by no means a strong personality, and 
burnings and plunderings were of daily occurrence. 
The awful orgie at Scullabogue is too well known to 
require recapitulation, and may be compared to the 
savage barbarities of the Black Hole of Calcutta. 
However, on the 4th an advance was made to Corbet 
Hill, about a mile and a half from the wall-surrounded 
town of New Ross. The little loyalist garrison, under 
Major-General Ross, 1 was reinforced that evening by 
the Dublin County Militia, commanded by Lord 
Mount] oy z ; but the discrepancy in numbers was 
enormous, for the total force amounted to about 
1,400 men of the 5th Dragoons, the Clare, Donegal, 
and Meath Militia, the Midlothian Fencibles, some 
English artillery, and the Militia already mentioned. 3 
The strength of the rebels was some 30,000 men. 
Early in the morning of the 5th the following com- 
munication was sent to the commander of the King's 
forces, the unlucky messenger being shot by the guard, 
although he was under cover of a flag of truce. For 

1 Robert Ross (1766-1814), served in Holland 1799; in Italy 
1806 ; in Spain 1808 ; in Walcheren Expedition 1809 ; in the 
Peninsular 1812, and in the American War 1814, when he captured 

2 Rt. Hon. Luke Gardiner (1745-1798), created Lord Mountjoy 
1789 ; Viscount 1795. 

3 Lecky, Vol. IV., p. 388. 



this act of treason there can be no excuse, indeed, 
Gordon asserts that it was the rule to break this, the 
most humane of the articles of war : l 

" SIR, 

" As a friend to humanity, I request you will 
surrender the town of New Ross to the Wexford forces, 
now assembled against it ; your resistance will but 
provoke rapine and plunder to the ruin of the innocent. 
Flushed with victory, the Wexford forces, now in- 
surmountable and irresistible, will not be controlled 
if they meet with resistance. To prevent the total 
ruin of all property in the town, I urge you to a speedy 
surrender a surrender which you will be forced to in 
a few hours, with loss and bloodshed, as you are 
surrounded on all sides ; your answer is required in a 
few hours. Citizen Furlong comes with this letter, 
and will bring the answer. 

" I am Sir, &c., &c. 

" B. B. HARVEY, M.G. 2 
" Camp, Corbel Hill, half past 3 o'clock, 
" Tuesday, $th June, 1798." 

The battle began about two hours after the above 
letter was written, and every inch of ground was 
fiercely contested by both parties. 3 The story of the 
fight is vividly told by one of the participants : 

1 Gordon, p. 118. 

* Taylor, p. 55. 

3 The official letters quoted by Lecky (Vol. IV., pp. 399-400) 
testify to this fact, and it is significant that Colonel Crawford wrote 
that " The militia behaved with spirit, but are quite ungovern- 
able." Ibid., p. 400, 


" The rebels advanced, driving before them all 
the black cattle they could collect through the country, 
to disorder our ranks ; which was in some measure 
prevented, by a few discharges of grape-shot. The 
action was commenced by the 4th flank battalion ; 
indeed such a close well-directed fire I never before 
saw. I was an idle spectator for upwards of two hours 
and a half. At near seven o'clock, the army began to 
retreat in all directions. I had the honor to command 
a six-pounder fieldpiece. The rebels pouring in like 
a flood, artillery was called for, and human blood began 
to flow down the street. Though hundreds were 
blown to pieces by our grape-shot, yet thousands 
behind them, being intoxicated from drinking during 
the night, and void of fear, rushed upon us. The 
cavalry were now ordered to make a charge through 
them, when a terrible carnage ensued : they were cut 
down like grass ; but the pike-men being called to the 
front, and our swords being too short to reach them, 
obliged the horse to retreat, which put us in some 
confusion. We kept up the action till about half 
past eight ; and it was maintained with such obstinacy 
on both sides, that it was doubtful who would keep 
the field. They then began to burn and destroy the 
town it was on fire in many places in about fifteen 
minutes. By this time the insurgents advanced as 
far as the main-guard, where there was a most bloody 
conflict ; but with the assistance of two ship-guns 
placed in the street, we killed a great number of them, 
and beat them back for some time. The Dublin 
County regiment, headed by their colonel, Lord 


Mountjoy, now made another attack on the rebels, 
and the action being revived in all quarters of the 
town with double fury, many heroes fell, and among 
them the brave Mountjoy : this so exasperated his 
regiment, that they fought like furies, and now indeed 
was the scene truly bloody. Our forces for the third 
time being overpowered by the weight of such a body 
pouring down upon us, we retreated beyond the 
bridge, when General Johnson 1 came galloping up, 
crying, ' Soldiers, I will lay my bones this day in 
Ross, will you let me lie alone ? ' 

" Major Vesey, of the Dublin County, the next in 
command to Lord Mountjoy, again led his men over 
the bridge, exhorting them to revenge for the loss 
of their colonel. The whole brigade (except some who 
fled to Waterford) being led on by General Johnson, 
as brave a commander as ever drew sword were 
determined to retake the town, to conquer or to die. 
Again we opened a tremendous fire on the rebels, 
which was as fiercely returned. We retook the cannon 
which had been captured from the King's forces in a 
former engagement, and turned them on the enemy. 
The gun I had the honor to command being called 
to the main-guard, shocking was it to see the dreadful 
carnage that was there ; it continued for half an hour 
obstinate and bloody : the thundering of cannon 
shook the town, the very windows were shivered in 
pieces with the dreadful concussion. I believe six 
hundred rebels lay dead in the main-street ; they 

1 Sir Henry Johnson (1748-1835), first baronet (1818); served 
in American War. 


would often come within a few yards of the guns. One 
fellow ran up, and taking off his hat and wig, thrust 
them up the cannon's mouth the length of his arm, 
calling to the rest, ' blood-an-ounds, my boys, come 
take her now, she's stopt, she's stopt.' The action 
was doubtful and bloody from four in the morning to 
four in the evening, when they began to give way in all 
quarters, and shortly after fled in every direction ; 
leaving behind them all their cannon, baggage, pro- 
visions, and several hogsheads of wine, whiskey, 
brandy, &c. which we spilled, lest they should have 
been poisoned. It was past five before we finally 
routed them. The computation of their dead, was, 
as near as I can furnish you, 

" Three thousand four hundred buried. 

" Sixty- two cart-loads thrown into the river. 

" Sixty cart-loads taken away by the rebels. 

" Some of them have since acknowledged, that those 
cars were brought to carry away the plunder of the 
town. In their flight, several dead bodies were 
thrown into the houses which were on fire, and con- 
sumed, so that it is almost impossible to ascertain 
their numbers : but from every account that I could 
learn, seven thousand rebels 1 lost their lives on this 
day ! I know soldiers that fired one hundred and 
twenty rounds of ball, and I fired twenty-one rounds 
of cannister-shot with the field-piece I commanded." 2 

1 " Some imagine the numbers slain did not amount to more 
than two thousand two hundred, exclusive of numbers who crawled 
away from the battle, and afterwards died of their wounds." Note 
by Taylor, p. 59. According to the same authority 1 74 officers and 
men were returned as killed or missing (pp. 61-62). 

a Ibid., pp. 56-59. 


When Harvey heard of the saturnalia at Scullabogue, 
he is stated to have remarked on his unenviable position 
in no uncertain terms. " I see now," he said, " my 
folly in embarking in this cause with these people ; 
if they succeed, I shall be murdered by them if they 
are defeated, I shall be hanged." 1 He at once under- 
stood the necessity of giving emphatic instructions as 
to the future conduct of the lawless band he had the 
misfortune to command, and also of massing his now 
depleted forces. On the 6th June he accordingly 
issued the following Proclamation from his head- 
quarters at Carrickbyrne Camp, copies being sent 
broadcast throughout Wexford. 

" At a meeting of the General and several Officers 
of the United Army of the county of Wexford, the 
following Resolutions have been agreed upon : 

" RESOLVED, that the Commander-in-chief shall 
send guards to certain baronies, for the purpose of 
bringing in all those they shall find lurking and delaying 
at home or elsewhere ; and if any resistance be given 
to those guards so to be sent by the commanding 
officer's orders, it is desired and ordered that such 
persons so giving resistance, shall be liable to be put 
to death by the guards, who are to bear a commission 
for that purpose ; and all such persons so to be found 
loitering and delaying at home, when brought in by the 
guards, shall be tried by a court-martial, appointed 
and chosen from amongst the commanders of all the 

1 Taylor, p. 71. 


different corps, and not to depart therefrom under 
pain of death, unless authorised to quit by written 
orders from the Commander-in-chief for that pur- 
pose. 1 

" It is also ordered, that a guard shall be kept at the 
rear of the different armies, with orders to shoot all 
persons who shall fly or desert from any engagement ; 
and these orders to be taken notice of by all officers 
commanding in such engagements. 

" All men refusing to obey their superior officers, 
to be tried by a court-martial, and punished according 
to their sentence. 

" It is also ordered, that all men who shall attempt 
to leave their respective quarters when they have been 
halted by the Commander-in-chief, shall suffer death, 
unless they shall have leave from their officers for so 

" It is also ordered by the Commander-in-chief, that 
all persons who shall have stolen or taken away any 
horses, shall immediately bring in such horses to the 
camp at head-quarters ; otherwise, any horse that 
shall be seen or found in the possession of any person 
to whom he does not belong, shall, on being convicted 
thereof suffer death ; 2 and any person or persons, who 
shall take upon them to kill or murder any person or 

1 Maxwell gives a slightly different version of this paragraph, 
as follows : " Resolved, that all officers shall immediately repair to 
their respective quarters, and remain with their different corps, 
and not ^depart therefrom under pain of death, unless authorized 
to quit by written orders from the Commander-in-chief for that 
purpose" (p. 126 n.). 

a " Rather the thief was to have been put to death." Note by 
Taylor, p. 72. 


persons, 1 burn any house, or commit any plunder, 
without special written orders from the Commander-in- 
chief, shall suffer death. 

" By order of 

" B. B. HARVEY, Commander-in-chief. 

" FRANCIS BRIEN, Sec. & Adjt." 2 

" Head-Quarters, Carrickbyrne Camp, 
" June 6th, 1798." 

Harvey is to be commended for his humanity, but it 
cost him his position, which he probably did not regret. 
So great was the outcry against him that he was 
practically forced to resign his command on the 7th 
June in favour of Father Philip Roche, an Anak of a 
man, with iron nerve and indomitable resolution. Not 
that the former was deficient in personal courage by 
any means, but his easy-going nature was not a quality 
to stand him in good stead with a mob unused to 
warfare, and not particularly keen on obeying orders. 
" There is no restraining them," Harvey writes 
pathetically to a Mr. Glascott two days later, and no 
man ever penned truer words. 3 

The insurgents again made their way back to 
Carrickbyrne, but on the 7th June they posted them- 
selves on Slyeeve-Keelter, some distance further away 
from New Ross. With the idea of securing the river 
and thus having access by water with their comrades 
of the counties of Wexford, Waterford, and Kilkenny, 

1 " Person or prisoner." See Maxwell, p. 126 n. 

2 Taylor, pp. 71-73. The name should read Breen. 

3 Ibid., p. 76. 


they kept up a constant fire on the small gunboats 
which were sent to destroy the shipping so that it 
should not fall into the hands of the insurgents. On 
one occasion a gunboat ran aground, and a desperate 
conflict ensued between the Irishmen and the crew. 
Fortunately several other gunboats came up and 
effectually towed the vessel off. Four of her crew were 
killed and several wounded. Roche and his men 
remained on Slyeeve-Keelter until the loth inst, when, 
after arranging for a guard to remain, the majority of 
them marched to Lacken Hill, within two miles of the 
ill-fated town. Here we must leave them making 
preparations for another assault, which they hoped 
would be the prelude to their marching on Waterford, 
ten miles distant. 



" I thought of the battle of Vinegar Hill, but not with interest ; 
with sorrow, rather, and contempt ; one of the ten times ten 
thousand futile, fruitless battles this brawling, unreasonable 
people has fought ; the saddest of distinctions to them among 
peoples." CARLYLE. 

f "^HE hopes of opening a communication with 

their confederates of Wicklow and Kildare 

I having been dissipated by the loyalist 

army at Arklow, the main army of the 

rebels retreated to Gorey Hill, anxiously awaiting for 

" something to turn up " in the shape of their French 

allies. 1 Here they remained until the i2th June, when 

they pushed on to Limerick Hill, to the north of 


" JUNE ii. A Court Martial for the trial of Rebel 
Prisoners called sit, and three men receive sentence 
to be executed, which took place in an hour after the 
passing of sentence. A Serjeant and 12 [men] of 
Camolin Cavalry ordered to patrole from u 'till 6 
o'clock, from hence to Coolgreeny and back. Saw 
nothing particular, but from the unpleasant smell, 

1 Gordon, p. 135. 


must conclude there were numbers of the Rebels lying 
dead in the fields. Brought in Ignatius Redmond 
of Coolgreny, Innkeeper, a Prisoner. Commanding 
Officers of Yeomanry to give in Returns of the strength 
of their respective Corps at to-morrow morning's 

" June 12. 

" Return of Camolin Yeomanry Cavalry, June 12. 

Cap. Lieut. Serj. Corp. Trum. R & F Horses 

i i 4 4 i 56 68 

" Tho 8 Nesbit, Perm. S. 

" Return of Loyal Mount-Norris Rangers, June 12. 

Cap. Lieut. Serj. Corp. Drum. R & F. Att d Serv 13 

" E. Dockrill, Sergt. 

" Two file from each Yeoman Corps of Cavalry on a 
patrole towards Tarah hill and Castletown ; got pro- 
perty of the late Captain Knox x in a Cabbin near the 
latter place, and brought the Woman of the House 
and her daughter in Prisoners, both of whom proved 
to be in the household of the Captain before the 
Rebellion. After a little Chastisement, they were 
ordered by Gen. Needham to be discharged. Ignatius 
Redmond of Coolgreny, brought in a Prisoner by the 
Patrole of yesterday, released, and a file of Yeomen 
ordered to put him past the out-posts. 

" June 13. A Private of the Ballakeen Yeoman 

1 Captain Thomas Knox Grogan. 


Cavalry who was taken prisoner by the Rebels near 
Gorey on the 4 th June, came in this day with a Flag 
of Truce from the Rebels. Taken into custody, put on 
trial, sentenced to be executed to-morrow at 6 o'clock. 
Orderly Serjeants to attend at M r Cainac's beyond 
the Bridge, where the General and other Officers are 
to dine at 4 o'clock. Two Yeoman Subalterns taken 
into Custody on a Treasonable Charge, two file from 
each detatchment of Dragoons and Yeoman Cavalry 
ordered to escort them to Wicklow. Captain Col- 
clough of the Cavan Regiment ordered to accompany 
them in the Carriage to Dublin Castle. 

" June 14. Ballakeen Yeoman pardoned, but de- 
tained a Prisoner. All returns of Yeomanry to be in 
future made to Charles Underwood, Esq. Brigade 
Major. Four file from Dragoons and Yeoman Cavalry 
to assist Commissary Ashe in bringing in Forrage 
for the use of the Military Horses, the Servants and 
followers of all Yeoman Officers to attend, or else the 
Rations they have been receiving will be withheld. 
Reconnotreing parties ordered on the different Avenues 
leading to the town. Two file from each Yeoman 
Cavalry to escort four prisoners to Wicklow. 

" June 15. A large party of Cavalry, consisting of 
detatchments of the fifth Dragoons, Antient British 
Dragoons, Camolin, and Arklow Yeomanry, ordered 
on a Reconnotreing party towards the Gold Mine, 
and from thence to the village of Aughrim perceived 
the country quite destitute of inhabitants, and sup- 
posed them to have joined the main body of the Rebels. 
At Aughrim the Patrole was informed that a Rebel 


Camp was formed at Mount Pleasant, 1 a few miles 
distant, and that another Camp was formed at Bally- 
manus, not far from the village. Returned to Arklow 
by Clone, Ballycogne, and near the Copper Mine 
Rocks, arrived in town about 4 o'clock. A file from 
each of the Yeomanry Dragoons, with prisoners to 
Wicklow, to be forwarded from thence to the Guard 
Vessel lying at the Pidgeon House in Dublin Bay. 
" June 16. Intelligence was this morning brought 
into town that M r Coates's house near Aughrim was 

1 According to Miles Byrne (Vol. I., p. 113), who accompanied 
this section of the rebel army, it was not until the i6th that an 
encampment was formed on Mount Pleasant, near Tinnehely, 
Co. Wicklow, by some of the insurgents who had been stationed 
previously on Limerick Hill. He mentions some skirmishing on the 
1 5th in which several loyalist soldiers were taken prisoners. It was 
at Mount Pleasant that the chiefs received newspapers a month old 
announcing that Napoleon Bonaparte had been appointed Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Army of England, ostensibly destined to 
invade that country and Ireland. In reality the flower of the 
troops was at that moment on the high seas, but sailing towards 
the East. The intelligence caused consternation and difference of 
opinion. Tinnehely was taken by the insurgents on the i7th 
with considerable bloodshed, but the rebel army, which had now 
made Garret Byrne its commander, retreated on the igth to Kil- 
caven Hill, two miles from Carnew. The timely arrival of rein- 
forcements under Lieutenant-General Dundas at Hacketstown en- 
couraged the loyalist troops to attempt an attack on Kilcaven, 
especially as Loftus also came up with them, but after some fighting. 
Lake, who was in supreme command, thought it advisable to retire 
to Carnew. On the night of the 2oth Garret Byrne and his men set 
out for Vinegar Hill, which was reached the following evening. 
Here a general concentration was taking place, owing to the failure 
at Ross, the rebels there falling back on Wexford. Those who had 
remained on Gorey Hill retired to Corrigrua, and from thence to 
Vinegar Hill (see post, p. 148 n.), Major-General Needham then being 
on the way to attack them, but a few went to Ask Hill, as noted 


last night burned by the Rebels. Yeomanry received 
orders to be ready for an inspection at 12 o'clock. 
Inspection took place by Brigade Major Underwood. 
The following was ordered to be filed : 

" ' General Orders. Arklow, June 16, 1798. 

" ' Complaints having been made to Major General 
Needham that the Patroling parties of Dragoons and 
Yeoman Cavalry have hitherto conducted themselves 
in a manner inconsistent with their duty as Soldiers, 
he assures them that if complaints of the like nature 
are advanced against them in future, they shall be 
punished in a most examplary manner. 

" CHARLES UNDERWOOD, Brigade Major. 

" After inspection patroles sent out to Reconnoitre, 
&c. Two Rebels tried by Court Martial, and im- 
mediately executed. A Serjeant and 12 [file] from 
each detatchment of Cavalry, to patrole from 9 o'clock, 
'till relieved by another party from Morning Parade. 
Report The Patrole of the Rock Road could perceive 
a very large fire on the Hill of Ask, 1 near Gorey, which 
they supposed was lighted by the Rebels." 

1 " This post," says Gordon, " had been so thinned by per- 
petual desertions, that not more than about a hundred men fit for 
action were then remaining in it, and these without a leader. . . . 
About half of the rebel warriors fled with precipitation at the ap- 
proach of the cavalry ; while the rest of them, stripping to their 
shirts, that they might be more expedite for the business, ran full 
speed to charge the cavalry with their pikes : but the latter avoided 
the attack, and retreated to Arklow with expedition. Immediately 
after this the country about Gorey was completely evacuated by the 
rebels, to the no small joy of many loyalist families, who, by the 
sudden and unexpected victory over Walpole, had been prevented 
from escaping, and on whom the enemy had been living at free 
quarter." Gordon, pp. 137-138. 


General Lake had now perfected the plan by means 
of which he hoped to deal a crushing blow to the rebel 
cause. The following instructions issued by him 
on the i6th June are so concise, and show the position 
in a nut-shell, that further comment is unnecessary : 

" General Dundas will be directed to move on the 
seventeenth to Hacketstown, and to issue his orders 
to General Loftus at Tullow, to unite his force with 
him on the eighteenth at Carnew. 

" General Needham, to move at three o'clock, a.m. 
on the nineteenth to Gorey ; General Dundas having 
sent a strong patrol under General Loftus from Carnew, 
at six o'clock on the same morning to Grove's Bridge, 
four or five miles on the road to Gorey, to support 
General Needham, in case he should meet with resist- 
ance at Limerick Hill or at Gorey, and to communicate 
to General Dundas General Needham's situation. 

" General Johnson, on the nineteenth, at four o'clock, 
a.m. to move to Old Ross, and unite with General 
Moore 1 in driving the rebels from Carrickbyrne Hill. 
He will take up his position that day near Old Ross, 
and send a strong patrol to scour the country towards 
the Black-stair mountains, in junction with Sir James 
Duff. 2 This movement will require a very particularly 
concerted arrangement between General Johnson and 

1 Major-General Sir John Moore (1761-1809). The hero of 
Corunna, in which battle he received his death-wound, the i6th 
January, 1809. Moore rendered valuable service a few years after 
the Rebellion as commander of Shorncliffe camp, where he trained 
the light infantry regiments which became so famous in the Pen- 
insular War. 

2 Major-General Sir James Duff (1752-1839). M.P. for Banff 


Sir James Duff. The patrols to return to their 
respective corps on the same day. 

" Sir Charles Asgill, on the eighteenth, will occupy 
Grove's Bridge, Borris and Graignamanagh, and will 
remain in those positions until the twentieth, three p.m. 
when he will return, unless he shall receive orders to the 

" Lieutenant-general Dundas, on the twentieth, will 
march to Ballycarney Bridge, keeping the east side 
of the Slaney to Scarawalsh Bridge, to arrive there at 
twelve at noon. 

" Sir James Duff will also move on the twentieth, 
by the road on the west side of the Slaney to Scara- 
walsh Bridge, where he will arrive at twelve o'clock. 

" General Needham, on the twentieth, will move 
from Gorey to Oulart, to be there at twelve o'clock. 

" General Loftus. The corps from Grove's Bridge, 
will move on the twentieth, through Camolin and Ferns, 
and unite with General Dundas at Scarawalsh Bridge, 
at twelve o'clock. 

" General Moore, to land on the eighteenth at Bally- 
hack Ferry, and on the nineteenth, he will move at 
three o'clock, a.m. to Foulkes's Mill, and unite with 
General Johnson in driving the rebels from Carrick- 
byrne Hill. He will take up his position that night 
at Foulkes's Mill, securing the escape of the rebels 
between that and Clonmines. 

" General Johnson, on the twentieth, will move with 
his column to Ballymacus Bridge, either to unite in the 
attack on Enniscorthy, if necessary, or prevent their 
escape in that direction. 


" Should the rebels have evacuated Enniscorthy and 
Vinegar Hill, the columns under General Dundas and 
Sir James Duff will take up their position that day 
in front of Enniscorthy ; and General Johnson will 
at the same time receive orders to take a position on 
the great road from Enniscorthy to Taghmon. 

" General Moore, in this case, on the twentieth, will 
move from Foulkes's Mill, and take post at Taghmon, 
still securing the country between Taghmon and 

" But should the enemy maintain their position at 
Enniscorthy, the attack will be made on the twenty- 
first at day-light, by the columns under General 
Dundas and Sir James Duff, and General Needham 
moving from Oulart. 

' The general forward movement and investment 
of Wexford will take place on the twenty-first, when 
the several columns will be so united as to receive 
directions as circumstances may point out. 

" Gun-boats. Orders are to be sent to the naval 
commanders to station their gun-boats and armed 
vessels in Wexford harbour early in the morning 
of the twenty-first, to co-operate in such manner as 
may be necessary for the attack of the town, with the 
gun-boats from Waterford, which will be directed 
to support General Moore and the corps at Clonmines 
on the nineteenth." 1 

" June 17. A Serjeant and 6 file from each detatch- 
ment of Dragoons and Yeoman Cavalry, with Subal- 

1 Musgrave, pp. 473-474. 


terns, to patrole thro' Coolgreny and on towards Ask 
Hill, to learn what was the nature of the fire the 
Rock Patrole perceived there last night. On the 
advance of the Patrole a number of the Rebels on the 
Hill fled towards Gorey for the purpose (as they sup- 
posed) of giving intelligence to their associates, whilst 
another party advanced [on] the Patrole for the purpose 
of attacking them. The Patrole retreated to Arklow 
with expedition and reported. The same Patrole, 
each carrying an Infantry Man, again advanced to- 
wards the Hill, but by the help of Glasses, could 
perceive that the Rebels had totally evacuated it. 
Marched back again to Arklow. 

" June 18. Two file from each detatchment of 
Yeoman Cavalry ordered to assist the Commissary 
in bringing in Forrage for the Military Horses. The 
following was ordered to be filed : 

" ' General Orders. Arklow. June 18, 1798. 

" ' Major General Needham directs that the Officers 
commanding Yeomanry Corps may pay particular 
attention to have the daily Orders fully read and 
explained at parade every evening to their Men, 
and that to such Men as may happen to be absent 
the Officers will be responsible for their being com- 
municated at the first opportunity. 


" At half past three the following Orders were 
issued : 

" ' Gen : Orders, Arklow, June 18, 1798 3 o'clock, 


" ' The Commanders of Yeomanry are to send a proper 
Officer immediately to the Commissary to settle their 
Regimental Accounts. They are also to attend with a 
non-Commissioned Officer and 6 privates to receive 
from the Commissary's Stores a sufficient quantity of 
Camp Equipage, and every other necessary for an 
immediate March. The Garrison to move towards 
Gorey to-morrow morning at 4 o'clock. 

" ' C. UNDERWOOD, B. Major. 

" ' Garrison to parade, and be compleatly equiped for 
Marching, at 3 o'clock tomorrow morning. No 
Cavalry Patrole this night, but Infantry to mount 
double Sentrys. ' l 

" June 19. At two o'clock this morning the Drums 
and Bugles sounded for a General Parade, and at 
3 o'clock the entire Garrison appeared under arms, 
and compleatly ready for a march. At 4 the following 
Troops under the Command of Major Gen. Needham, 
(Cavan Battallion, Defeated Army at Tubberneering, 
Durham Fencible Infantry, one Company excepted), 
the detatchments of 5 th g th and Antient British 
Dragoons, and an Officer and 10 file from each Yeoman 
Cavalry Corps, marched on their route to Gorey, taking 
with them the Ballakeen Yeoman as a Prisoner, and 
leaving the above Company of Durham Fencibles, 
Arklow Yeoman Infantry, the Loyal Mount Norris 
Yeoman Infantry, together with the remaining part 
of the Gorey, Coolgreny, Castletown, Camolin, and 

1 According to Musgrave (p. 475) the rebels on Limerick Hill 
left for Kilcaven Hill on the i8th. 


North and South Yeoman Cavalry, to garrison the 
town, all to be under the command of Captain Holmes 
of the Durham Fencibles. Ordered ' that all Ex- 
presses to the Army on their march, and when they 
arrive at their destined place, must remain with their 
respective troops unless ordered to the contrary.' At 
9 o'clock, a Serjeant and 6 file of North Arklow Yeoman 
Cavalry, as an escort with Lord Wicklow 'till he joins 
the Marching Army, the escort to return. At 10 
o'clock, i file of Camolin Cavalry with dispatches for 
Gen. Needham, not to return except by Orders. At 
12, two file of Gorey Cavalry with dispatches for Gen. 
Needham ; and at 3 o'clock 2 file of Coolgreny Cavalry 
with other dispatches for Lieut. Gen. Lake and General 
Needham, not to return except by Orders. From 
the weak state of the town, it was judged necessary 
to have constant patroles, and those patroles to consist 
of two file each, to patrole no further than one mile from 
any entrance to the town, and to act with as much 
caution and regularity as possible. 1 

" June 20. The 2 file of Gorey Cavalry who were 
dispatched express to General Needham yesterday, 
returned this morning with Orders to Cap. Holmes 2 
and directions to Lieut. Gordon and his party of Gorey 
Cavalry to march immediately for Gorey, where, on 
their arrival, they would find an Officer to command, 
and a force with which they were to unite. Gorey 

' * On the approach of the army the rebels remaining on Gorey 
Hill at once abandoned their camp and made for Corrigrua, where 
the night was spent. The 2ist saw them at Vinegar Hill (see 
Taylor, p. 115, and ante, p. 141 n.). 
8 Of the Durham regiment. 


Cavalry marched for Gorey at n o'clock. 1 Patroles 
sent out on Reconnoitreing parties returned safely. 
Two file of Wicklow Cavalry brought dispatches for 
Gen. Needham, which was instantly forwarded by one 
file from each Yeoman Corps of Cavalry. One file 
of Gorey Cavalry brought in dispatches from Gen. 
Needham, which was forwarded to Rathdrum by 
2 file of Castletown Cavalry." 

In order that our picture may be complete we must 
fill in the details of the rebels under Philip Roche, 
whom we left at Lacken Hill. 2 On the I2th June a 
division attacked the little town of Borris, Co. Carlow. 
There it was repulsed by men of the Donegal 
Militia and the Borris Yeomanry under Walter 
Kavanagh, Esq., after having done considerable 
mischief, and driven back to Lacken Hill. Roche 
applied to Wexford for reinforcements, and did not 
receive them, an equivocal reply being returned : 

" Dear Citizen, " June l6th ' 

" We shall at all times be anxious to comply 
with your wishes ; we have before us a message from 
Citizen Hughes, expressing your wish to have all the 

1 On their arrival the seventeen men found no military in the 
town, and Hay (p. 248) asserts that they then " scoured the country 
round, and killed great numbers in their houses, besides all the 
stragglers they met, most of whom were making the best of then- 
way home unarmed from the insurgents, who were then believed 
to be totally discomfited." Gordon (p. 156) says that about fifty 
were killed. We shall see in trie following chapter how dearly the 
yeomen paid for their intrepidity. 

8 See ante, p. 137. 


men in Forth and Bargy in your camp : taking that 
demand in its full extent, we cannot comply with it, 
there are many reasons against it ; for instance, the 
protection of the coast, provisions, &c. We have, 
however, now issued orders, desiring all unmarried 
men to repair to camp immediately : we did so before, 
but they were not fully obeyed : at the present time 
particular obedience will be enforced, and we trust 
you will shortly find at your camp a number of fresh 
young fellows, as well appointed and provided as our 
best efforts can accomplish ; and we trust you will 
find in them the means of gratifying your wishes on 
the subject. We wish you every success in our glorious 

" Health and fraternity. 

" By order of the Council, 

" Council Chamber, W ex ford. 

" P.S. The appearance of the armed vessels off our 
coast, will enforce the necessity of keeping the married 
men at home, until a fresh occasion calls upon them." 

The loyalist garrison at Ross having been con- 
siderably strengthened in the interim, it was decided 
to attack the insurgents on the morning of the iQth 
June. At first it looked as if the latter would make 
a desperate resistance, but on arriving at the hill the 
troops were astonished to see them run away. The 
rebels placed their hats on their pikes, so that at a 
distance it appeared as if there were more men than 

1 Taylor, pp. uo-iii. 


was actually the case, 1 banners were displayed, and all 
the make-believe pomp and circumstance of war 
resorted to. A shout was raised, which was thought 
by the loyalists to herald a charge, and caused them 
to halt. In the confusion which followed the rebels 
made good their retreat, dividing into two parties, the 
smaller making for Vinegar Hill, and the larger, under 
Father Philip Roche, marching to the Three Rocks. 
Some of Roche's men afterwards entered Wexford. 

Moore, who had arrived at Ross on the morning of 
the 1 8th, notes in his diary that " Everything here 
was in confusion. It was with difficulty that I could 
get an idea of the part I was to act in the different 
attacks. I at last found that I was to lead the right 
column of three that were to march out. The march 
was ordered for 2 A.M., but from rain it was necessarily 
postponed till 6 A.M. I had the 6oth Yagers, 900 
Light Infantry, 50 Hompesch Cavalry, and six pieces 
of artillery. The rebels were posted on a hill about a 
mile and a half from Ross. We saw them plainly 
drawn up, I thought with the intention of fighting us. 
The road I marched by led directly on the left of their 
position ; they allowed me to come within cannon shot, 
and then retreated. General Johnstone, with the 
centres was moving at the same moment to attack 
them in front. The Yagers in the pursuit killed sixty 
or seventy of them. 2 I joined General Johnstone at 
Old Ross ; he proceeded with me to Carrickburn, 

1 History of the Insurrection of 1798. By T. Clooney, p. 73. 
8 Hay (p. 201) asserts that the rebels " effected a good retreat 
to the Three Rocks, without the loss of a man." 


which we found evacuated. The Major-General then 
returned to Ross, leaving me orders to proceed to 
Fookes Mill, where he said I should be joined by the 
Queen's and the 24th, which had landed from England 
at Duncannon. I took post that evening at the house 
and park of a Mr. Sutton. 1 The country through 
which we had passed was rich and beautiful, but 
perfectly deserted. The soldiers, contrary to all orders, 
quitted their divisions and set fire to many houses. It 
was shocking to see a fine cultivated country deserted 
of its inhabitants and in flames. I have prevented 
this from happening since then, and our last marches 
have been conducted with regularity." 2 

On the 20th the defeated Irish army, reinforced by 
the majority of the rebels from the town of Wexford 
and some from Vinegar Hill, marched from the Three 
Rocks to Goff's Bridge, intending to regain possession 
of New Ross. 3 Moore came up with them on his way 
to Taghmon, 4 as arranged by Lake, the troops from 
Duncannon who were to join him having failed to 
arrive. The battle lasted four hours and a half, 
and for a time it seemed as if the loyalist force could 
not withstand the renewed attacks of the enemy, 
whose powers of endurance are to be admired, for it 
must be remembered that they had spent little or no 
time in refreshing themselves after the adventures 
of the previous day. Unable to get to the enemy at 

1 At Longraige. 

a Diary of Sir John Moore, Vol. I., pp. 295-296. 

3 Musgrave, p. 484. 

4 About seven miles from Wexford. 



From a contemporary proof engraving in the collection of 
Mr. A. M. Broadley 


close quarters, Roche had been obliged to fall back 
on those of his men who carried firearms, his artillery 
consisting of half a dozen guns which had been taken 
from a ship in Wexford harbour. 1 Eventually, they 
were compelled to give in, and retired once more to the 
Three Rocks. Had not Moore, for whom the most 
partisan historians of the rebel cause have a good word 
to say, 2 personally rallied his troops and led a charge 
when they were all but disheartened, the honours of 
the day would have remained with the insurgents. He 
admits that the action " was for a short time pretty 
sharp. The rebels were in great numbers, and armed 
with both muskets and pikes. They were, however, 
forced to give way, and driven, though they repeatedly 
attempted to form behind the ditches. They at 
last dispersed, flying towards Enniscorthy and Wex- 
ford. Their killed could not be ascertained, as they 
lay scattered in the fields over a considerable extent ; 
but they seemed to be numerous. . . The troops 
behaved with great spirit. The artillery, and Hom- 
pesch's cavalry, were active, and seemed only to regret 

1 Teeling, p. 258. In a footnote (p. 113) Taylor says that 
" General Moore in his official account of the action, mentions the 
rebel army to be about five or six thousand ; but General Priest 
Roche told the General, when the former was a prisoner in Wexford, 
that they were more than eighteen thousand in number, which was 
afterwards found to be nearly correct." 

2 See especially Miles Byrne, Vol. I., p. 116. Teeling speaks 
of " the manly virtue displayed by the humane and gallant General 
Moore. While he discharged with fidelity the trust reposed in him 
by the crown, he was not insensible to the protection which he 
owed to the subject ; and abhorring the system of plunder and 
outrage, so subversive of discipline and order, he inflicted exemplary 
punishment on some of the offenders " (p. 255). 


that the country did not admit of their rendering more 
effectual service. Major Daniel is the only officer 
whose wound is bad ; it is through the knee, but not 

" The business, which began between three and 
four, was not over till near eight ; it was then too late 
to proceed to Taghmon. I took post for the night 
on the ground where the action had commenced. As 
the rebels gave way, I was informed of the approach 
of the second and twenty-ninth regiments under Lord 
Dalhousie. In the morning of the twenty-first we were 
proceeding to Taghmon, when I was met by an officer 
of the North Cork from Wexford, with the inclosed 
letters. I gave, of course, no answer to the proposal 
made by the inhabitants of Wexford, but I thought it 
my duty immediately to proceed here, and to take 
post above the town, by which means I have, perhaps, 
saved the town itself from fire, as well as the lives of 
many loyal subjects who were prisoners in the hands 
of the rebels. The rebels fled upon my approach, over 
the bridge of Wexford, and towards the barony of 
Forth. I shall wait here your further orders. Lord 
Kingsborough 1 has informed me of different engage- 

1 George King (1771-1839), Viscount Kingsborough and third 
Earl of Kingston ; succeeded to the Earldom, April 1799. He was 
taken prisoner by the rebels when attempting to rejoin his regiment, 
the North Cork Militia, at Wexford. In making his passage by 
water in company with Captain O'Hea and Lieutenant Bourke, 
their little boat was forced to surrender to a larger vessel manned 
by rebels. Such a man was a useful hostage, and the insurgents 
apparently thought that he could make terms with Government, 
or at least with any of the loyalist generals, on their behalf should 
it be necessary. On the morning of the 2ist June it was decided 


ments he had entered into with respect to the in- 
habitants ; I have declined entering into the subject, 
but have referred his lordship to you or General Lake. 

" I received your pencilled note during the action 
of the twentieth ; it was impossible for me to detach the 
troops you asked for, but I hear you have perfectly 
succeeded at Enniscorthy with those you had. Mr. 
Roche, who commands the rebels, is encamped, I hear, 
about five miles off ; he sent Lord Kingsborough to 
surrender upon terms. Your presence speedily is 
upon every account extremely necessary." J 

Acting according to the directions issued by Lake 
on the i6th June, to which reference has already been 
made, the various divisions of the army were gradually 
closing round the retreat of the rebels at Vinegar Hill 
and Enniscorthy. Generals Needham and Moore 
were alone prevented from taking their intended 
positions. Late on the evening of the 2oth the former, 
when in bivouac at Oulart Hill, received orders from 

that Lord Kingsborough should inform the commanders of the 
King's troops " That the town of Wexford had surrendered to 
him, and in consequence of the behaviour of those in the town 
during the rebellion, they should all be protected in person and 
property, murderers excepted, and those who had instigated others 
to commit murder, hoping these terms might be ratified, as he had 
pledged his honour in the most solemn manner to have these terms 
fulfilled on the town being surrendered to him, the Wexford men not 
being concerned in the massacre, which was perpetrated by country 
people in their absence" (See Hay, pp. 231-232). Deputations 
were sent to each of the armies now rapidly approaching. Captain 
McManus and Hay went to Sir James Duff, Captain O'Hea and 
Thomas Cloney to Lake, and Lieutenant Bourke and Robert Carty 
to Moore. (See also post, p. 190.) 

1 Camp above Wexford, 22nd June, 1798. Musgrave, Appendix 
XXI., pp. 156-7. 


Lake to join him at his head-quarters at Solsborough, 
two miles above Enniscorthy, where Dundas and Lof tus 
had already converged. The tedious and difficult 
march was begun, and in the early hours of the morning 
of the 2ist, Needham reported himself, only to be 
handed further instructions requiring him to take up 
a position some miles further on. He requested Lake 
to delay the general advance for a short time to allow 
him to reach the post assigned to him on the Wexford 
side of the hill. This the Commander-in-Chief was 
unable to do, and although Needham advanced his 
cavalry, the loophole thus left afforded the rebels a 
way of escape, and precluded the crushing defeat they 
would have otherwise sustained. This opening was 
afterwards nicknamed Needham's Gap, and the 
officer referred to as " the late General Needham." 
He was censured for his conduct, but it is difficult to 
deliver judgment, although Froude lends his ear to a 
whisper that went round to the effect that the delay 
was intentional, and due to motives of humanity. 
" If this was the reason, it was misplaced leniency," 
adds the eminent historian and biographer. 1 It is not 
well to put too much faith in Dame Rumour, who is a 
lying jade nine times out of ten, and a consensus of 
opinion would make it appear that the general was 
both too cautious and too slow. Perhaps Needham 
resembled Villeneuve, who was dogged by the spectre 
of Nelson. The general may have imagined that every 
bush concealed Father John. That he pushed his 
cavalry forward is certainly in his favour. Had he 

1 Froude, Vol. III., p. 502. 


conscientiously wished to restrain bloodshed he would 
surely not have done so. 

The battle of Vinegar Hill has already been described 
by competent writers ad nauseam, and detailed 
reference to it is unnecessary. Suffice to say that the 
rebels made a good stand for an hour and a half, and 
when it became obvious that " the game was up," fled 
down the southern side of the hill, the only way of 
escape left open to them. They were able to effect a 
fairly orderly retreat to the Three Rocks, partly owing 
to the arrival of Edward Roche, who came up with a 
reinforcement of some 5,000 men, and engaged the 
cavalry which was attempting to follow. The latter 
cut down a considerable number, however, and it is 
probable that the insurgents lost more men in the 
retreat than during the actual fight. An urgent 
message had been sent to Edward Roche to bring his 
forces to the assistance of those who were fiercely 
combating the loyalist army, but it was a consider- 
able time before he could marshal them, so great 
was the commotion in the town. This explains why 
he did not come up until the engagement was over and 
sauve qui pent was the order of the day. While the 
rebels were falling back they sustained a severe blow 
by the death of Father Clinch of Enniscorthy. Like 
the majority of the priest-generals, he was a large man, 
and particularly conspicuous because he rode a white 
horse. The Earl of Roden 1 coming up with him, shots 
were exchanged, the former being wounded in the neck. 

1 Robert, second Earl of Roden (1756-1820). M.P. for Dundalk 


After Clinch had fired a second time an officer of his 
lordship's regiment dispatched this sanguinary repre- 
sentative of Holy Church. 

From the Three Rocks the majority of the rebels 
poured into Wexford. " And here," writes Miles 
Byrne, " our two armies that had separated on the 
3ist of May at the Windmill Hill, near the town, then 
flushed with victory, one to go northwards to attack 
Gorey and Arklow, the other to go to take New Ross, 
met again, but unfortunately under very different 
circumstances, they being now completely dismayed 
and disheartened after our recent defeats ; and it is 
grievous to think that our generals did not seem to 
have any preconcerted plan of action in the event of 
such disasters as we were now experiencing. This 
was the critical moment, when leaders should have 
shown that energy of character which would inspire 
their followers with enthusiasm and confidence." l 
At length the disorderly rabble was prevailed upon to 
leave Wexford, although some remained behind in 
anticipation of a favourable reply to the messages 
which had been sent to the English generals. One 
division, estimated at 5,000 or 6,000 men, 2 with 
Fathers John Murphy and Philip Roche, encamped at 
Sledagh; the other, under Edward Fitzgerald, Garret 
Byrne, Anthony Perry, Esmond Kyan, and Edward 
Roche, marched so far as Peppard's Castle, on the 
road to Gorey and some ten or twelve miles from the 
town of Wexford, before halting for the night. 

1 Miles Byrne, Vol. I., p. 134. 

2 Ibid., Vol. I., p. 153. 


On nearing the camp at the Three Rocks on the 2ist 
General Moore dispatched an advance guard, but the 
rebels at once dispersed. " Upon our approach to 
the town [of Wexford]," he notes, " we saw crowds 
of people running in all directions out of it. A house 
on fire made me suspect the rebels meant to burn the 
town, and perhaps the prisoners in their possession. 
I therefore advanced and took post close to it, and sent 
Lord Dalhousie with two hundred men into it, with 
orders to release the prisoners and leave such a force 
in the town as would ensure tranquillity and protect 
the well-affected. The moment I had settled the 
different regiments I went in myself, and witnessed 
the most affecting scenes : fathers meeting their 
children, wives, &c., whom they thought to have 
perished. Many of the gentlemen, whose families 
were prisoners in the town, had attended me as guides 
and yeomen. Forty prisoners had been shot and piked 
the day before, and it was intended to have shot the 
rest that evening if I had not come on. They amounted 
to some hundred persons, of the best rank in the 
county. I, therefore, had the good fortune to perform 
one of the most pleasing services that could fall to the lot 
of an officer. In the morning [22nd] I wrote a report 
of the whole of my transactions to Major-General 
Johnstone, and ordered the troops to move to a position 
half a mile in the rear, as the position I was in was bad. 
Just as I had taken it General Johnstone, and after- 
wards General Lake, arrived with their different 
columns from Enniscorthy, where the day before they 
had jointly attacked the rebels on Vinegar Hill. They 


had beaten and dispersed them with little loss, but 
killed a great many of the rebels. Our different 
columns are now all encamped round the town. 
. . . General Roche (a priest), who fought against 
me, and several other leaders, have been taken by 
the soldiers since we have been here ; they have 
all been tried, or are being tried, by courts-martial. 
Yesterday a gentleman having 8,000 a year was 
arrested." 1 

An even more stirring picture has been given to us 
by Sir Jonah Barrington. " A short time after the 
capture of Wexford," he relates, " I traversed that 
county to see the ruins which had been occasioned by 
warfare. Enniscorthy had been twice stormed, and 
was dilapidated and nearly burned. New Ross shewed 
most melancholy relics of the obstinate and bloody 
battle of full ten hours' duration, which had been 
fought in every street of it. The numerous pits 
crammed with dead bodies, on Vinegar Hill, seemed 
on some spots actually elastic as we stood upon them ; 
whilst the walls of an old windmill on its summit 
appeared stained and splashed with the blood and 
brains of many victims who had been piked or shot 
against it by the rebels. The court house of Ennis- 
corthy, wherein our troops had burned alive above 
eighty of the wounded rebels, and the barn of Sculla- 
bogue, where the rebels had retaliated by burning alive 
above one hundred and twenty Protestants, were 
terrific ruins ! The town of Gorey was utterly 
destroyed, not a house being left perfect ; and the 

1 Diary of Sir John Moore, Vol. I., p. 299. 

Copyright G.ll'.K. 


bodies of the killed were lying half covered in sundry 
ditches in its vicinity." 1 

" June 21. All Yeoman Cavalry who had not any 
particular Duty to attend to were ordered out on 
Reconnoitreing parties. At 5 this evening an express 
arrived from Gorey with the pleasing intelligence that 
the Rebel Camp upon Vinegar Hill was attacked this 
morning at 7 o'clock, and carried in about an hour and 
[a] half. Yeoman from the neighbourhood of Gorey 
obtained leave from the Commanding Officer to 
Reconnoitre towards their own neighbourhood, but 
to return the Patrole to march from hence at 6 o'clock, 
tomorrow, and to act with caution." 

Ceasing to be less concentrated, the insurrection 
entered upon a more troublesome phase. A heath 
fire which is localised is easier to extinguish than a 
number of smaller fires scattered over the common, 
and the detached parties which roamed in Wexford, 
Wicklow, and the midland counties, 2 apparently having 
no more worthy object than spreading desolation 
wherever they went and hoping against hope that 
la belle France would fulfil her promises, became at once 
the terror of the country-side and a constant source 
of worry at Dublin Castle. Predatory civil warfare 
is warfare at its worst. 

1 Personal Sketches and Recollections of His Own Times. By 
Sir Jonah Barrington, Judge of the High Court of Admiralty in 
Ireland, p. 146. 

2 Froude, Vol. III., p. 527. 




... a reckless humour, ignoring of the inevitable, which I saw 
often enough in Ireland. CARLYLE. 

BRIEF reference has been made previously 
to the evacuation of the town of Wexford 
by the loyalist troops, its occupation by 
the rebels, and its subsequent relief. The 
following is a more human document. Written 
apparently for the benefit of her children, Mrs. Brown- 
rigg has told her story without literary adornment, 
and in a particularly forceful way. If it does not 
appeal to the intellect, it certainly appeals to the heart, 
for there is pathos and to spare in this record of the 
wanderings of an unprotected gentlewoman and her 
children. It is evident that when Sir Richard Mus- 
grave was compiling his monumental Memoirs of the 
different Rebellions in Ireland he had access to the 
Diary, and he quotes a small portion of it, usually not 
verbatim. He refers to the writer as " a very amiable 
and respectable lady," and adds a footnote that " Her 
name is concealed at her own desire." * The MS. now 

1 Musgrave, p. 451. 


appears in its entirety, and no editing has been at- 
tempted beyond paragraphing and correcting a few 
slips in punctuation. The original spelling is retained. 

" Saturday, May the 26th. I was extremely busy 
at Greenmound making new cloaths for Henry and 
superintending a Walk by the River Side as we were 
to have a good many friends to dine on Whitsun 
Monday. About four o'clock Mr. Lyster returned 
from a ride to Wexford and brought an account of the 
alarm that reigned in Dublin, was in great spirits at 
what he thought the favourable prospect of affairs 
from Government's having full intelligence of all Plans 
against them, &c., &c. A Terror such as I never 
before experienced seized me, and I was obliged to sit 
down on the bank where I had been standing. Mr. 

L said everything to dispel my fears, made me go to 

the house and take some wine all was in vain, and 
the instant dinner was over I walked out to try and 
compose my mind. In about two hours I returned to 
the house and just at the door met a country girl almost 
speechless with terror. With great difficulty she 
articulated that a Gentleman had just rode by her 
cabin with a drawn Sword and desired that Mr. Lyster 
sh d immediately join his Corps at Bellevue. Mrs. 
Lyster 's situation then engrossed me entirely. Mr. 

L had gone out to walk and we cou'd not find him 

for above two hours. He was as ignorant of the cause 
of the Message we rec d as we were ourselves, and only 
stayed to put on his Uniform and give his Keys to me, 
recommending Kate and her five children to my care. 

"Such a night as we passed, surrounded I strongly 


suspected, and the event has proved I was right, by 
Rebels who came to protect us and who wou'd certainly 
have murdered us if they had been sure of the success 
of their party. We walked the Court the entire night. 
One time we heard a boat on the river, and were certain 
a party were coming over to attack us. However, 
they went up river. At daylight our Guards departed, 
and we remained in anxiety till late in the day, when 
the M r Bagleys rode from Wexford to intreat we wou'd 
go there, and at the same moment a letter came from 
M r Lyster to beg we w d come to Bellevue, where he had 
just returned after marching with his Corps 20 miles 
without seeing a rebel ; but alas he saw but too many 
proofs of their Execrable Barbarity. I was all anxiety 
to go directly to Waterford and sail for England, but 
M rs L - intreated so earnestly that I wou'd not run 
what she thought the only hazard, that I suffered 
myself to be persuaded and consented to stay one day 

'till I left her with Mr. L or in Wexford. We then 

all went by water to Bellevue, where Mr. Ogle's Corps 
were assembled, and spent a pleasing and almost 
chearful evening. Mr. Ogle knew the Rebels were 
approaching towards Enniscorthy, but thought the 
Force there fully equal to its defence. 

" I must now tell you what I have always heard was 
the Progress of the business on Saturday. The rising 
began near Oulart, and let those Gentlemen who even 
now expatiate on the excesses of the Soldiery and the 
oppressed state of the People remember that there 
was not a single soldier from Gorey to Wexford, a dis- 
tance of 21 miles, that there never had been any there, 


nor could any possible excuse of that kind be assigned 
for what ensued. One of their first steps was to attack 
Mr. Burrows' house and to murder him in the presence 
of his wife, children and a niece, whom I [have] since 
conversed with in Wexford. They also broke into 
Mr. D'Arcy's house at Ballynation, [and] offered to 
make him a Commander provided he wou'd turn 
Catholic. He said, ' No, he had lived a Protestant and 
wou'd die one.' He was immediately butchered. 
On Sunday the 27th of May, when this account reached 
Wexford, 106 of the North Cork Militia, all picked men, 
and five officers marched out, and were joined by about 
23 of Col. Lehante's 1 Yeomen Cavalry, all the rest 
were not to be found. This force marched on a hot day 
12 miles, and, on ascending a Hill saw a Valley below 
them, and on the opposite Hill the entire Rebel Force. 
Two old officers who were in Lehante's Cavalry spoke 
to Major Lombard, who had the command given him 
by Col. Foote, to hope they shou'd all remain where 
they were and wait the approach of the Rebels, as their 
Position from many circumstances was highly ad- 
vantageous ; but Major Lombard, a brave, spirited 
young Man, fearless of danger, resisted their remon- 
strances and intreaties and boldly rushed with his 
party down the Hill and up half the opposite Hill, 
when he halted and made every one of his Soldiers fire. 
At once the Rebels, who were running back, saw the 
advantage he had given them, and whilst the Soldiers 
were reloading, completely surrounded them. Col. 
Foote and 4 others only escaped to Lehante's Cavalry, 

1 Colonel Le Hunte. 


who got off without the least difficulty as the Rebels 
seemed not at all desirous of attacking them. They 
retreated to Wexford, from whence expresses were 
sent off to Waterford, Ross, &c., &c., requesting 
military assistance. 

" The Rebel Force increasing every hour, and 
plundering and butchering every Protestant that they 
thought not absolutely favourable to their cause, 
proceeded towards Enniscorthy and attacked it on 
Monday morning the 28 th . That day at the first Dawn 
I was alarmed at Belleone by loud talking under my 
window. I got up, and on listening heard a poor 
old Man give an account of the dreadful murders that 
had taken place round him. Shortly after an order 
came from Wexford that Mr. Ogle and Corps shou'd 
march there. All was then confusion except the 
Master and Mistress of the house. She made breakfast 
for us all with her usual sweetness and composure. 
Our boat was got ready, and just before I went to it 
I saw from an upper window Enniscorthy in flames. 
Mrs. L - and I stopt at Greenmound, took in my 
trunks which I had packed on the first alarm and a few 
bundles of her own, and proceeded to Wexford. 
[During] our entire passage we never saw a living being. 
When we landed we found every man under Arms. 
My entire object was to get any method of leaving it, 
and I walked about incessantly from one Cap 1 of a 
Ship to another to induce any one to sail with me to 
Milford and cou'd not succeed. Spent a miserable 
night on a straw Matress on the floor by M rs Lyster 
or wandering about the house. 


" Next morning, the 2gth, at daylight Mr. J. Grogan 
and 12 of his Cavalry marched in at the head of 200 
of the Donegal Militia from Duncannon. This seemed 
to raise the spirits of many. It had not that effect on 
mine, so I set out again, and at last Cap 1 Dixon agreed 
to take me to Milford and to sail that day. About 
2 o'clock I went on board his Ship immediately, for 
the fate of Enniscorthy the day before, and the 
lamentable state in which some of the fugitives from 
it entered Wexford, gave me a terror of fire not to be 

expressed. I remained on board all night. Mrs. L 

sent me a Matress and blankets which I spread on Deck 
and put the children on it with the blanket over them. 
There w d have been room for me, but a lady I never 
saw till then laid herself down by them, so I sat all 
night on the handle of the Rudder with my head 
leaning on a bundle of ropes. Great God! What a 
night that was. The Horns of the Rebels I heard very 
plainly, for the Ship just lay about half way from 
Ferry Bank and Wexford. I saw very clearly that 
the Captain of the vessell was not loyal. Of course, 
I had no chance of escaping to England, so sat in fearful 
expectation of my fate. 

" At the first dawn of day, May the 30 th , the Bridge 
was set on fire from the Ferry Bank side, all our crew 
were, or pretended to be, asleep. I awoke them, and 
if I had doubted their principles before cou'd no longer 
doubt them. A wonderful scene of confusion now 
ensued. Boats of every description put off from [the] 
Shore, and our Ship and every other in the harbour 
was filled with women and children, some naked, 


several that had been in Enniscorthy the day before 
entirely frantic. When day was quite clear I got a 
Spy Glass and saw a party of Rebels about half a Mile 
from Ferry Bank. They were stationary, and seemed 
as if placed to watch the effect of the fire on the Bridge, 
that was soon extinguished. Several Gentlemen 
rowed to our Ship to give us accounts of what was 
going on, and most curious as well as melancholy 
accounts they brought. The North Cork Militia was 
at various posts guarding the entrance of the town when 
every one of their officers but a young lad of 14 
(of the name of Little) left them there and went on 
board the Ships. The Donegals and some Yeomen 
Cavalry marched with a field piece to the 3 Rocks, 
about 3 miles from Wexford, and a strong pass, to 
meet the Rebels. They did meet them, fired one 
volley, and seeing, I suppose, the immense disparity 
of numbers and that the Rebels had got 2 field pieces, 
retreated to Wexford, marched thro' it to the Barracks 
to refresh, and, of course, left all clear for the Rebels, 
as the North Corks deserted by their officers and seeing 
the retreat of the Donegals quitted their posts im- 

" All this time, of course, the Rebels were advancing 
and increasing in numbers. I sat watching the 
Cavalry on the Quay. They began to disperse shortly 
after Mr. Lyster come on the Shore, kissed his hands 
earnestly to me, lifted them to Heaven, and went off. 
Several of the North Cork officers went back to Wex- 
ford from the Ships, and as I afterwards found, joined 
their Men who, with the Donegals, Mr. Ogle and Corps, 


and some few Loyalists who knew of the retreat, fought 
their way and after incredible hardships arrived safe 
at Duncannon Fort. It appears very extraordinary 
that Col. Maxwell, who commanded, neither sounded 
a retreat nor sent to acquaint the Yeoman Corps 
that he intended it. By this means those at distant 
posts never heard of it, and were standing perfectly 
ignorant of their situation when the Rebels poured 
into the town in numbers past all belief or description. 
As soon as the Army had gone off Cap* Dixon got into 
his boat avowedly to join them, and saying he wou'd 
try what he cou'd do to save our lives in a manner that 
showed we had little to hope. We were then, I suppose, 
about 40 women and children put into the hold of the 
Ship on Coals with which it was loaded, and sat 
expecting immediate death for above an hour. 

" Never can I forget the Scene ; few have beheld such 
a one. Not a shriek or loud word was spoken, except 
by Henry, who was singing as if he was in perfect 
safety. My poor Isabella cried quietly by my side, and 
a Mrs. Bland sat patting three lap Dogs. At length 
Cap* Dixon returned, and said no woman or child 
shou'd be killed, but that no man sh'd escape but 3 
that he named. Numbers of Men had come on board 
in his absence, hoping to escape to England. One 

particular friend of mine, Mr. T , asked me to 

shelter him behind me in the hold. I did so, and 
covered him with great coats, &c. The Rebels now 
sent boats to bring the People into town from the 
Ships. What ferocious Savages then appeared, intoxi- 
cated with Whiskey and victory, one woman brandish- 


ing the Sheath of a Sword and boasting of her exploits ! 
She was sister to Mrs. Dixon, and an old acquaintance 
of mine, as her husband had been killed at Artramont. 
The first demand was for Arms which the Gentlemen 
[had] brought with them. Some Rebels jumped into 
the hold to search, one of them fixed his eyes on me 
and said, ' If I looked he wou'd be satisfied.' This was 
a great relief, for I was certain before of seeing my 
poor friend killed by me, and perhaps sharing his fate 
for hiding him. I then crept on hands and feet under 
the deck &c., and found several Guns, Pistols and 
Swords, which I handed to my Rebel admirer. He 
thanked me very graciously, told the rest not to 
molest me, and they all went off carrying with them 
a number of the unfortunate men to Prison and to 

" Observe that from the time Cap* Dixon returned 
Pistols and Guns were incessantly firing round us, 
and he assured us there wou'd not be a life spared 
on board any Ship but his, and that his Ship was 
excepted because he was brother-in-law to Roche, 
the Commander of the Rebel Army. When the Boat 

went off with Arms, and my poor friend Mr. T told 

me he wou'd go on Deck and meet his fate for he w d 
not involve me in it, I bid him stay and went to M rs 
Dixon, [and] told her who he was. She declared he 
was as safe as herself, so he went, most fortunately, 
on Deck, for in half an hour another boat full came 
in very bad temper and said if they found one Gun 
or man below they wou'd burn the vessel and all in it. 
I thought it most probable they wou'd find Guns, 


for I had not looked very carefully. However, they 
did not, but sent every one from on board the Ship 
but me and family. I had no place to go to. Mrs. 
Lyster I knew had gone in a boat down the harbour, 
all my friends in town were loyal and I supposed 
were murdered. So I begged of M rs Dixon to let 
me stay, and I must do her the justice to say she 
consented with seeming good nature. The day passed 
in receiving boats full of Ruffians coming to search 
for men ; to boast of their murders, and to increase 
their Intoxication. One wou'd not drink except / 
did first least he shou'd be poisoned. I did drink ; 
sincerely wishing (if it was God Almighty's will) 
that it might be poison. At night I lay down in the 
hold on the Coals with the Children, who slept quite 
sound. They had never eat nor asked for food that 
entire day, nor from 3 o'clock the day before, except 
one bit of bread. When the Crew thought us asleep 
their conversation exceeds description. What saved 
our lives or saved us from worse than Death was our 
all gracious God who still preserves us. 

" At day light, May 3ist, Cap* Dixon came on board, 
and said everything horrible, made me stand on the 
deck to look where poor Mr. Boyd's dead body lay, 
and boasted of various murders. A fellow came 
opposite to me, drew his Pistol from his Girdle, and 
with the look of a Demon seemed to enjoy my terror. 
M rs Dixon came and said if I had any papers that 
showed I was a Protestant I must destroy them, as a 
party were coming that w d destroy her and her Ship 
if they found a Protestant in it. On this I unlocked 


my box of papers and they tied them all round with 
large coal and sank them in the Sea. Another boat 
now came. One Man seemed more humane than the 
rest ; I took him aside and offered him my purse if 
he wou'd get us safe on Shore. He said ' Yes/ spoke 
to a friend of his, and instantly made us get into his 
boat. Elizabeth brought my writing box. No one 
said we did ill or well. M rs Dixon asked, ' Wou'd I 
take my Trunks ? ' I had sufficient presence of mind 
to say ' No/ that I thought them much safer with her. 
This, and a most curious liking that Isabella took to 
her, I believe got us out of the Ship alive. The Child 
cried at parting with her, and clung round her. 

" We rowed off ; I had no place to go to, and the 
Streets were as thick of armed Men firing random Shots 
as Leaves on a Tree, for that was the Boatman's 
Simile. One of them considered and asked me if I 
knew any Catholic. I named M rs Talbot. He brought 
me [by] a back way from the water to her house. It 
was all shut up and deserted, and we got again into 
the boat. I sat not caring what they did with me, 
when to my amaze, I was asked if I knew Doctor 
Jacob. 1 I said ' Yes/ ' Then we will take you to him, 
for his is a safe house/ z They landed me opposite 
his door, and most kindley was I rec d by all his family. 
Do not, however, suppose I was for an instant either 
in peace or safety. The Hall etc. was full of Ruffians, 
and in 10 minutes after they brought faggots to set 

1 Mayor cf the town and Captain of the Wexford infantry. 

2 Musgrave adds a note (p. 452) that the house was that of Mr- 
Hatchel, son-in-law of Dr. Jacob. 


fire to the house. Some of more humanity dissuaded 

" I had now been from Sunday night the 27th 
without Sleep or food, for I can hardly say I eat once 
and only drunk some tea from M rs Dixon. You have 
read in what manner my time passed, and can scarcely 
wonder that my Senses partly forsook me. It was, 
however, only partly, for I perfectly recollect all that 
passed. I think I may say I was more guided by the 
enthusiasm of Despair than Insanity. I took Isabella 
by the hand, and went directly to Bagenel Harvey. 
He did not know me, which was only what I expected, 
covered as I was with Coal Ashes, and convulsed by 
Misery. I told my name, reminded him of his ac- 
quaintance with John, and desired (for I felt too much 
indignation to intreat], that he wou'd protect me and 
my children. He spoke with great kindness, seemed 
greatly struck indeed by the misery he must have 
felt he had caused, and gave me the paper I sent to 
you, at the same time saying ' He had no real command, 
and that they were a Set of Savages exceeding all 
description.' I asked, ' When is this to end ? ' His 
answer I never can forget. ' Probably not for some 
time, for Government will not now send a Force till 
they send a proper one.' He seemed so perfectly 
sensible that he had no authority that his Protection 
gave me little comfort. He said he must try and get 
the people out of the town to form Camps or it wou'd 
be destroyed in a few hours. It seems M r John Hay 
harangued the Mob, intreating them to burn the 
Town, and of course all of us that were in it. Shortly 


after the Rebels consented to go to Camp. I saw 
thousands beyond my Ideas of reckoning depart, 
[with] many Priests as Leaders. Often the people 
stopped, knelt down, wiped the Ground, and crossed 
themselves, then set up their hideous Yells and fol- 
lowed their Priest. The day passed looking at and 
listening to them. Shots fired every instant, and 
small parties searching the house as they pleased, 
drinking and sending other friends to follow their 

" Next day, June ist, just passed in the same way. 
John Ricards came to me with tears, lamented my 
situation and his own fate in being obliged to join 
the Rebels, who with great difficulty spared his life 
or admitted him, as they knew from his not knowing 
their Signs that he never had been an United Irish- 
man. He insisted on my taking eight Guineas. When 
I refused [he] laid it on a table and swore he never 
would touch it, that he owed me more than he cou'd 
ever repay, and wou'd willingly lay down his life 
if it cou'd be of use to me. He told me, I am sure with 
real horror, how the Protestants were spoke against, 
but he trusted the Women and Children wou'd be 
spared. I took his Money, and felt more pleasure 
in sending him Gen 1 Leake's x Protection when the 
Army came than in anything that I met with. I trust 
I shall yet be able to repay his attachment still more 
fully. In the evening Doctor Caulfield 2 came to see 
me. Poor Ricards had gone to tell him where I was, 

1 Lake. 

2 The Rt. Rev. James Caulfield, Roman Catholic Bishop of Ferns. 


etc., etc. Caulfield was very kind, and gave me an 
ample Protection, but like Harvey, declared he had 
no Influence, and added that he was cautioned in 
the Street coming, to beware how he protected Pro- 
testants. He said, ' The People cou'd not be described, 
that in reality the Devil was roaming at large amongst 
them. That their power cou'd never hold. That they 
w d make it a religious War which w d ruin them. That 
Government was strong and must conquer, and that 
this rebellion had been hatching for the last four years.' 
I think he might have given Government notice of it. 
" June 2 d . This day we sat in expectation of our 
speedy release. Nothing was talked of by the Mob 
in our hearing but the punishing of the Protestants, 
and Mrs. Lehaste and many many others went to 
the Chapel, renounced their Religion, were Christened 
(for it seems we are not Christians), and were marched 
in Procession thro' the town. Flanagan, the Boat- 
man who brought me on shore, came to intreat I 
wou'd go. Various were his reasons. He assured me 
I was happy in my sufferings, as they wou'd compel 
me to save my precious Soul, which must else be 
eternally lost. I answered him with great civility 
and thanks, but he saw I wou'd not go, and at last 
took his leave intreating me to consent to come then 
with him, and with great emphasis to beware of being 
the last to go to Mass. Elizabeth was by and enraged 
at my mildness, ' how I could patiently bear such a 
fellow's daring to speak to me, that they might kill 
her, and so she supposed they wou'd, but never 
shou'd they get her into a Chapel alive.' 


" From this time to the 2o th of June, a day ever to 
be remembered with singular horor, we passed in 
misery and agitation. On the 2 d of June, from fear 
that our filth might be too offensive, I sent Flanagan 
to the Ship for my trunks. None of us had changed 
any of our dress from the 28 th of May. They wou'd 
not give them without an order from Mr. Harvey. 
I put my Arm under a Rebel's who offered it (I think 
he was a bricklayer), and walked thro' the Streets 
crowded with armed villains firing incessantly (sin- 
cerely I wished some shot might hit me) till I arrived 
at M rs Letts, where Centinals were placed, colours 
flying, and all proper dignity preserved. The Centinals 
stopped me, so I asked for M r Harvey. He immedi- 
ately came out and took me into a parlour, where sat 
Keagh 1 and Fitzgerald, with various papers on a 
Green Table before them. I intreated M r Harvey 
to allow some boat or Ship to take me away. He 
promised in a couple of days to try and get one. M r 
Keagh was all condescension, made me sit down, 
but wondered much why I shou'd wish to leave a 
place where I was in perfect safety. Fitzgerald never 
spoke, but gave me a most ferocious look which I 
did not care one pin about. After some conversation, 
principally Mr. Harvey's describing all the fatigue 
he suffered and the present difficulty of procuring 
bread for The People who were demanding it most 
clamourously at the Door, he wrote an order for 
my Trunks and I departed. So ended my visit to 
The Council. My Trunks were then sent, but the 

1 Matthew Keugh. See ante, p. 99. 


locks all broken, and (except a few things at the 
bottom of one Trunk), totally empty. Fortunately 
there came Linen enough to make us clean. I set about 
undressing, and before I cou'd dress again had Rebel 
men in my room. 

" June the 3 d . They made three Protestants shoot 
a man of the name of Murphy in The Bull Ring. 
They wou'd not kill him themselves because he was 
a Catholic, but he cou'd not be pardoned as he had 
given information against Dixon, a Priest, 1 who was 
transported in consequence. The Rebels told the 
Men who shot Murphy that they shou'd also suffer. 
However, they sent them back to Jail. One of them 
was butchered on the Bridge the 2oth of June. Murphy 
had been Servant to M r Edwards, who had retreated 
with the Army to Duncannon. Not having him in their 
power they showed their good intentions towards him 
by tearing his Mother's house to atoms and destroy- 
ing all her property. She and her daughters had 
luckily escaped to Wales. Two Ships only were loyal 
and went off, She by chance was on board one of them. 

" From the 3 d to the io th I recollect nothing 
particular, every day was equally miserable and passed 
in the same Manner, our doors open, Rebels ever 
coming in and walking all over the House, some Civil, 
some not, no one ever knowing whether they wou'd 
murder or not before they departed. The Rebel 
Troops paraded Twice a day on the Quay opposite 
our door. They had fiddles, Drums, and Fifes. They 

1 A relative of Captain Dixon. Kavanagh (p. 181) says the 
priest was sentenced " upon the evidence of a perjured informer." 


were pleased to call it parade. It was in reality a 
regular Tumult, every one gave his advice and opinion. 
One said, ' I will go and take Ross/ another, ' I will 
take Newtownbarry.' Henry John listened one day 
with great attention and said, ' Dear Mama, are they 
every one Kings ? ' At this time the John Street 
Corps of joo Men was commanded by Monaghan, 
a Derry boy. He had the most truly ferocious coun- 
tenance I ever beheld. Henry John asked whether 
it was God Almighty that put that face on him. The 
Corps afterwards displaced him (they all changed 
officers as they pleased), and he went away to the 
Camp at Oulart with Gen 1 Fitzgerald. 

" About the io th I was told that a M r Masterson, 
a Catholic, was to sail in a Ship which had been taken 
by the Rebels a few days before and to proceed for 
England. I wrote to M r Keagh (as Harvey was 
absent) for permission to go. He came, and in the 
most plausible manner gave his consent, sent orders 
to the Committee appointed to give out provisions 
to supply me with Sea Store, and assured me he wou'd 
take care that I shou'd have most comfortable ac- 
comodations and sail next day at 10 o'clock. This 
was the hardest Trial God was pleased to give me. 
My hopes of deliverance were great, but next day 
came and I heard nothing of Mr. Keagh or of the Ship 
sailing. I cou'd see it from the windows, and to make 
my Story short, was left to find out at my leisure that 
I wou'd not be liberated from my Prison ; for Mr. 
Keagh never had the humanity even to break it to me. 
I did not see him for several days. When he came he 


said The Committee cou'd not permit my Departure 
a member of the Committee was really a friend of 
mine, and never, I am sure, was it brought before them. 

" For several days I never wished to go out, but 
was desired to do so by M r Keagh. ' Why shou'd we 
confine ourselves ? Surely we cou'd have no Fears 
or Distrust ? ' I went to see M rs Ogle, M rs Boyd 
and Lady Anne Hore and M rs Richards. Few ven- 
tured to any of those I have named, and truly miser- 
able was their situation. 

" June the 14 th Cap 1 Dixon and his Wife rode into 
town carrying a small Fire Screen from Col. Lehante's 
country house. Unfortunately it was decorated with 
orange Paper. Dixon stopt on the Quay, [and] spoke 
to the Sailors with his usual violence. All I cou'd hear 
was, ' You see, we were all to be massacred.' He rode 
into town, and as soon as the Sailors collected their 
arms they followed him. There was a most dreadful 
Tumult. Poor Col. Lehante dragged from his Lodging, 
fired at, struck, and many Pike Men attempted to 
stab him. How he escaped is hard to say. Some 
leading Rebels interfered, and The People determined 
at last on putting him regularly to Death next day, 
so consented to his being lodged in Jail. He only 
received one or two slight wounds, which considering 
his situation, was truly wonderful. The Rioting 
continued all night. Dixon and his Wife made out 
that the Fire Screen was The Orange Standard; 
and that all the figures on it pointed out various 
methods of torturing Roman Catholics. At another 
time, or if their views had been different, the inter- 


pretations of the Charades etc. would have been 
truly laughable. As to the Figures, Hope on her 
anchor was a Sailor tied and left to die on a Red hot 
anchor, so all the Wexford Sailors were to have 
perished. A Heathen Goddess in buskins was Trans- 
formed by their Bigotry into Saint Patrick with a 
new kind of torture applied to his legs, and showed 
clearly how all true believers in him were to perish. 
The Babes in the Wood were The Roman Catholic 
Children turned out to Starve, the birds to pick their 
eyes out. It was hard on the Poor Red breasts, whose 
humanity I never before heard any doubt of, but I 
suppose they had turned Protestants. In the course 
of the evening one set of Rioters bust into the Council 
room and nearly killed Keagh, his crime was being 
an Orange Man. The Catholic members of the Com- 
mittee rescued him. They were all Catholics, for 
Keagh had embraced that Religion, and always went 
at the head of the men to Chapel, so did all other 
leaders and soldiers that joined the Rebels, but the 
latter never forgot who had once been Protestants 
and treated them accordingly. I have heard some 
say ' All their Policy and their Christening shan't 
save them/ and latterly it was avowed that no Pro- 
testant shou'd live much less command them. 

" About 9 o'clock the 14 th a Party of Sailors, about 
20 armed, came to our house. Their Leaders called 
out, ' Some go and secure the back of the House and 
now my Lads get ready your pieces and seize every 
person you meet.' Our Terror was dreadful. Isabella 
was in Bed rather delirious, and heard some one speak 


of this party, I was obliged to lye down by her and 
wait their appearance. They brought candles in to 
help them in their search, as they said, for arms, ran 
their swords under the beds, etc. At last one said, 
' We won't have any blood.' I never can forget how 
delightful I thought those words. They told us a 
long history of Col. Lehante's crimes, his dreadful 
Screen, etc., drank some Whiskey and departed. 

" [On] the 17 th and i8 th of June small parties of 
Horse appeared on Parade. They were called foraging 
parties, but in reality were sent out to watch the 
Progress of the Army. Of its approach we had not 
an Idea, were told that the Rebels were every where 
successful, and that Dublin and all the Northern 
towns were theirs. The Rebels cheered on Parade 
for taking Ross the day after they had been defeated 
there, and Mr. Keagh came in to tell us of the victory. 
He said ' Maam there are 500 Soldiers lying Dead, 
Dead ! ' The common people really thought every 
thing was their own. Their Priests and Leaders 
dare not undeceive them. Recollect this, and it will 
account for their different line of conduct. The 
latter knew a day of reckoning was at hand, and as 
far as they cou'd do it without danger to their own 
lives wou'd, I believed, have saved ours. But the 
former, certain of success, threw off all disguise and 
showed themselves in their true colours. Never till 
then had I any Idea of what Wickedness the human 
heart is capable when deprived of all restraint, or 
still worse, given up to Bigotry and the grossest 
superstition. Some anecdotes of this Superstition 


I must give you. My acquaintance, Mrs. Dixon's 
Sister, told me, enveighing most desperately against 
the Soldiers that they had dared to fire on the Holy 
Man (Roche the Priest), but that as soon as the Balls 
touched him they fell as soft as Feathers, adding, 
for I fancy she doubted my Faith, ' I saw them My- 
self.' Unfortunately, this Holy Man forgot any 
Preservative against Hemp, and was hanged on Wex- 
ford Bridge the 23 rd of June. 

" Murphy, a Priest, was killed at the Battle of 
Arklow, but my Rebel acquaintance informed me 
that the Army took him alive, tortured him cruelly, 
and spent an entire day endeavouring to burn his 
right hand, but no, that they cou'd not, the Holy Man's 
hand wou'd not burn. Ask one of those Holy Men to 
save a Friend's life ; they were all benevolence, 
but alas ! had no Power, their influence had long 
ceased over the minds of the People. So they go on, 
and so they will ever go on, whilst God for the just 
punishment of our sins suffers such a Religion to 
Exist. The Rebel Leaders said they fought for Liberty, 
Emancipation, and Reform, Their Soldiers that they 
fought for Religion, to punish the Protestants, and 
to save their own lives, as We were certainly to have 
massacred all of them on Whitsun Tuesday. This 
I was assured their Priests had preached to them* 
One night on our Steps a man lamented much the 
hard life he led, and said he was much happier in 
his own Cabin. ' So we were,' said another, ' but 
consider your Religion.' ' I never will be backward 
for my religion,' was his answer. 



Arm of Erin ! prove strong ; but be gentle as brave, 
And, uplifted to strike, still be ready to save ; 
Nor one feeling of vengeance presume to defile 
The cause or the men of the Emerald Isle. 


^^^^ N the 19 th of June one of the Protestant 
m Maid Servants came in with a counte- 
% M nance impossible to describe, Joy and 
^^-^^ Terror were so equally blended. She had 
been in a Shop where Mr. Keagh was, when a man 
galloped into town covered with Sweat and Blood. Mr. 
Keagh called out, ' Sir, why are you from your Camp ? ' 
The man gave an account of the Destruction of Lacken 
Camp that morning by the Army from Ross, whom he 
represented as close at his horse's heels. All the People 
wished to hear him and general confusion ensued. Mr. 
Keagh called him a Liar and sent him to Jail, but every 
one believed the Story he told. This was the Crisis 
I had long looked for, and went trembling to Pray. 
The Drums beat to arms. Mr. Keagh made a Speech 
on Parade which I cou'd not hear, the Tumult was 
so great ; but about 200 men armed with musquets 



stepped from the Ranks and formed a separate body. 
Women came with Holy Water, sprinkled and crossed 
the Men. I must here inform you of the merits of 
Holy Water. Whoever had used it and possessed 
Faith was invulnerable. Those that escaped unhurt 
from Battle were preserved by it, those that fell 
perished from want of Faith in it. Let matters end as 
they wou'd, the efficacy of Holy Water was never 
doubted. To proceed with my history. The Gun 
Men marched off headed by M r Gray. 1 M r Edward 
Hay 2 was on Parade, and when it was over, mounted 
his horse and galloped over the Bridge, so did Cap* 
Dixon and his Wife, [the latter] dressed in my riding 
Habit. In the evening one of the Committee came to 
tell us that the Army were approaching and English 
Frigates [were] off the Coast. No one cou'd feel 
pleasure, for we were all certain we shou'd not live 
to see them conquer. I sat up the entire night at an 
open window listening to every sound. Often I had 
done so before, and never had undressed except to 
change my Linen from the 27 th of May. 

" At dawn of day, Wednesday June the 20 th , I saw 
a Rebel Troop coming over the bridge headed by Cap 1 
Dixon and carrying a Black Flag with a White Cross 
and some white Letters. 3 It was a very small party, 

1 Nicholas Gray, Secretary of the rebel Council. 

2 The historian of The Rebellion in Wexford, to whose book 
frequent reference has been made. 

3 " The black flag that appeared in Wexford on this day is, 
among other things, talked of with various chimerical conjectures, 
and its notoriety as denouncing massacre has been confidently 
recorded ; notwithstanding that it is an absolute fact, that this 
identical black flag was, throughout the whole insurrection, borne 


but they only came to reconnoitre. In about an 
hour the Wexford men who had marched with Mr. 
Gray the day before returned to Parade. They had 
been all night at the Three Rocks and in another hour 
marched out of town (as I afterwards knew) to fight 
the Army at Goff's Bridge. They were accompanied 
by a large body of Pike Men. The town was now 
remarkably quiet, and some began to entertain hopes, 
as the Wexford People talked of sending letters from 
Lord Kingsborough to the Army and offering to sur- 
render. Cap 1 Dixon returned with a very large Troop ; 
I heard Mr. E. Hay came with them but I did not see 
him. The apparent Ferocity of this Troop surpassed 
(if possible) all we had seen, but their actions will 
speak for them. I have been near a week endeavour- 
ing to write the account of their Execrable Barbarity, 
and can hardly now prevail on myself to undertake it. 
Yet I think I ought for my own sake ; if ever you think 
me unjust to the Catholics or hard-hearted towards 
them, remember what follows, and you will not 
condemn me. The day went miserably on. Threats 
both by words and looks were bestowed on us. I 
sat as usual at the Window, and cou'd see the Frigates 
off the Coast. Cap* Dixon had made various pro- 
posals to the People in the course of the day all tending 

by a particular corps, and the carrying of banners of that colour, 
was, by no means, a singular circumstance during that period, 
as flags of that and every other hue, except orange, were waved 
by the insurgents, and from their different dies ingenious conjectures, 
however groundless, for the maintenance of prejudice, may be 
made as to the several dispositions of the bodies who moved under 
them, as little founded in fact or intention, as was the original 
destination of the black ensign in question." Hay, p. 222. 


to the same end, our destruction, which the Committee 
and Townspeople wished to prevent as they had no 
hopes of defeating the Army ; Policy might have 
partly influenced their conduct, but I really don't 
think at any time the towns-people appeared in- 
clined to Cruelty. 

" About three Cap* Dixon came on the Quay 
calling out, ' To the Jail ! ' He was followed up the 
Custom House Lane by numbers. They returned 
after some time calling out, ' To the Bridge ! ' I 
thought some alarm induced them to leave the Town 
and sat eagerly watching till I beheld Yes, I abso- 
lutely saw a poor fellow beg for life and then most 
barbarously murdered. To give a minute account 
of this hellish Scene is beyond my Strength, nor cou'd 
any one desire to hear it. No Savages ever put their 
prisoners to more deliberate Torture as I heard but 
indeed did not look at them, but I saw a boat go to 
the Prison Ship and bring my friends and acquaint- 
ances (who on landing passed by our Door) to Torture 
and Death. I saw the horrid wretches kneel down 
on the Quay, lift up their hands seeming to pray 
with the greatest Devotion, then rise and join (or 
take the place of) other murderers. Their yells of 
delight at the sufferings of their victims will ever, 
I believe, sound in my ears. To describe what we 
all suffered wou'd be impossible. I never shed a 
Tear, but felt all over in the most violent bodily Pain. 
My darling Isabella's feelings were dreadful. I in- 
treated her not to disturb [herself] but to let me pray 
if I cou'd ; still she wou'd lament my being killed. 


At last I assured her I w d make the Pike Men kill her 
before me; this quieted her at once. Shortly after 
she left the room and returned with a cheerful look. 
' Dear Mama, grow better, I have prayed to God to 
make the Pike Men not kill you and to make the bad 
men Good, and I am sure He heard me.' After the 
Army came she reminded me of this and said, ' You 
see Mama, God did hear me.' 

" The murderers went on with their execrable 
work and put to death in all (from the most accurate 
account I cou'd afterwards get) ninety-three People. 1 
Some few out of the Prison Ship they acquitted, that 
is, spared till the next day at the earnest intreaties 
of some of the Rebel Leaders. One man when ac- 
quitted said, ' Well, I suppose I may go home to my 
Wife now ? ' 'No Sir,' says Cap* Dixon, ' go to your 
Prison, your being acquitted now is no reason [why] 
you shou'd not be tried again.' We only expected 
Life 'till the Prisons and Ship were emptied, when an 
Express came in the town to say the Army were 
marching against Vinegar Hill Camp, and that if 
they did not reinforce it immediately all was lost. 
The Town Priests then, and not till then, made their 
appearance on the bridge and carried back to Jail 
19 prisoners, one Priest told me he cou'd have saved 
all the lives that were lost if he had heard of the 
massacre. It was wonderful, indeed, how he cou'd 
avoid hearing of it. The Leader of the Murderers called 
to his Men in these words which I distinctly heard, 
' Come my Lads, we will go now and blessed be God 

1 Gordon (p. 151) gives the number as ninety-seven. 


we have sent some of their Souls to Hell.' They went 
off really as if they had been performing a praise- 
worthy and religious action. Cap* and M rs Dixon 
followed on horseback, their horses wou'd not go 
over the place where the Blood lay on the bridge, 
but started back. They alighted and led their horses, 
she carefully holding up her habit to keep it clean. 
I think she must have felt some disagreeable sensations 
at that moment. It was said she desired the mur- 
derers not to waste their ammunition on the Prisoners 
but to give them plenty of Pikes. So alas ! they did. 

" Late this evening M r R , a Catholic and late 

one of the Committee for Provisions, came to see us. 
He was like ourselves half dead with horror, and 
declared he had intreated the Priests to come down 
with their Crucifixes and prevent the Massacre, which 
they refused to do. We told him how Father Broe 1 

said he had saved 19 Prisoners. This Mr. R 

denied, as it was the express only that saved them. 
He told us that the Black Flag meant that every one 
of that party had taken the black Test Oath. We had 
often heard of that, but wished for a particular account 
of it. He declared he never knew of it 'till that week. 
It seems there are three or four Oaths for United 
Irishmen which they take according to their rank and 
merits. 2 The Black Test is the last. It devotes all 

1 John Broe. 

2 On the 1 4th June the rebel Council of Wexford issued three 
forms of oaths "to be taken by all the United Army, in the most 
public and solemn manner. The Test Oath is as follows, and is 
given by Hay, Appendix IX., pp. xxiv-xxv : 

" In the awful presence of God, I, A.B., do voluntarily declare, 


Protestants, Men, women and children to Death in 
the most solemn manner, and as it has been published 
in the papers I need not copy it here. 1 A man came 

into a Shop where Mr. R was and asked another 

to give him the Black Test. This was refused, and 
the person he asked left the Shop, on which the Man 
who wanted to take the oath said, ' That fellow shall 
be one of the first I will kill, but as to the oath I 
don't care, for such a one can give it, and I will go 

to him for it.' Mr. R gave us intelligence of 

the success of the Army at Goff's Bridge and en- 
deavoured to persuade us we were then safe, as the 
people of the Town were all fully determined not to 
oppose the Army, and the Country people wou'd be 
employed at Vinegar Hill. 

" I cou'd not indulge any Hope, spent another 
night at the Window, and saw Cap* Dixon, his Troop 
and Black Flag, return to Town in the morning. 
We all then gave ourselves up, tho' we cou'd see the 
Frigates and hear their Guns battering Rosslare Ford 
at the entrance of the Harbour. Mr. Keagh's brother, 
a very infirm old man, was so much shocked at the 

that I will persevere in endeavouring to form a brotherhood of 
affection among Irishmen of every religious persuasion ; and that 
I will also persevere in my endeavours to obtain an equal, full, 
and adequate representation of all the people of Ireland. I do 
further declare, that neither hopes, fears, rewards, or punishments, 
not even death, shall ever induce me, directly or indirectly, to 
inform on or give evidence against any member or members of 
this or similar societies, for any act or expression of theirs, done 
or made collectively or individually, in or out of this society, in 
pursuance of the spirit of this obligation. So help me God." 

1 " Every loyal Irish Protestant Heretic, I shall murder, and 
this I swear." See Taylor, p. 86. 


Massacre, the state of affairs and the part his brother 
had taken in the Rebellion, that he shot himself. 
M r Keagh himself came in a wretched state of mind 
to Doc r Jacob and requested he (as a man of known 
Loyalty) wou'd go with a message from Lord Kingsbro' 
to the Army. 1 Doctor Jacob said he wou'd. The few 
Rebel soldiers that remained in town were called to- 
gether and spoken to by Keagh and Carty. They 
agreed readily to surrendering the town, and also 
appointed Lord Kingsbro' to command it till the arrival 
of the Army. 2 Most fortunately they changed their 
mind as to Doc r Jacob, and w d not let him leave the 

1 Ebenezer Jacob, M.D., was asked by the rebels to resume 
his former office of mayor on the 2ist June. 

2 The following letter was sent to General Moore : " The inhabit- 
ants of all religious persuasions are ready to deliver up the town of 
Wexford without opposition, lay down their arms, and return to 
their allegiance, provided that their persons and properties are 
guaranteed by the commanding officer ; and that they engage 
to use every influence in their power, to induce the people of the 
country at large to return to their allegiance also. These terms, 
we hope, Captain M'Manus [really Lieut. Bourke and Robert Carty] 
will be able to procure. 

" Signed, by order of the inhabitants of Wexford. 


It was not, of course, in the power of General Moore to treat 
with the rebels in this way, and the following was sent in reply 
by his superior officer : " Lieutenant-General Lake cannot attend 
to any terms offered by rebels in arms against their Sovereign ; 
while they continue so, he must use the force intrusted to him, 
with the utmost energy for their destruction. 

" To the deluded multitude he promises pardon, on their de- 
livering into his hands their leaders, surrendering their arms, 
and returning with sincerity to their allegiance. 

" Enniscorthy, 22nd of June, 1798. 

"(Signed) G. LAKE." 

Maxwell, p. 142 n. See also ante, p. 155 n. 


town, where he had been kept the entire month 
attending their sick men. Luckily for him they all 
knew his medical skill and took good care of him for 
their own sakes. Mr. Harman of the N. Cork Militia 
was sent in his Place accompanied by M r Fragna, 
a Rebel Chief, who shot the poor young Man about 
a mile from the town. The Runaways from Goff's 
bridge and several from Vinegar Hill poured into the 
town vowing vengeance against every one. Pro- 
testants to be sure were first, but the towns-people 
and all the advisers of a surrender were equally 
threatened. The Sailors of Wexford took an oath 
to defend Lord Kingsbro's life, and did fire several 
shots on the Mob from his lodgings. The great anxiety 
to kill his Lordship first was, I believe, one cause of 
our escape, for the mob wasted much time in en- 
deavouring to get him. 

" About 4 o'clock Mr. R. and Doc r Jacob came in. 
They had been fired at in the Street. Doctor Jacob 
was as composed as I am now, but I really never saw 
such firmness of mind as he possessed on all occasions. 
Mr. R. said the General Massacre was just going to 
begin, that he came to try to save us, or rather to 
share our fate, for he feared we cou'd not escape. 
However, he had got a boat with men he thought 
he c d rely on at the end of our house, that we must 
try to get in, stand the fire of the Rebels from the 
Quay and in passing under the Bridge, and if we got 
clear throw ourselves on the mercy of the Gun boats. 
This was truly desperate. I walked up Stairs and 
went to a Window. The Rebels were settling them- 


selves as before on the Bridge, and sending a boat to 
the Prison Ship, when, conceive my astonishment, 
I saw them all begin to run. I flew down Stairs, 
doubting my Senses, to tell Doc r Jacob. He came 
to the window. It was no Illusion. Run they did 
in such confusion that I am amazed numbers were 
not trampled to Death. A general cry, ' The Army 
are come, they are in the Town ! ' explained their 
flight. Wretches out of the Infirmary in their Shirts 
ran in an incredible short space of time. The Streets 
were almost clear ; about fifty armed Rebels rushed 
into our house, tore out their Green cockades, threw 
their arms under the beds, and hoped to escape by 
being found under Doc r Jacob's Roof. He put on 
his regimentals and went into the Street. A villain 
that was running off turned and fired at him, he wiped 
Doc r Jacob, then took another pistol and said, ' If 
I must die I will die like a Cock,' and Shot [at] him. 
This is what I heard, but as I never asked Doc r Jacob 
myself, cannot be sure of the concluding part. Bostick 
Jacob, a young boy, saw the villain fire at his father 
from a window. Mr. Percival the Sheriff galloped 
on the Quay to our door, said ' Here we are and 
12,000 Soldiers with us,' or something to that pur- 

" Imagine if you can our feelings, exclamations and 
conduct. I never can forget the expression of Eliza- 
beth's countenance as she came down Stairs to shake 
my hands. The Boat that was sent to bring the 
Prisoners to Torture and Death brought them to 
Liberty and rapture. Several came to us ; one (Mr. 


Milward) had been with us ten days before they put 
him in Prison. No kind of Decorum was observed, 
nothing but kissing and embracing. Most of the men 
cried violently. I wish that dear General Moore 
cou'd have seen us. He in reality was two miles off 
and there were only 12 Horsemen in the town, but 
no one knew that 'till next day. Romantic as it 
sounds, I saw above five thousand men fly from one 
Horseman. It was supposed above 4000 fled from 
the Faith end of Wexford. They took all the cannon 
with them and Sir Charles Asgill afterwards [gave] l 
a good account of them. My Bridge acquaintance and 
those under the command of Fitzgerald, Roche and 
Perry have since spread misery and destruction thro' 
the county of Wexford and Wicklow. We never heard 
with certainty what became of Dixon, none of us 
saw him go over the Bridge, and as he is a very large 
man and rode a tall white Horse, he cou'd hardly have 
escaped the observation of more than 12 of us who 
were all particularly anxious to see him depart. 2 
I think it was about nine o'clock when Gen 1 Moore's 
Army really arrived and that we were in safety after 
26 days and nights of the most exquisite misery. 
Not one hour or even moment of Ease had I experi- 
enced from Monday May the 28 th . How indeed cou'd 
I, at the mercy of thousands of Ruffians who might 
at any time they pleased do whatever they pleased 
without fear of punishment or even censure ! The 

1 Torn in the original. 

2 It is thought that he escaped to America. See Lecky, Vol. IV., 
p. 470, and Kavanagh, p. 263 n. 


prospect of immediate Death is horrible (as I can tell) 
but that was little to the horrors every Woman must 
have dreaded. 

" I have mentioned that only 12 men were in Wex- 
ford for an hour [torn] great body of Rebels fled. 
Their names I shall add to this. They were coming 
on with Gen 1 Moore's Army when they saw the flames 
of two Houses near the Green Walks, for the long 
intended Scheme of burning the town had actually 
begun. Mr. Boyd, as I have been told, went up to 
the Gen 1 and requested permission to ride on and 
rescue his wife or perish with her. Permission was 
given, and n others joined him. The consequences 
of their desperate Gallantry I have already told. 
Never shou'd I have written this but for them ; 
half an hour wou'd probably have decided all our 
fates and certainly mine and those in the house with 
me. We cou'd hardly have escaped in Mr. R.'s Boat, 
and being in the first house on the Quay, of course, 
wou'd have been first butchered. Our situation on 
the arrival of our deliverers you have heard. Mrs. 
Boyd told me she and Lady Anne Hore were sitting 
expecting the entrance of their murderers [when they] 
heard a horse gallop up Street and stop at their door. 
They went to the window and saw M r Boyd. Is it 
not amazing that no one lost their Senses from Joy ? 
Several had done so from terror. 

" Names of our 12 Deliverers. M r Boyd one of 
the Proscribed ; M r Percival ; M r Jos. Sutton ; M r 
Archer Bagly ; M r John Byrne a Roman Catholic ; 
M r Hughes ; M r Stedman ; M r Archibald Jacob 


Proscribed; M r John Tench; M r Boyd's Servant; 
M r Irwin ; M r John Waddy. 

" Copy of Bagenel Harvey's Pass given to me in 
Wexford May 31 8t 1798 : 

" ' Permit M rB Brownrigg, her two young Children 
and Servant, to pass free. They are Strangers un- 
protected and have no connection with publick 

affairs< " ' B. B. HARVEY.' 

" Copy of Protection from J. Caulfield, the Titular 
Bishop : 

" ' Having long known the Bearer, Widow of the 
late Commn r John Brownrigg, to be a most benevolent 
Gentlewoman and universally esteemed, I now in 
the name of Humanity and in the name of Jesus 
Christ recommend her to the Protection and good 
offices of every Christian that she may not be injured 
in her person, property or children. Given in Wexford 

June i et 1798. , T ~ , 



" Mr. Matthew Keagh was originally a fifer in the 
same Regiment with Gen 1 Johnson, and I heard the 
Gen 1 recollected it when he sat as one of the Court 
Martial who condemned him. By some means Keagh 
procured an ensigncy and then a Lieut cy , came to 
Wexford with his Regiment, where he contracted a 
very particular friendship with a Gentleman and Lady 
of that town, sold out and made a visit to them of 


several years. Some family misfortunes obliged Mr. 
Keagh's Host to leave the Kingdom. The Lady also 
went amongst her friends, and he had an abode to 
seek for. An excellent one he procured by prevailing 
on a widow (M rs Grogan) who was possessed of very 
considerable property to marry him contrary to the 
advice and intreaties of all her friends, who did not 
visit or speak to her for some time after. However, 
Keagh, who was really a man of abilities and most 
Gentlemanlike in both appearance and Manners, 
conquered their dislike so as to live on very friendly 
terms with all her family, and on most intimate ones 
with M r B. B. Harvey, who was a near relation of 
M rs Keagh. The Gentlemen of the Country all dis- 
liked and shunned him, and he was ever reckoned a 
dangerous and disaffected man. 

" I saw him frequently during his reign. His 
manners were humane and plausible, but he never 
acted up to his professions. He told us one evening 
he wou'd protect Lord Kingsbro' and keep him in his 
house if he lost his life by it, and the next morning 
we heard of Lord Kingsbro's removal to a Poor Ale 
House in the town. Keagh took great delight in 
reading the various letters that were found in plundered 
houses and the Robbed Mails, and went to M rs C's to 
read out to her and 23 others a letter from a nephew 
of hers giving an account of a very delicate and 
distressing affair that had occurred relative to a Sister 
of his, and which till then had really been kept a Secret 
from every one. Keagh's defence was amazingly 
able, several of his Court Martial shed tears, and he 

jatjMBb&tf* ' ii^*.;^ ~>J* *- 'tnjr* 



had no doubt of a pardon to the last moment of his life. 
He walked from the Jail to the Gallows and bowed 
to some Ladies he saw at a window with a composed 
and chearful countenance. At the Gallows he made a 
Speech, again declaring (what was the substance of his 
defence) that he never knew anything of the United 
business till the Rebels were in possession of Wexford, 
and was then forced into it to save his life ; this he 
said in such a solemn manner, and with such an 
appearance of Truth, that Gen 1 Moore was induced to 
speak to the Guard to defer his execution, and went 
off to Gen 1 Leake to solicit his pardon, but Gen 1 Leake 
was in possession of Letters that proved he had carried 
on the plan for five years and had been one of the most 
active agents in Ireland for the Cause. He objected 
much to the rope, said it was too slight for his weight, 
and made them get another, which on Gen 1 Moore's 
return he found, Poor Wretch, strong enough. 

" Edward Fitzgerald's Father was a Farmer that 
lived about 7 miles from Wexford on the Oulart road. 
His Mother was a Sister of Hays of Ballenheale. Old 
Fitzgerald made a very tolerable property by farms, 
Malt Houses and selling Horses. He is dead some 
years. The Young Man is, as I am told, both Weak and 
Stupid. He was a Lieut, in Col. Lehante's Cavalry, 
and the intimate friend from childhood of M r Edward 
Turner who was so barbarously murdered without his 
ever interfering to save him. Mr. Fitzgerald declared 
during the Rebellion to a lady I knew that he wou'd 
be thankful to any one [who] wou'd shoot him, his life 
was so miserable and his power so uncertain. 


" Gen 1 Edward Roche was a farmer, and lived on 
Col. Ration's Estate at a place called Garrylorgh, 
near Ferrybank. He was a Serjeant in Lehante's 
Cavalry, and commanded the Rebels for some days 
in Lehante's uniform. 1 He married a Miss Dixon, Sister 
to Cap 1 Dixon and cousin to the Priest that was sent 
off for transportation by the Wexford Gentlemen 
before the Rebellion." 

Here Mrs. Brownrigg's diary abruptly ends, but in 
the little packet of manuscript is a letter which may 
well bring this chapter to a conclusion, for it gives an 
account of the writer's death. 

" 13 December, 1804. 
" Bath, 21, Brock Street. 

" My dearest Uncle, 

" Aunt Mary has no doubt informed you of the 
melancholy Event which has happened, and which 
I am sure gave you great concern. My dear mother 
often desired me not to repine when I lost her. I am 
determined in every particular to follow all her wishes, 
tho' I shall find none harder than this one. I try to 
hide my sorrow as much as possible, but I never 
cou'd meet with such a misfortune. I have, however, 
many consolations. I know that she died without 
the least pain, and that she was spared the only pang 
she often said death wou'd have for her, parting with 
me and John. Now, indeed, her children may see the 
advantage of not putting off repentance to a death 
bed, but that she often said she had no faith in. For 

1 He deserted on Whit-Sunday. 


five days before she died she was in a stupor and quite 
delirious. She always knew me, and never saw me 
without kissing me. The last kiss I had from her 
was about half an hour before she died. Oh ! how 
her sweet face was altered, and how plainly death was 
written on it. She was quite easy but could not speak. 

" My dear Uncle, how I wish you wou'd come over 
as soon as you can. It would be such a comfort to me 
to see you. I have often been told by my dear mother 
that I should always live with you when she was gone. 
Aunt Mary says that Mama told her a year ago 
that I should live with her. The last letter I wrote 
you was by her directions, and you know in that she 
made me mention living with you. However, a letter 
that there is for you will settle all that, and all I wish 
at present is that you would come here. 

" Henry John came here on Monday Morning. He 
was very much affected indeed. Without any par- 
tiality I think there cannot live a sweeter tempered 
or better disposed boy than he is. He minds every 
word his Aunt says to him, which is what few boys 
of his age wou'd do. He intends writing to you very 

Col 1 Hardy came here on Monday Night and has been 
as kind and goodnatured as possible. Good bye my 
dearest Uncle, give my best and most aff te Love to my 
Aunt and dear Anne, and believe me to be your very 
aff te and attached Niece, 


[Endorsed : " 13 Dec. 1804. My dear niece Isabella's 
letter after her Mother's Death."] 


We marched to Comer and fought the soldiers, 

And travelled round by the Colliery. 
They stole our guns and left us in disorder, 

We lost our lives in Kilcomany. 


IT was not until the morning of the 22nd June 
that a definite plan of action was determined 
upon by Edward Fitzgerald, Anthony Perry, and 
the other chiefs who accompanied the second 
body of rebels. Eventually they decided at a council 
of war to make for the Wicklow mountains. If their 
condition cannot be described as exactly desperate 
it was bordering on despair, for the loyalist army 
seemed to be here, there, and everywhere, and their 
own powder-magazines, or what took the place of them, 
were almost as empty as Mother Hubbard's cupboard. 
There must have been much searching of heart when 
they heard of the terrible doings of the Gorey Cavalry 
on the aoth, 1 and there was a general cry for vengeance. 
Hay 2 and Miles Byrne 3 both assume that the entire 
rebel force marched towards Gorey, but Lecky, 

1 See ante, p. 149. 

8 Hay, p. 248. 

8 Miles Byrne, Vol. I., p. 189. 


apparently basing his information on Gordon, who 
says they were under Perry, states that the party 
consisted of 500 only, the larger body penetrating into 
Wicklow. After killing seven rebels the yeomen 
" galloped away full speed," leaving the wretched 
refugees in the town to look after themselves, with the 
result that thirty-seven were slaughtered in cold blood. 1 
Eventually the rebels came together again, and spent 
the night at the Whiteheaps, at the foot of Craghen 
Hill. Thus ended " Bloody Friday," the story of 
which is told all too prosaically in the Camolin Cavalry 
Detail Book as follows : 

" June 22. Patrole marched at 6 o'clock, accom- 
panied by the Gorey Infantry, and a number of refugee 
Loyalists from Gorey and the neighbourhood, but 
on their arrival in Gorey they were astonished to 
find no force there but the small party of Cavalry 
which was ordered there by Gen. Needham. Two 
men who were prisoners with the Rebels on Vinegar 
Hill, and escaped from them during the Battle, arrived 
in Gorey, and informed the Yeomanry there that a 
large party of Rebels were in Clogh. Sent an express 
towards Clogh to know if the information was right 
express returned and informed the Officers that they 
had seen a number of Rebels in Clogh street, who, 
on seeing them, pointed the blades of their Pikes 
towards the ground, crying out at the same time, 

1 See Lecky, Vol. V., pp. 10-11, and Gordon, p. 157. "No 
women or children were injured, because the rebels, who professed 
to act on a plan of retaliation, found on inquiry that no women or 
children of their party had been hurt " (Gordon, pp. 157-158). 


' Come on, we are all Friends.' Express stopped a 
while and viewed them, and when the Rebels saw the 
express would not advance to them, the[y] made a 
charge on them, and fired a shot or two after them. 
Express arrived in Gorey and reported. Rebel 
prisoners in the Guard-house brought out and im- 
mediately shot. Yeomanry under the command of 
Lieut. Smith of Camolin Cavalry, took a circuit 
thro' Clogh and the adjoining hills, and killed some 
Rebels on their return to Gorey, the[y] found that 
some of the Yeomen who had come with them to 
Gorey in the morning had returned to Arklow, but 
from Clonattin they could see a large force advancing 
towards Gorey. Supposed them to be Army on 
their march from Vinegar Hill, dispatch one file to 
reconnoitre them, express returns, and reports them 
to be Rebels. Hastens towards Arklow, is met by 
Captain Holmes and a party, who had heard of the 
movements of the Rebels, returned, and shortly met 
the Gorey Cavalry each carrying an Infantry Man or a 
Loyalist. Found that the party which remained in 
Gorey had marched out to meet and attack the Rebels, 
but finding that they were surrounding them, they 
retreated. Rebels followed to Saint Austins and killed 
some of their party. The whole of the Military 
retreated to Arklow, and this night stood to their 
Arms, fearing an Attack. 

" June 23. Though there was no attack during the 
night, the small Garrison of Arklow had reason to 
think there would be an attack made, but the arrival 
of a private of the Castletown Yeoman Cavalry, who 


had been taken prisoner the day before by the Rebels, 
between Gorey and Coolgreny, for the present quieted 
their apprehensions. He reported the Rebels to be 
in great force, but badly prepared as to ammunition, 
and were under the command of M r Perry. 1 They 
stripped him of his Regimentals, robbed him of his horse 
and arms, and if he had not had a little friendship with 
Perry or some other of their leaders, they would have 
killed him. They brought him prisoner to Wood- 
burne's, near Mount Nebo, where they gave him his 
dinner of fryed Bacon, and then they set off on their 
route towards the mountains of Wicklow, and he under 
cover of night made his escape from them into Arklow. 
Number killed yesterday in Gorey and between that 
and Coolgreny said to be upwards of 30, besides a 
number wounded. Parties ordered to Patrole with 
caution during the night, and if they should hear or 
see anything remarkable, ordered to Report. 

" June 24. Reconnoitreing parties ordered out. 
At ii o'clock three Rebel Prisoners were brought in, 
who could give no satisfactory account of themselves. 
A Court Martial summoned, prisoners put on trial, 
found guilty and immediately executed. Two file 
of Yeoman Cavalry with Assistant Commissary to 
bring in Forrage for the use of the Military Horses. 
Two file of Yeoman Cavalry arrived from Gen. Need- 
ham, Oulart Camp, with the following Orders : 

' General Orders. Oulart Camp, June 23, 1798. 

' The detatchments of Yeomanry Corps in the 

1 The rebels were at the Whiteheaps, as already noticed. Miles 
Byrne (Vol. I., p. 194) states that skirmishing took place. 


neighbourhood of Arklow will hold themselves in 
readiness to march from thence for Arklow, and remain 
there 'till further Orders, which they will receive 
occasionally from the Major of Brigade. 

" When Lord Mount Norris's Corps returns to 
Oulart, the Gorey Corps will be stationed at Gorey, 
where they will be joined by the remainder of their 
troop now at Arklow. The other Corps of Yeomanry, 
viz. 2 Arklow, Coolgreny, Castletown and Wingfield, 
will be stationed at Arklow. 

" ' Major Gen. Needham returns his thanks to all 
the Yeomanry Corps for their spirited and good 
conduct when in the face of the enemy, and laments 
they had it not in their power to have given further 
proof of it, which he is well assured they will do when- 
ever an opportunity offers. As the present situation 
of the Country does not require their assistance, they 
are sent convenient to their own districts, where they 
may be better supplied with whatever is required 
to recruit them after the fatigue they have undergone. 
Returns of every kind of Camp Equipage to be given 
in to the Major of Brigade. 

" ' C. UNDERWOOD, Bri. Major.' 

" Patrole for the night to commence at 9 o'clock, 
and report every two hours. At 12 o'clock, a Yeoman 
reported that the patrole had seen several fires at a 
distance in the Mountains, but this caused no alarm 
in the town. Everything was quiet. 1 

1 " On the 24th of June, as on the day before, there was very 
little skirmishing ; the enemy's cavalry were dispersed by our 
gunsmen in every attempt they made to attack us." Miles Byrne, 
Vol. I., p. 195. 


" June 25. Two file from each detatchment of 
Cavalry as an escort with Captain Beauman of Cool- 
greny Cavalry from hence to Rathdrum. Twenty 
file with Lieut. Forde of Coolgreny Cavalry on a 
Reconnoitreing party towards his seat at Ballyfad 
and the neighbourhood. 1 At 6 o'clock the different 
escorts arrived in town, and at 7 three file arrived from 
Oulart Camp with dispatches from Gen. Needham 
to be forwarded to Wicklow, dispatch from Col. 
Skerrit to Captain Holmes, and the following Orders 
to Yeomanry Corps : 

" ' General Orders. Oulart Camp, June 24, 1798. 

" ' The Corps of Cavalry under the command of 
Major General Needham, when they gain their re- 
spective troops, will regularly send out Patroles under 
Non-commissioned Officers, who will take care to 
maintain the strictest discipline, and who will report 
every occurrence to their Officer, who will immediately 
report to the General by express, should the occurrence 
be of consequence. 

' ( ' All Expresses to be forwarded to their place of 
destination the moment they arrive. 

" ' Commissioned Officers of Yeomanry are desired 

1 On this day Perry and his followers united with the men 
under Garret Byrne, who had apparently divided for some reason 
or other (Hay, p. 259), and together with Joseph Holt attacked 
Hacketstown, which was but poorly garrisoned by some 200 men, 
under Captain Hardy and Lieutenant Gardiner. The struggle 
continued for nearly nine hours, and finding the place untenable, 
Perry withdrew, the loyalists falling back on Tullow. Gordon 
(p. 1 70) and Hay (p. 260) give the number of loyalists killed as ten, 
and twenty wounded, and of rebels " perhaps " nearly 200, including 
Michael Reynolds. The former speaks of the courteous treatment 
of the women by both parties. 


on no account to permit the Non-Commissioned Officers 
or Privates to take their arms with them from Quarters, 
unless on Duty, as arms that are lost or damaged must 
be accounted for by the Commissioned Officer. 

" ' CHARLES UNDERWOOD, Brigade Major.' 

" June 26. This morning a detatchment of Antrim 
Militia under the command of Lieut. Col. O'Hara, 
arrived in town, the Lieut. Colonel taking the command 
of the town. Reconnoitreing parties sent out on 
different Roads returned about 2 o'clock. On the 
Evening parade, Captain Holmes returned thanks to 
the different Yeomanry Corps for their good conduct 
and attention to their Duty during the time he had 
the honour to command them. 

" June 27. At 12 o'clock one file of Camolin Cavalry 
arrived from Gorey with a dispatch to be immediately 
forwarded to Wicklow, and orders for the Camolin 
Cavalry and Loyal Mount Norris Rangers to march 
immediately to Gorey, which was done with all the 
expedition possible. Arrived in Gorey at 7 o'clock, 
but as the Patroles for the night were previously 
arranged, the Parties had no other Duty to do than 
to provide lodgings for themselves and horses in 
the shattered Houses. Samuel Buttle and Edward 
Stephens, Yeomen of Camolin Cavalry, who were 
taken prisoners by the Rebels, joined the troop on its 
arrival in Gorey. The following was ordered to be 
Read and filed : 

" ' General Orders. Gorey, June 27, 1798. 

" ' Major General Needham is surprized to find his 


Orders neglected, which orders he at present refers to, 
and that on no account the Yeomen are to leave 
Quarters without a written pass from their Captain. 
Any transgressing this Order the General will punish. 
The Cavalry Yeomen are to parade mounted every 
morning at 10 o'clock, and every evening at 7 dis- 
mounted. The Infantry will parade at the same 
time. The Captains will be able to account for absent 
Men. These Orders, and any other that may be 
issued, are to be read on Parades, and entered in the 
Orderly Serjeant's Book as formerly directed. The 
Parade to assemble every morning and evening before 
Head Quarters. 

" ' C. UNDERWOOD, B.M.' 

" At 9 this evening a Proclamation (of which the 
following are the outlines) was posted up in Gorey, 
and ordered to be distributed throughout the Country, 
' enabling the respective Generals commanding in the 
different districts to offer Pardon and Amnesty to such 
of the deluded insurgents as should come in to an 
appointed place in each County, and surrender and 
give up their Arms in 14 days from 25 June ; and 
certificates of protection to be granted to all who should 
take the Oath of Allegiance, abjure their former 
treasonable obligations, and give security for future 
good Behaviour.' 1 

1 Rebel leaders, persons under arrest, those guilty of murder 
or conspiracy to murder, yeomanry who had deserted or adminis- 
tered illegal oaths, persons who had direct communication with 
the enemy, and the county delegates of the United Irishmen were 
excluded from amnesty (see Alison's Lives of Lord Castlereagh and 
Sir C. Stewart, Vol. I., p. 63 n.). Moore, who was in charge of 
a detached brigade, passes severe judgment on the way in which 


" June 28. John Redmond, a priest, came into 
Gorey to surrender himself ; committed to the Guard 
house. At 12 o'clock the entire Yeomanry were 
inspected by Brigade Major Underwood, after which 
a private from each troop was ordered out to assist the 
Commissary in procuring Forrage for the Military 

the troops behaved at this trying time, when it was particularly 
necessary to calm the fears of the peasants and to show that the 
certificates of protection given to rebels were what they pur- 
ported to be. The condition of the men and officers of the Militia 
was as bad as ever, and he stigmatises the latter by calling them 
" as ignorant and as much a rabble as those who have hitherto 
opposed us. Our army is better armed and provided with am- 
munition ; that of the rebels has the advantage of zeal and ardour. 
If the rebellion continues, or if the French effect a landing, even 
in inconsiderable numbers, I shall consider the country as lost 
unless a completely different system is adopted." On the 4th July 
he notes that murders and plunderings had been committed by the 
rebels in the neighbourhood of Taghmon. " Some of these yeo- 
men were beginning to vex the people by casting up against them 
what had passed, and threatening revenge ; to burn, &c." The 
General certainly did his best by word and example to counsel 
mutual understanding, in marked contrast to General Eustace, 
stationed at Ross, whose troops were acting like the Avenging 
Angel. Pillage on the part of the yeomen still continued, however. 
He writes on the 26th July that " Above 1,200 have already sur- 
rendered their arms and received ' protections,' and numbers are 
crowding in every hour. Everything bears the appearance of 
returning tranquillity, and I am convinced the country would 
again be quiet if the gentlemen and yeomen could behave them- 
selves with tolerable decency and prudence ; but I am constantly 
obliged to reprove their violence, which prompts them every in- 
stant, notwithstanding the orders and proclamations, to gratify 
their revenge and ill-humour upon the poor inhabitants. I cannot 
but think that it was their harshness and ill-treatment that in a 
great measure drove the peasants and farmers to revolt. They 
seem to have learnt nothing by the lesson, but are as ready as ever 
to commence their former usage, and from what I observe of the 
temper of the better sort of people I foresee nothing but discon- 
tent and ferment in the country" (see Diary of Sir John Moore, 
Vol. I., pp. 303-3 9)- 


Horses. One file from different troops as an escort 
with prisoners from Dublin to Wexford ordered to 
lodge them in Ferns Guard-house. On their return 
to Gorey, they saw a number of Men supposed to be 
Rebels on Ballydarnill Bridge near Camolin, who fled 
on seeing the escort, and escaped by crossing the Bog 
to the right of the Bridge could perceive no Arms. 1 
At 10 o'clock the following Orders were issued : 

" ' General Orders. Gorey, June 28. 9 o'clk P.M. 

" ' It is Major General Needham's order that no party 
of Regulars or Yeomanry shall on any account patrole 
to-morrow towards Anagh, Mount Nebo, Limerick, 
or Bolaring before 2 o'clock P.M. and should any 
Straglers go that way, the General orders that they 
are not to shoot or otherwise destroy any Man or Men 
they may meet on those roads. 

" ' C. UNDERWOOD, B.M.' 

" June 29. A number of Rebels came in this day, 
gave up some pikes, took the Oath of Allegiance, and 
got protections from Gen. Needham. 

" ' General Orders. Gorey, June 29, 1798. 

' It is Major General Needham's positive Orders 
that the daily returns of all the Yeomanry Corps in 
this town be given in at 7 o'clock in the morning to 
Brigade Major Underwood, that a general one be made 
out for the Inspection of the General before 8 o'clock. 

1 On the 26th the rebels had marched towards Craghan Hill ; 
" the enemy's cavalry from Arklow, Gorey, and other towns, 
were continually seen at a distance, but they seldom ventured to 
engage in combat with our men, so that the 27th and 28th passed 
with very little skirmishing." Miles Byrne, Vol. I., p. 197. 


" ' Any Corps of Yeomanry of Wicklow or Wexford 
that have not already Orders are to consider themselves 
on Permanent Duty, and will be entitled to pay from 
the time they are called together by any of the General 
Officers of the District, and they must make a return 
on the first of every Month of the strength of their 
Corps, and a return of Permanent pay which must 
be sent to B. M. Underwood, to be forwarded to Colonel 
Tytler to be inspected, and signed by General Craig, 
on which their pay will be issued from the War-Office 
to whatever Agent they may appoint. 

" ' CHARLES UNDERWOOD, Brigade Major.' 

" June 30. At 10 o'clock intelligence was brought 
to the Camp on Gorey-hill that a large body of Rebels 
were in motion towards Gorey, 1 in consequence of 
which Gen. Needham detatched a party of 5 th Dragoons, 
Antient Brittons, Ballakeen and Gorey Cavalry, and 
some supplimentary mounted Yeomen, in number near 
200, under the command of Lieut. Col. Pulson of the 
Britons, on a Reconnoitreing party in the direction 
the Rebels were said to be moving in. As the patrole 
advanced, they were informed the Rebels were near 
Ballyellis. The Rebels on seeing the Patrole ad- 
vancing in so rapid a manner, instantly quit the Cars 
on which they carried their Women and Baggage, 

1 Their destination was Carnew, and they were under the 
leadership of Garret Byrne, who was still accompanied by Fitz- 
gerald and Holt. Miles Byrne makes a mistake in the date of the 
battle of Ballyellis, which, according to him, took place on the 2pth 
June (see Vol. I., pp. 197-200). The Ancient Britons suffered 
severely in this fight. 


and advanced under cover of the ditches to annoy the 
patrole as the[y] passed. When the patrole came up, 
the Rebels opened a heavy fire on them. The Patrole 
on the other hand were so enclosed by ditches 
and walls on both sides the road, they could do no 
execution. Patrole advanced on towards Carnew, 
but the Rebels artfully formed a scheme of stopping 
the communication by placing the Cars above men- 
tioned and other lumber as barriers across the Road, 
which while the Patrole was endeavouring to force, 
the whole body of the Rebels fell upon their rear, and 
put a great number of them and their horses to death. 
The firing distinctly heard on Gorey Hill. Gen. 
Needham ordered another party of Cavalry, (Camolin 
being the chief part) to escort him towards Carnew, 
as that was the direction the firing was heard in. At 
Carnew he met two file of the fugitives who related 
to him the melancholy tidings. Retreated to Gorey 
Hill, and immediately a strong party of Infantry, 
with Lieut. Smith and 20 Camolin Cavalry, marched 
to the relief of the Patrole, but the remnant of the 
Patrole took a circuit thro' Carnew, and arrived in 
Gorey in a shattered condition about 2 o'clock. 
Express forwarded to order the Relief party back 
to Gorey. Priest Redmond tried by Court Martial 
and immediately executed. 1 The troops stood to their 

1 Gordon, the Protestant historian, passes severe censure on 
the execution of Father John Redmond, who, he suggests, was seen 
but once in the company of a band of insurgents, when he called 
upon them to desist from plundering Lord Mount Norris's mansion. 
See Gordon, pp. 185-186, also Lecky, Vol. V., pp. 19-20, and Hay, 
pp. 266-267. 


arms the entire night, and sent out very strong 
patroles. 1 

We left Fathers John Murphy and Philip Roche 
on the 2ist June at Sledagh. 2 Early the following 
morning the latter rode off in the direction of Wexford, 
hoping to make favourable terms for this party of 
rebels, but he and his hopes were dashed to the ground, 
not metaphorically, but literally. The unfortunate 
priest was dragged before a court-martial 3 and hanged 
on the bridge which had well earned the name of " the 
bridge of sighs." Moore describes him as " a great, 
fat, vulgar-looking beast," 4 Miles Byrne as "very 
handsome and more than six feet high," adding 
that he enjoyed considerable influence. 5 So much for 
a man's opinion when it is biassed. 

On the 22nd Father John's division traversed the 
site of the battle fought by Moore and Philip Roche 
but two days before. The dead still lay unburied, and 
the wreckage of things military impeded their progress. 
At Killedmond, Co. Carlow, a fight took place with 
the garrison and the barracks was set on fire. The 
following day saw them at Goresbridge, 6 on the 
River Barrow, which town fell to the insurgents, the 
commander of the troops making an ignominious 

1 The rebels marched to Kilcaven Hill. 

3 See ante, p. 158. 

3 Miles Byrne makes no mention of the court-martial. As 
he was present at many of the events narrated in this portion of 
the chapter, his Memoirs have been largely drawn upon. 

* Diary of Sir John Moore, Vol. I., p. 30x3. 
6 Miles Byrne, Vol. I., p. 152. 

* Also known as Newbridge. 


and semi-humorous retreat mounted behind a dragoon 
guard, leaving his men to be taken prisoners after 
firing a few desultory shots. 1 The night was spent 
on the Ridge of Leinster, and it is said that several 
of the captives murdered their comrades. On the 
24th Castlecomer, Co. Kilkenny, was reached, the 
collier-inhabitants of Dunain having flocked to Father 
John's standard on the way. This augmentation 
of the rebel forces was the cause of much rejoicing 
at the time, but heaviness came the following morning 
when it was found that some of them had deserted 
under cover of night, after having helped themselves 
to weapons and ammunition. 

During the march on the 24 th Miles Byrne nearly 
lost his life owing to a misunderstanding with a 
company of the Waterford Militia, the rearguard of the 
troops retreating from Dunain. At Castlecomer General 
Sir Charles Asgill's men contested the rebel forces, 
who suffered severely, and some fifty loyalists were 
killed, 2 the former retiring towards Kilkenny, from 
whence they had started. Father John, passing 
into the Queen's County, stayed the night there, and 
on the evening of the 25th was at Kilcomney Hill, 
Co. Carlow, near Scollagh Gap, a pass leading into 
Co. Wexford, where it was hoped that news of the 
larger body might be obtained. When the camp was 
astir on the 26th no more colliers were visible ; the 

1 A few were killed, and twenty-seven taken prisoners, of whom 
seven were " condemned as Orangemen " and shot. Sir Charles 
Asgill arrived after the rebels had evacuated the position (Gordon, 
p. 166). Hay (p. 256) says twenty-eight were taken prisoners. 

2 Gordon, p. 166. 


reinforcement had turned into a depletion. Meanwhile 
something much more important was happening. 
Through the haze some of the 1,600 troops 1 under Sir 
Charles Asgill could be seen advancing. Without 
artillery, 2 short of ammunition, and encumbered with 
women who had taken refuge with them, the rebels 
forced their way through Scollagh Gap, which was 
very fiercely contested by the cavalry, but the honours 
of the battle of Kilcomney 3 Hill rested with the English 
commander. When the Irishmen had time to take 
stock of things, the redoubtable Father John was 
missing an irreparable loss to his followers, who must 
have discerned, even though they did not admit so 
much, that the knell of their cause was already tolling. 
Diligent search was made, but without result. The 
erstwhile bullet-catcher had disappeared as into thin 
air." 4 Divided counsels reigned with the usual result. 

1 Lecky, Vol. V., p. 7. 

8 Miles Byrne, Vol. I., p. 170. Gordon (p. 168) says their 
artillery consisted of ten light pieces. The same authority mentions 
that seven loyalists lost their lives and some 200 or 300 rebels. 
He also adds a significant footnote. " I am informed," he says, 
" that great part of the slain were inhabitants of the country which 
had unfortunately become the scene of action, who had not joined 
the rebels nor left their houses ; and that great part of the plunder 
was taken from people of the same description. The behaviour 
of the army in other places renders this account very probable." 
See also Hay, p. 258. 

3 Sometimes called Kilconnell. 

* Miles Byrne was unable to find out what actually happened 
to Father John Murphy, and Lecky (Vol. V., p. 8) says that "There 
is some uncertainty about his fate." Gordon (p. 185) asserts that 
the rebel chief was conducted to Tullow, " where, being recognised, 
he was executed by martial law." Froude (Vol. III., p. 510) states 
that the priest found his way to Taghmon, and became a victim 
of the gallows on the 26th June, 1798. 


The spirit of compromise seemed altogether lacking 
in their dissertations, but at least they agreed to differ. 
One section, under Father Moses Kearns, ceded, 
making for the woods of Killaughram, which would 
afford them ample cover and time to recuperate. The 
remainder decided on making the Wicklow mountains 
their court of last resort. At Monaseed the latter were 
told that Perry and his men were stationed near the 
Gold Mines, but we shall see that they eventually 
united at the Whiteheaps on the 3rd July, and 
encamped at Ballyfad. 1 French help was " hourly 
expected," and American aid in the form of ammuni- 
tion and provisions anticipated. 2 

1 See post, p. 217 n.. 

8 Miles Byrne, Vol. I., p. 182. 


They led their wild desires to woods and caves, 
And thought that all but savages were slaves. 

"W" ULY i. In consequence of the melancholy 
affair of yesterday, a large detatchment of 
Military and Yeomanry patroled with great 
caution towards Ballyellis, but returned with- 
out seeing any Rebels. Brought in the bodies of 
some of the Britons and Yeomen who were slaughtered 
the preceding day. Hunter Roe and Henry White, 
Yeomen of Camolin Cavalry, who were detained at 
home by the Rebels, joined their troop this day. 
At Evening Parade, there appeared to be missing 
25 Antient Britons, n Fifth Dragoon Guards, 6 
Gorey, and 2 Ballakeen Cavalry, besides a number 

" July 2. Received Orders to prepare for an in- 
spection at 12 o'clock, which took place accordingly 
by Brigade Major Underwood, who passed some com- 
pliments on the Yeomanry Corps which he inspected. 
Lord Mount Norris, attended by 10 file of his troop of 
Yeomanry, on a Reconnoitreing party towards Little 
Limerick. Returned at 4 o'clk, and drove in some 



Cattle, which was given up to the Commissary for 
the use of the Troops. 1 

" July 3. One file from each Corps of Yeomanry 
Cavalry, to be commanded by a Subaltern, ordered 
to Ferns with Prisoners. All the Yeomanry, both 
Cavalry and Infantry, inspected by Gen. Needham, 
after which Reconnoitreing parties of Cavalry were 
sent out. 

" July 4. One file from each Corps of Yeoman 
Cavalry order[ed] to Arklow for supplies for the 
Commissaries Horses returned, and brought an ex- 
press to Gen. Needham, and another to Col. L'Estrange, 
Ferns, which was forwarded with expedition. Lord 
Mount Norris, attended by a party of his troop, on 
a reconnoitreing party towards Corrigrua, returned 
by Ballycanew, and brought in some Cattle and 
Sheep, which was delivered over to the Commissary. 
A Serjeant and 12 ordered for the night patrole 

1 On this date a serious affray took place on Ballyraheen Hill, 
between Tinnehely and Carnew, where 150 yeomen, chiefly of 
the Shilelah and True Blues of Tinnehely corps (see Gordon, p. 174), 
had a desperate tussle with the insurgents under Garret and William 
Byrne of Ballymanus, the troops finally rallying in Captain Cham- 
ney's mansion, which they defended with great gallantry. Lecky 
(Vol. V., p. 13) states that the rebels then divided into two bands, 
one crossing into Co. Kildare via the Wicklow mountains, and 
the other returning to Co. Wexford. This agrees with Gordon 
(p. 175). See also Hay (pp. 262-265). Byrne makes this take 
place on June 26th. He gives the date of the Ballyraheen Hill 
affair as the ist July, which is wrong. The night of the 2nd was 
apparently spent by the Wexford men at the Whiteheaps, near 
Coolgreny ; on the 3rd the rebels marched to the Gold Mines, 
and returned to their former station, encamping at Ballyfad, 
where those formerly under Father John Murphy and the section 
commanded by Father Moses Kearns from Killaughram Woods 
joined them (see Miles Byrne, Vol. I., p. 204). 


on the road leading to Mount Nebo, from 9 till 5 
next morning and Report. At 10 o'clock this night 
the Chief part of the Garrison received Orders of 
Readiness to March at 12 o'clock. All the night 
Patroles called in all bustle and confusion ! The 
Garrison marched at half past twelve, leaving a 
sufficient Guard in the town, under the command 
of Brigade General Grose. 

" July 5. After a very fatiguing March (the morn- 
ing being wet *) the troops found themselves near 
a mountain called the Whiteheaps, where the Rebels 
had formed a Camp the day before ; but to their 
surprize and regret, they had quit that post, and 
moved towards Corrigrua Hill, were met in their 
flight at Ballygullen, 2 within 4 miles of Gorey, by 
Gen. Sir James Duffe's 3 Brigade, who had marched 
from Carnew the preceding night, for the purpose 
of attacking in conjunction with Gen. Needham. 
A Skirmish ensued between Gen. Duffe and the 
Rebels, 4 in which a number of the latter were killed, 
and on searching the Pockets of some of them, pro- 

1 Miles Byrne (Vol. I., p. 205) mentions that there was also 
a thick fog. See also Hay, p. 262. 

* Sometimes called Craneford. 

8 Duff. 

' The enemy defeated the cavalry, of whom about eighty were 
slain, according to Hay (p. 262), but were unable to stand against 
Duff's reinforcements. Gordon (p. 176) says the rebels suffered 
" little loss," but Miles Byrne (Vol. I., p. 208) mentions that " We 
had vast numbers killed and wounded, no doubt, in this battle, 
which lasted two hours, fought with equal bravery on both sides " 
a remarkable statement for him to make if untrue. Musgrave 
is indefinite. "About 300 of the rebels," he says, "were thought 
to have fallen" (p. 519). 


tections (which were granted a few days before by 
Gen. Needham in Gorey,) were found. Gen. Need- 
ham's Cavalry joined the pursuit, and killed a number 
of the Rebels. 1 At 2 o'clock the two Brigades marched 
into Gorey, bringing with them a powder Mill which 
the Rebels in their flight left behind them. At 4 
o'clock an Officer and 20 men of Camolin Cavalry 
and a party of the Cavan Militia marched in the 
direction of Ferns, and encamped for that night 
between Camolin and Ferns. The Chief part of the 
Military stood to their Arms this night, and had very 
large Patroles out. 

" July 6. The detatchments which marched yester- 
day evening in the direction of Ferns, returned this 
morning, and brought intelligence that the Rebels 
had taken post on Corrigrua yesterday, but were 
driven off it by the Kings County Militia and New- 
town-Barry Yeoman Cavalry, commanded by Col. 
L' Strange. 2 A Corporal and 3 file of Camolin Cavalry 

1 Few contemporary writers mention this, and Gordon (p. 175) 
asserts that Needham was " too late in his movements." On the 
contrary, Musgrave (p. 519) tells us that although Needham was 
unable to advance his infantry sufficiently rapidly, "he pushed on 
his cavalry, which joined that of Sir James Duff." 

8 This corps was stationed at Ferns. The Marquis of Huntly's 
famous Gordon Highlanders had also searched for the insurgents, 
but missed them in the fog (see Gordon, p. 176). Miles Byrne 
(Vol. I., p. 21 1 ) disputes Hay's statement (p. 263) that after the 
battle of Ballygullen the " remaining body of the Wexford men," 
commanded by Fitzgerald and Garret Byrne, " and some Wicklow 
men, directed their course to form a junction " with William 
Aylmer (1777-1820), the leader of the Kildare rebels, " which 
they accordingly effected." This Miles Byrne dismisses as apocry- 
phal by minutely tracing the route taken by them. On his own 
showing, however, he and a small detachment deviated from the 


to Ferns with Prisoners, to be transmitted from that 
to Wexford Goal. 

" J u ty 7- At 5 this evening the Cavan Battalion, 
Camolin Cavalry and Loyal Mount Norris Rangers 

main body. Arriving at Glenmalure, their stronghold in the 
Wicklow mountains, he says that he " met vast numbers of the 
county of Wexford men, all of whom, like myself, were at a loss 
to know what direction the main body of our small army had taken " 
(p. 219). Holt then joined them, and there was skirmishing near 
Rathdrum. A little later they heard that Fitzgerald, Garret Byrne, 
Kearns, Esmond Kyan and others, had marched into the counties 
of Meath, Louth, and Dublin and met with " disaster and complete 
dispersion " (p. 224). The detachment in which Miles Byrne was 
serving remained in the mountains until news arrived of the sur- 
render of the French, when the men gradually made their way 
to their homes (see Miles Byrne, Vol. I., p. 236). Kavanagh (p. 258) 
partly agrees with Hay, but mentions only Father Kearns, Anthony 
Perry, and Garret Byrne as leaders, and says that they assembled 
on Carrigrew Hill before starting on their march to surprise Athlone, 
Co. Meath. At Clonard, on the River Boyne, a yeoman corps of 
twenty-seven men (Gordon, p. 177) under Lieutenant Tyrrel suc- 
cessfully opposed them on the nth July. The Wexford men, 
numbering about 1,500 (Gordon, p. 177), then left Aylmer and his 
associates, and penetrated with Fitzgerald into the counties of 
Kildare, Meath, Louth, and Dublin, as Miles Byrne asserts. In 
endeavouring to effect their escape after another unsuccessful 
engagement on the I2th Perry and Kearns were captured, tried 
and executed at Edenderry. On the I4th the rebels encountered 
the forces under Major-General Wemyss and Brigadier-General 
Meyrick near Ardee, eventually finding refuge in a bog. Desertions 
followed, and the remaining body, now much thinned in numbers, 
was finally routed at Ballyboghill, near Swords, Co. Dublin, by 
the Dumfries Light Dragoons under Captain Gordon. A few 
hundred of them, reinforced by deserters from Irish Militia regi- 
ments, still held out in the Wicklow mountains and the Killaughram 
and Monart woods, near Enniscorthy. The latter forces, known 
as the " Babes in the Wood," were dispersed on the loth August, 
and particulars are given in the Detail Book, but the former, 
usually called the Irish and Catholic Army, and led by Hackett and 
Holt, were not got rid of so easily. At Castletown and Aughrim 
they murdered several Protestants, and the yeomen retaliated by 



received Orders to March for Ferns the next morning 
at 5 o'clock. A Serjeant and 12 men ordered for the 
night Patrole on the road to Ballycanon from 9 to 5 
next morning and Report. A Dragoon from the 

massacring a larger number of Romanists (see Gordon, p. 195). 
Hackett was killed while attacking Emma Vale, the house of Captain 
Atkins of the Arklow Yeomanry, on the aoth of the following 
November, and Holt surrendered for transportation to New South 
Wales on the loth of the same month. He afterwards received a free 
pardon, returned to his native country, and died near Dublin in 
1826. Aylmer and Fitzgerald, after negotiating with General 
Dundas, surrendered to him on the I2th July, " on condition, that 
all the other leaders who had adventured with them, should be at 
liberty to retire whither they pleased out of the British dominion." 
Aylmer went to South America and became colonel of a regiment 
under General Devereux, receiving his death wound at the battle 
of Rio de la Hache. In conversation with Fitzgerald Lord Corn- 
wallis elicited the information that " the mob were furious, and 
wanting to massacre every Protestant ; and that the only means 
they had of dissuading them from burning houses was, that they 
were destroying their own property " (Correspondence, Vol. II., 
p. 372). The two chiefs mentioned, together with Garret Byrne, 
were imprisoned in Dublin Castle until the beginning of 1799, and 
then allowed to go to England. In the following March Fitzgerald 
and Garret Byrne were arrested at Bristol, but subsequently found 
their way to Hamburg (see Hay, p. 265). Many of the remaining 
leading spirits did not fare so well, nine being executed on Wexford 
bridge on the 2$th June, including Keugh and Philip Roche, 
as were B. B. Harvey, Cornelius Grogan, and J. H. Colclough 
a few days later. William Byrne, brother of Garret, paid the full 
penalty for his misdeeds. Some seventy rebels were sent to Fort 
George, Co. Nairn, one of the most solitary places in Scotland, 
where the majority of them were confined until the truce of Amiens, 
when they were released. 

Lecky, perhaps wisely, contents himself with generalities re- 
garding the subsequent movements of the various divisions of the 
Irish army until the coming of Humbert to Killala in the following 
August. He does not even mention the engagement at Ballygullen 
on the 5th July. 

Musgrave (pp. 519-520) sums up the situation as follows: 
" After this defeat [at Ballygullen] the rebels never appeared in 


patrole on the Clogh road came in at 12 o'clock 
and reported that a shot was fired at the patrole 
from Charlotte Grove, by which one of the Antient 
Britons had his thigh broke. The Grove scoured by 
the military, but no person could be found. 

" July 8. This morning at 5 o'clock, the Cavan 
Regiment of Militia, Camolin Cavalry and Loyal 
Mount Norris Rangers, all under the command of 
Col. Maxwell, marched for Ferns, where the[y] re- 
lieved the Kings' County Militia, and Newtown Barry 
Cavalry, under the command of Col. L'Strange, 
the above troops having received Orders to occupy 
their former station at Newtown Barry. A Corporal 
and 3 file of Ballakeen Cavalry brought in the body 
of Captain Phillip Hay of the 3 rd Regiment of Foot 
from Gorey, who was arrested in Dublin on a charge 
of being a leader in the Rebellion at Wexford. He 
was escorted on to Enniscorthy by a corporal and 3 
file of Camolin Cavalry. A Serjeant and 12 men 
ordered for the night patrole, on all the roads and 
avenue in and about the Camp of Ferns, to begin at 

any part of the county of Wexford, in such force as to meet the 
military or the yeomen in a pitched battle ; but many bands of 
assassins continued to rob and murder. Part of those who were 
dispersed on this occasion, went into the counties of Kildare, Carlow, 
and Meath, under Fitzgerald, Aylmer, Garret Byrne, Perry and 
Kearns, and spread desolation in their progress. . . . The moun- 
tains of Wicklow continued for many months after the asylum of 
a desperate banditti, who, under Holt and Hackett as leaders, 
committed plunder and assassination in all the adjacent country. 
That county, from the strong posts and fastnesses which its steeps, 
craggy mountains and deep defiles afford, was the last place in 
Ireland in which rebellion was subdued in the reigns of Elizabeth, 
Charles I. and King William." 


9 o'clock, and come into Quarters at 5 next morning & 
to Report. All well. 1 

" July 9. Ten file as an escort with Lord Mount 
Norris and Col. Maxwell to Newtown Barry. A 
Corporal and 6 men ordered to convey three prisoners 
in a Carriage to Enniscorthy on their way to Wexford. 
Orders received for the Cavan Regiment to march 
for Newtown-barry, in consequence of which a party 
were ordered through the Country to Press Horses 
for to convey their baggage thither. 

" July 10. This morning at 6 o'clock, the Cavan 
Regiment marched for Newtown-barry. At 9 o'clock 
a Regiment of Mounted and Dismounted Hessians 
marched thro' Ferns on their route to Carnew. Two 
file ordered as guides with the Hessians to Carnew. 
A Corporal and 6 men, as an escort with Prisoners 
to Enniscorthy. At 12 o'clock the 4 th Battallion 
under the command of Col. Lord Blayney 2 marched 
into Ferns to continue untill further Orders. 

" July ii. At 9 o'clock the whole Garrison were 
drawn up by order of Lord Blayney, to witness Punish- 
ment inflicted on a private of the 4 th Battalion for 

1 Writing from Dublin Castle on this date, Cornwallis tells 
the Duke of Portland that " No actual force at this moment exists 
in arms against us, except in the county of Wicklow and the 
northern boundary of Wexford, and in the county of Kildare, 
and borders of the counties of Meath and Dublin" (see Cornwallis 
Correspondence, Vol. II., p. 358). 

2 Andrew Thomas Blayney (1770-1834), nth Baron; served 
in Flanders 1794-1795 ; lieutenant-colonel of the Sgih regiment in 
Ireland 1798; major-general in the Peninsular 1810; captured 
and imprisoned in France 1810-1814; lieutenant-general 1819. 
Lord Blayney had already proved his ability in helping to pacify 


a theft he commited in his last quarters received 
200 lashes. Four Prisoners brought in from Gorey, 
forwarded to the Camp of Scarawalsh by a Corporal 
and 6 men. Two file from hence to Carnew, as an 
escort with two Hessian Officers. Night patrole 
the same as last and to report. All well, 'till about 
4 o'clock, when a few Men were observed on the rising 
ground near Miltown. On enquiry they were found 
to [be] persons who had been at the Priests about 
their lawful business reprimanded by the Officer of 
the Patrole. 

" July 12. This morning the following Orders 
were received from Edward FitzGerald Esq re Brigade 
Major of Yeomanry, County Wexford. 

" ' Enniscorthy, July 12, 1798. 

" ' Brigade Orders for the Yeomanry Corps. 

' The Corps in this, and all other stations in this 
County, are to particularly attend to keep an account 
of the different details given daily by each Corps for 
Duty, (in a Book kept for that purpose,) as ordered 
by a late Regulation ; and, also, to file their Morning 
and Evening reports for inspection if necessary. 


" July 14. One File as an escort with Col. Cleghorn 
from hence to Enniscorthy. Lord Mount Norris 
attended by 20 file, went on an information he had 
received of Arms and Plunder being concealed in 
the neighbourhood of Camolin and Slievebuoy 
found on said information some Wine in bottle, and 
brought in three Prisoners. 


" July 15. Ten file as an escort with Lords Blayney 
and Mount Norris, and others of the Officers on a 
Reconnoitreing party saw nothing particular. This 
evening Mathew Bates, a private in the Loyal Mount 
Norris Rangers, was killed by an accidental Shot from 
the Musquet of Joseph Kendaick, another private 
of the same Corps. 

" July 17. Ten file by order of Lords Mount Norris 
and Blayney on a Reconnoitreing party on the moun- 
tains between Carnew and Camolin returned at 
3 o'clock in the afternoon, when the whole of the 
troop and part of the 4 th Battalion were ordered out, 
on an information given to Lord Mount Norris of the 
Rebels having assembled on Killthomas Hill, which 
information proved to be erroneous, nothing having 
appeared on said Hill but a parcel of Horses supposed 
to belong to Rebels, in number about thirty ; re- 
turned at 9 o'clock same evening. 

" July 18. Twelve file with Lord Mount Norris 
on a Reconnoitreing party in and about the neigh- 
bourhood of Camolin ; returned about 3 o'clock and 
brought in a prisoner charged with being a Rebel. 
' Orders. The Yeoman Cavalry and Infantry are 
ordered to Parade precisely at 10 o'ck in the morn- 
ing and at 7 in the evening every day.' 

" July 19. The whole troop paraded at 9 o'clock 
by order of Lord Mount Norris, and at 10 were re- 
viewed and inspected by Lord Blayney, and afterwards 
went thro' the whole of the Exercise much to the 
satisfaction of his Lordship. Immediately after 
the Inspection took place, the chief part of the Troop 


and some of the 4 th Battalion were ordered to attend 
Lords Mount Norris and Blayney on an information 
which the former had received of Rebels being con- 
cealed in a Cave in the neighbourhood of Rossminoge 
about 6 miles from hence could not find any such 
Cave, notwithstanding there was very diligent serch 

" July 20. The Cavalry paraded at 10 o'clock as 
usual, but on account of the wetness of the morning, 
were ordered back to their Stables. 

" July 21. Two file as an escort with Lord Blayney 
to Gorey. On the return of Lord Blayney, he ordered 
Lieut. Brownrigg and the Loyal Mount Norris Rangers 
to march immediately for Gorey, and remain 'till 
further Orders. One file express to Enniscorthy, to be 
forwarded from that to Major Gen. Hunter 1 at Wexford. 

" July 22. Six file as an escort with Lord Mount 
Norris to Dublin. 

" July 25. A Corporal and 6 men, by order of 
Lord Blayney on a reconnoitreing expedition to Kil- 
muckridge and thro' the Mackamores. 2 Saw a number 

1 " General Hunter was indefatigable in his exertions to appease 
the minds of the people, and to restore confidence and tranquillity 
to this distracted country. In this he was very materially assisted 
by the address and exertions of Captain FitzGerald, who by the 
special appointment of the British Government, was attached 
as a proper person to attend the general as brigade-major on the 
service in Ireland ; and to this station besides his acknowledged 
military talents, a recent display of courage, independent of his 
knowledge of the country, certainly recommended him. He was 
even invested with the extraordinary privilege of recommending 
such as he thought deserving of the protection and mercy of Govern- 
ment." Hay, pp. 270-271. 

2 The Macomores is a tract of country extending from Cour- 
town to Blackwater. Many representations having been made to 


of the Rebels runing in different directions as if col- 
lecting a force, and towards the afternoon as they 
advanced on to Peppards Castle, they saw a force of 
between 60 and 100 armed with Muskets, Pikes, &c. 
On seeing this force collected, they instantly returned 
to Quarters. One file express from Commanding 
Officer in Gorey, to Gen. Grose, Enniscorthy. 1 At 
6 o'clock this evening, Lord Blayney 2 with the 4 th 
Battalion under his command, marched from hence, 
and took with him one file to conduct him the best 
road to Ross ; in consequence of his quiting Ferns, 

Government that the inhabitants of the district were contemplating 
rebellion, it was determined that the troops under General Hunter, 
Brigadier-General Grose, Lord Blayney, Brigadier-General Skerret, 
and General Eustace, the last of whom commanded at Arklow, 
should put a summary stop to the intrigues alleged to be going on 
by decimating the territory of the Macomores. According to Hay 
(p. 275) General Hunter received a deputation, whose chief 
grievance was that the continued cruelties of the soldiery and 
yeomanry precluded the rebels taking advantage of the clemency 
extended to them by means of protections. Although not noted 
in the Detail Book, we are told by the same authority that Surgeon 
White of the Camolin Cavalry was sent by FitzGerald to inquire 
into the matter, with the result that " the people unanimously 
surrendered to him, and continued to flock into Wexford for 
several days after, to give up their arms and receive protections" 
(Hay, p. 277). Captain Hawtrey White and another also for- 
warded alarming reports to Government which were unfounded, 
and although a court-martial was mooted, it never took place. 
Various addresses were afterwards sent by "the Macomore boys," 
as they called themselves, to Major FitzGerald and General 
Hunter, in which they expressed a deep sense of loyalty, and 
offered to march against Humbert when he landed at Killala. 
Peppards Castle seems to have been their head-quarters. In this 
connection, pp. 272-283 of Hay's History are well worthy of special 

1 Brigadier- General Grose, with the South Cork Militia. 

2 In command at Ferns. 


the whole troop patroled from 9 o'clk in the evening 
'till 5 the following morning. All was quiet in the 
neighbourhood of Ferns, but the Country at a dis- 
tance seemed much disturbed. 

" July 26. About 2 o'clk this day Lieut. Smith 
with a Corporal and one file went to Enniscorthy to 
Gen. Grose, to know how he was to act in consequence 
of Lord Blayney's having evacuated Ferns the pre- 
ceding evening. General Grose could not give any 
order but recommended him to proceed to Wexford 
to General Hunter. Lieut. Smith sent back the 
Corporal to Ferns with orders for the troop to stand 
fast, and protect themselves and the Commissary 
stores, until his return. The whole troop mounted 
Guard on the Commissary stores from 9 to 5. Found 
all well. 

" July 27. Lieut. Smith returned from Wexford 
without receiving any positive orders from Gen. 
Hunter, as he had no official account of Lord Blayney's 
quitting Ferns, but recommended him to remain 
there a day or two, until he should be more fully 
acquainted why Lord Blayney evacuated that post. 
Five file of the escort with Lord Mount Norris to 
Dublin returned this evening, and brought the follow- 
ing letter, which was ordered to be entered in the 
Orderly Book : 

" ' Dublin Castle 27 June, 1798. 
" ' My Lord, 

" ' I have it in Command from his Excellency 
the Lord Lieutenant to inform you that his Excellency 
has been pleased (thro' your recommendation) to 


promote John Colley Smith Esq. to be first Lieutenant 
of your Lordship's Corps of Yeoman Cavalry in the 
room of Thomas Bookey Esq. deceased ; and his 
Excellency has also been pleased to appoint John 
Jones Esq. to be second Lieutenant, in the room of 
John Colley Smith Esq. promoted. 

'"I have the Honor to be, My Lord, &c. &c. 


" ' Rt. Hon. Earl Mount Norris, &c. 

" ' P.S. Commissions shall be made out immediately.' 

" July 28. This morning the following Orders was 
received from B.M. FitzGerald, and adressed to the 
Officers commanding the Yeomanry Troops stationed 
at Ferns : 

" ' Brigade Orders. Wexford, July 25, 1798. 

" ' You are requested when you send Gentlemen of 
your Corps to this town on Duty or otherwise, that 
you will caution them to call at the Brigade Major's 
Quarters to enquire for Orders, &c. Pursuant to 
General Orders of the 21 Instant, you will examine 
into the number of Horses taken from the Rebels, & 
are now possessed by the Gentlemen of your Corps 
with their descriptions, and report them to the Brigade 
Major as soon as possible. 

" ' By Order of the Brigade Major, 

" ' T. FITZSIMMONS, Secy.' 

" One file with an express from Lieut. Gen. Hulse, 1 

1 Sir Samuel Hulse (1747-1837), third Baronet. Served in 
Flanders 1793 ; lieutenant-general 1798 ; sent to Ireland with 
reinforcements 1798 ; with Helder Expedition 1799 ; Lieutenant- 
General of Chelsea Hospital 1806 ; field-marshal 1830. 


Wexford, to Lieut. Gen. Lake, Royal Hospital, 
Dublin, to be forwarded with all expedition. The 
file on furlough at Ross returned this evening, and 
brought intelligence that the 4 th Battalion arrived in 
Ross very early on the morning of the 26, and without 
making any great halt were marched off for Taghmon. 

" July 29. Three file as an escort with Commissary 
Foley and his stores, from hence to Newtown Barry, 
on their return back to Ferns, the troop evacuated 
that post, and marched for Gorey. 

" July 30. This morning the troop paraded at 
9 o'clock, and at 10 were inspected by Brigade Major 
FitzGerald, who ordered them again to Ferns, where 
they immediately returned, except two file which he 
ordered to remain behind, for the purpose of escorting 
him to Wexford. 

" July 3 1 - At 12 o'clock this day the Dublin 
County Regiment of Militia, under the command of 
Lieut. Col. Finlay, marched into Ferns and encamped 
in the Bishop's lawn. Three file by order of Col. 
Finlay dispatched to Newtown Barry, to order the 
Commissary and his stores back again with all ex- 

The rebels had now all but given up the unequal 
contest. Towards the end of the month the corps 
under Moore was made a moving body by Cornwallis, 
the idea being that it could render service wherever 
necessary. In reality, its special work, assisted by 
Lord Huntly's regiment, was to run to earth the 
few remaining rebels who were still at large in the 


mountains of Wicklow and in the neighbourhood of 
the capital. " As the different detachments were 
directed to keep constant patrols on the mountains," 
we learn from the General's informative Diary, 
" whilst the rest kept possession of the glens, the 
poor devils were kept constantly on foot and all 
means of subsistence taken from them. They soon 
dispersed and threw away their arms, and the greatest 
part of them came in and accepted the protections 
which were still held out to them. They would have 
done this sooner had it not been for the violence and 
atrocity of the yeomen, who shot many after they 
had received protections, and burned houses and 
committed the most unpardonable acts. These, 
of course, shook faith in the Government, and lessened 
the confidence the people ought to have had in their 
protection. I was altogether three weeks in Wicklow, 
during which the country was completely quieted and 
the inhabitants at their work. I told Lord Corn- 
wallis that in my opinion the country would remain 
quiet if the gentlemen would return to their estates and 
treat the people with justice ; the presence of the troops 
was perhaps necessary for some time longer, but more 
to check the yeomen and Protestants than the people 
in general." l Cornwallis confesses that the corps under 
Moore and Huntly were sent because they could be 
depended upon, " for the shocking barbarity of our 
national troops would be more likely to provoke 
rebellion than to suppress it." 2 

1 See Vol. I., p. 311. Dated Blessington, 26th July. 

2 Marquis Cornwallis to Major-General Ross, Dublin Castle, 
28th July, 1798. Cornwallis Correspondence, Vol. II., p. 379. 


On the I7th July Castlereagh read a message to 
the Irish House of Commons to the effect that his 
Majesty recommended the compensation of loyalist 
losses. The following letters refer to this : 

"Dear Sir, "J ul y 3i sl 1798- 

" I am very sorry for the Cause of your re- 
moval to Gorey, but must desire that you will return 
to Ferns as soon as ever you find the Army shall 
have repossessed it. Business of Importance still 
keeps me in Dublin, but I trust that a very few days 
will enable me to go back to the Country, where 
I really am anxious to be 'till things shall have been 
happily adjusted ! How far the present pacific 
Disposition of our Government will contribute thereto, 
Time will discover; I shall therefore postpone any 
opinion upon the Subject. You will be advised of 
the time for the Loyal Sufferers putting in their 
Claims to the Bounty of Parliament, and must have 
an Exact Schedule ready to lay before the House of 
Commons, supported by your affidavit, setting forth 
your Losses ! Apprise your Neighbours of this, in 
order that they may also be prepared. 1 

1 Affidavits of the claimant, the minister of the parish, and of 
the claimant's landlord, or his agents, were to be sent with esti- 
mates of the damage sustained to the commissioners (see also post, 
p. 283). " Frequently," says Gordon (pp. 201-202), " different 
sons and daughters of the same man, though unmarried, and 
constituting part of his household, made separate claims, beside 
that of the father. Frequently four affidavits were demanded for 
one claimant, for subsistence, his house, his instruments of agri- 
culture, and his general losses. If any informality was found in 
the estimates (which, from the hurry of the persons paid to draw 
them, often happened), the three latter affidavits must be made 
again a second, or perhaps a third time ; so that ten affidavits 
were sometimes made by a clergyman for one person." 


ollcction of Mr. //. F. K. Wheel 


" Remember me to all my Corps and to all other 
friends and believe me, 

" My Dear Sir, 

" Your's faithfully, 

" M* NORRIS." 

[Address : " Dublin, August Two (no three) 1798. 
L* Smyth, Camolin Cavalry, Gorey. Mount Norris."] 

A/T -r^ c -4-u [undated] 

My Dear Smith, 

" Finding that Government were giving a 
temporary relief to those loyal Subjects who have 
Suffered in the present rebellion I thought it a duty 
I owed to my friends that they sh d not be neglected, 
if I have done wrong not having their instructions 
I hope it will be imputed as a friendly interposition 
in me only. I took the liberty of sending in an affidavit 
to the Commissioners on y r behalf stating that you 
had Sustained a loss of 600^ in Malt, Barley and other 
grain, and that your Household furniture, Horses, 
Cows and other goods with wairing apparel Amounted 
to 400^ and upwards, and this day I rec d 30^ which 
I have given to Mary, who sends every article necessary 
for her Grandmother and Aunt, with instructions for 
them at any time to send to Mary or me and that 
whatever they sh d want shall be forwarded, as also 
if you sh d require anything let me know or Mary and 
it shall be carefully sent, she was anxious to send you 
money, but I perswaded her not 'till we heard from 
you, blame me and me only for all that has been done. 
On Rect of this send me an affidavit made before Lord 
Mount Norris or any other Justice of the peace of the 


Am* of y r loss allowing amply for it x and forward it 
me and I shall do every necessary for you and by it 
I shall be enabled to recover a proportion for you, 
in y r absence here along with the affidavit get the 
Signatures of as many respectable people to certifi 
at the bottom of the affidavit, and if they were to 
Swear to it, so much the better. Mary is with us 
she M rs Jenkin and Robert Join in love to you and 
Thomas. Remember me kindly to all our Brother 
Soldiers, I have also done the same for M r Pat k Cran- 
well and for M r Harrison and rec d for them io each. 
I gave the 10^ to Mary Cranwell who is with us also, 
and to M rs Harrison who is at Dances. I write this 
opportunity to M r Harrison and M r Cranwell to for- 
ward me the necessary affidavits that I may be en- 
titled to claim for them again with you. I have a 
very great affection with every good wish to assist and 
promote the happiness of every loyal person, in the 
County [of] Wexford particularly and it w d be doing 
a friendly Act if you w d communicate to as many of 
our protestant friends as have suffered to forward 
me their affidavit of their loss, our friend Math w 
Fitzsimons sh d not be forgotten, the Boyces of M 1 
Howard, Miss Bass, and poor Richard Swain, Mr. 
Jn Jones and M rs Humber are to be with me in the 
Moi*. However if Jn Jones was to forward a similar 
affidavit he w d recover in proportion, if from my 

1 Referring to the loyalist claims, Taylor (p. 168) makes the 
following comment : " Many families, who, before the rebellion, 
were in comfortable situations, are now reduced to scanty means ; 
and many of another description, who were in abject want at its 
breaking out, are now in affluent circumstances." 


knowledge of the Inhabitants of that part of the 
Country sh d not notice all I beg you may give them 
instructions and if they remit it me I shall be happy 
to do every necessary in my power. M r Gan who was 
tried yesterday is to be hanged and beheaded tomorrow 
at twelve, he is foreman to Jackson a very handsome 
young fellow and will grace the leaf. I commanded 
the Stevens Green Infantry at the Execution of the 
Shears, it was done handsomely, no Surgeon could 
better hit the amputating their heads than Thomas 
the hangman. Remember me again and again to all 
our brother Soldiers and Sportsmen. I hope to spend 
many happy days with you all in y r own Country. 
" Y rs ever Sincerely, 


" No. 6 King S* Stephens Green. 

" Your friend Arth r Colley is very indefatigable to 
serve all his friends." 

" Dublin, August 7, 1798. 
" Dear Sir, 

" I am glad to find that the 4 th Batallion of 
the Flank Companies, has been replaced by so re- 
spectable a Regiment as that of Dublin. I have not 
been well for some days, owing to change of air and 
mode of living. This circumstance, which affects 
my Bowels, and some Business of Importance still 
detains me here. Besides, I am labouring the Point 
of Compensation for my suffering Brothers, as other- 
wise how can things go on ? As to Duty, I am sorry 

1 Meredith Jenkin, Lord Mayor of Dublin, 1804-5. 


it falls so hard upon you, but, when I go down, I will 
take my Share with my brave fellow Soldiers. We can- 
not expect to be paid by our King and Country, with- 
out earning our Pay. There is not anything new in 

" Your's faithfully, 


" Remember me to all Friends." 

[Address : " Dublin, August Seven, 1798. Lieu* 
Smyth, Camp, Ferns. Mount Norris."] 



Remedy for Ireland? To cease generally from following the 
Devil ! No other remedy that I know of. CARLYLE. 


first eight entries in the Detail Book 
for August are of no special interest, being 
solely concerned with unimportant military 
matters. The record then proceeds : 

" August 9. No Duty except the usual parades, 
which are regularly attended to. Night Patrole 
mounted as usual at 9 o'clock, and at ten were ordered 
in, in consequence of an express which arrived from 
Col. Maxwell, Newtown Barry, to Lieut. Col. Finlay, 
desiring that he would march that night with what 
troops he could spare, and join him at 4 o'clock the 
following morning at the Woods of Monart, 1 as there 
had been information lodged of a Body of the Rebels 
being concealed in the woods. The troops accordingly 
marched from Ferns about 12 o'clock, leaving a 
sufficient Guard of Cavalry and Infantry under the 
command of Captain Jones of the Dublin Militia. 

" August 10. At 4 o'clock this morning the troops 
arrived at the woods of Monart, where they were 

1 See footnote, Chap. X., p. 220. 


joined by Gen. Grose and his forces from Enniscorthy, 
Col. Maxwell with the troops from Newtown Barry, 
a troop of Cavalry from Borris in the County of Carlow, 
and a part of the 4 th Battalion. The[y] instantly de- 
termined on surrounding the Woods with the Cavalry 
and sending the Infantry in to scour them. The 
Infantry found a number of Rebels in the woods, 
which they killed, and many more broke out, which 
were instantly pursued by the Cavalry, all of whom 
were either killed or taken prisoners. The principal 
part of the Rebels killed and taken prisoners were 
found armed, and proved to be Deserters from the 
Antrim, Cavan, and Kings County Regiments of 
Militia. The business of the day being compleated, 
the troops returned to their respective quarters, 
and about 7 o'clock this evening the forces under the 
command of Col. Finlay returned to Ferns without 
sustaining any loss, but very much fatigued on account 
of the quantity of rain which fell during the night." 

When Lord Mount Norris heard of this affair he 
sent the following congratulatory letter to his trusted 
lieutenant : 

" Aug : i6, 1798 
" Dear Sir, 

" I am happy to hear of your success at the 
Woods, and the more so, as the deserters from the 
Cavan and Antrim Regiments have suffered for their 
Apostasy. It is my Wish and the Command of his 
Majesty, that religious Subjects should not be talked of, 
as many of the Militia Regiments are composed of 


R. Catholics, and have behaved as well as any man 
could. Whoever therefore discusses religious Sub- 
jects is a fool, a knave or a madman. You will desire 
John Risson, who you say has supplyed our men with 
meat, to draw upon me for twenty Guineas at three 
days sight, and I will pay it. The absurd letter to 
Jimmy Blake was very hasty and ill considered ! 
It shows the Folly and malevolence of the Person, 
who set it on Foot. The Commissary, Mr. Foley must 
send up his account to me, in order that it may be 
charged to each man's account. 

" Your's faithfully, 

" M* NORRIS.' 

" August ii. One file with a dispatch from Brig. 
Gen. Grose, Enniscorthy, to Maj. Gen. Hewitt, 1 

" August 16. A Serjeant and 4 file as an escort 
with a prisoner from hence to Wexford, on a charge 
of Wilful Murder. Two file as an escort with Lieut. 
Smith, by order of Col. Finlay, to search for two Men, 
by name Ferguson and Proctor, charged with being 
concerned in the Conspiracy with the 4 th Battalion 
while they were quartered at Ferns. Apprehended 
them, and lodged them in the Guard Room at Ferns. 

" August 17. A Corporal and 3 file, as an escort 
with two prisoners Ferguson and Proctor, from hence 
to Enniscorthy, to be transmitted from that to Ross. 

"August 18. About 9 o'clock this evening Lieut. 

1 Major-General Hewitt (1750-1840), Adjutant-General in Ire- 
land; created a Baronet in 1813; Commander-in-Chief in the East 
Indies 1807-1811, 


Col. Finlay with Lieut. Colman and a party of the 
Dublin County Militia, accompanied by an Officer 
and 12 file of Cavalry, went out in pursuit of some 
Rebels who had seduced one of the Grenadiers be- 
longing to the Dublin Regiment to desert ; after 
marching two or three miles from the Camp and 
searching some places where information had been 
given, the whole returned without being able to find 
these offenders, as they had all forsaken their habi- 

It is evident that the few insurgents who still held 
out in the neighbourhood of Enniscorthy were given 
no rest by the energetic and more numerous loyalists, 
and it may not be out of place at this point to quote 
Lord Cornwallis's important " Memorandum as to 
the State of Affairs in the County of Wicklow," issued 
at this time. It sums up the actual outlook for those 
of the Wexford insurgents who had crossed their 

native borders : 

Aug. 20, 1798. 

" When the troops were sent about a month ago 
into the county of Wicklow, the country appeared a 
desert, for though the inhabitants were not all in arms 
they fled everywhere on the approach of the army 
old men and terrified women were alone to be found 
in the cottages. 

" The good conduct of the troops, who were kept 
from marauding, made to pay for everything they 
got, and not permitted to molest the people, together 
with kind treatment and encouraging language from 
the officers, gradually brought back the inhabitants 


to their houses. The proclamation and humane in- 
tentions of Government were then explained and 
circulated ; and protection offered to such as would 
bring in their arms. 

" At this time a considerable body of Rebels in 
arms still haunted the mountains who threatened 
death and destruction to all who should take pro- 
tections ; and the people owned that they were afraid 
to take them, lest the troops should be withdrawn 
and leave them afterwards to the mercy of the mob. 
This fear diminished daily, and at last when the mob 
was dispersed and began to surrender, the greatest 
forwardness appeared in every one to get a protection 
the country is now full of people at work. 

" This submission on the part of the people, is a 
submission to a necessity undoubtedly. Men's senti- 
ments or prejudices are not to be changed in an in- 
stant I believe it however to be sincere. They find 
themselves the weakest and have suffered so much 
by the rebellion, that they wish now to be quiet. It 
is by kind treatment that these sentiments are to be 
encouraged. If their intention was to rise in the winter, 
it can hardly be supposed that they would be at the 
trouble to get in the harvest, and collect it where it 
will be still more in the power of the troops, either to 
use or to destroy it. 

" The minds of both parties are unfortunately 
still much irritated by mutual and recent injury, 
the loyal party, conscious of their own merit and 
good conduct, see with disgust that by the pardon 
held out, the authors of their ruin are placed nearly 


in as good a situation as themselves. Some acts of 
violence and revenge from the lower orders of yeomen 
have excited great alarm, lessened the confidence in 
the promises of Government, and have tended to 
increase that hatred and animosity between the parties, 
which it is the interest of all to destroy. 

" Enlarged views and liberal conduct are not to be 
expected from uneducated men ; and it is to be re- 
gretted that the gentlemen have not more generally 
taken advantage of the neighbourhood of the troops, 
to visit their tenants. Their presence and example 
would have been of much use in restraining the lower 
orders of yeomen, and their advice would have been 
equally so to the General Officers commanding. 
They would also upon the spot have been able to 
form more just notions of the state and temper of 
the country. 

" Contrary to the words of the proclamation, 
protections have been granted where arms have not 
been surrendered. It would have been difficult 
for officers otherwise to have fulfilled the spirit of 
their instructions. 

" It was known that many men never had arms ; 
some had surrendered them before the rebellion 
broke out, and others certainly lost them in the 
different retreats, when pursued by the soldiers. 
In such instances after taking every means to obtain 
the existing arms by delay and the refusal of pro- 
tections, officers were guided in the final delivery of 
them, by their own discretion, aided by such informa- 
tion as they could obtain from the gentlemen, clergy, 


and priests near them that they may have been mis- 
taken in many instances cannot be doubted that 
improper people have obtained protections, and that 
arms still exist among the people is most natural to 

" A great object was to get the people to return to 
their industry ; this they could not do without a 
protection. Had officers refused them to all who 
denied having arms, they must either have arrested 
them, or, if left at liberty unprotected, have forced 
them for immediate safety to take refuge with the 
Rebels in the mountains. 

" The county of Wicklow has now a quiet and 
settled appearance ; after such a convulsion, and in 
the neighbourhood of woods and mountains, occasional 
robberies and murders are still to be expected. These 
will be more effectually stopped and prevented by 
the presence and vigilance of the gentlemen, their 
good offices to their tenants, and by assisting the poor 
to rebuild their cottages, than by the exertion of 
troops." l 

" August 22. Four file as an escort with a private 
and drummer of the 13 th Regiment of Foot, taken up 
by Lieut. Col. Finlay on suspicion of being deserters, 
not having a proper pass. Lodged them in the Guard- 
house at Enniscorthy. Two file with Lieut. Smith 
by order of Col. Finlay, to apprehend two persons 
of the name of Keys, who were charged with being 
concerned in the Conspiracy with the 4 th Battalion 

1 Cornwallis Correspondence, Vol. II., pp. 387-389. 


while encamped at Ferns, one of whom was appre- 
hended, and safely lodged in the Guard-house. 

" August 23. One file by order of Lieut. Smith, 
to apprehend a person named Keys charged with 
being actively concerned in the Conspiracy with the 
4 th Battalion, during their encampment at Ferns. 
After making diligent serch, they returned without 
being able to discover him. 

" August 24. Four file by order of Lieut. Col. Finlay 
to press Horses and Cars for the use of the Dublin 
County Regiment, they having received orders to 
be in readiness to March at 8 o'clock tomorrow morn- 
ing. The prisoner Keys made his escape from the 
Guard-room about 12 o'clock this night. 

" August 25. At 8 o'clock this morning Lieut. Col. 
Finlay, with the Regiment under his command, 
marched from hence to Enniscorthy. Troop mounted 
Guard this night to defend themselves and the Com- 
missary Stores at 12 o'clk an express arrived from 
Major Gen. Hunter, Wexford, to Lord Castlereagh, 
Dublin Castle, which was immediately forwarded on 
to Gorey by two file. 

" August 26. Captain Jones of the Dublin County 
Regiment arrived this day from Waterford. Gave 
information that the French had landed in the Bay 
of Killala, in the County of Mayo." 

Procrastination and promises had been the leading 
features of the policy of the French Government in 
Irish affairs since Hoche's abortive attempt in the 
winter of 1796. Wolfe Tone and his colleagues pleaded 


for help in and out of season with an amount of fervid 
eloquence which should have appealed to all lovers 
of " Liberty, equality, and fraternity." Truth to tell, 
the Directory soon lost interest in the Irish, although 
they had a common cause; England and English 
gold were larger and more profitable prey. An ex- 
pedition on a fairly large scale was possible, but the 
men in authority professed to be in favour of small, 
partial attempts, which was perhaps their way of 
getting out of an awkward situation without actually 
breaking faith. Towards the end of June, 1798, 
Admiral Bruix, the French Minister of Marine, whose 
name will be always associated with that of Napoleon 
in the later projects for the invasion of the British 
Isles, bestirred himself in the matter, and resorted 
to the half-measure of endeavouring to procure a 
number of frigates and smaller boats of the Batavian 
navy for the purpose. The Dutch, however, were not 
oblivious to the perils of such an attempt ; Camper- 
down had taught them a severe lesson, and they 
temporised for the time being. 

Eventually Scherer, the French Minister of War, 
issued instructions for troops to be concentrated at 
Brest, and on the I5th July two contingents embarked 
at that port and at La Rochelle. This good beginning 
augured well, but many of the soldiers were ordered 
off almost at once to the Rhine. It was then decided 
that General Humbert 1 should sail from Rochefort 

1 Joseph Amable Humbert (1767-1823). He was senior officer 
of the " Legion of France," which sailed with Hoche in the Bantry 
Bay Expedition of 1796. 


in the frigates Concorde (44), Medee (38), and Franchise 
(44), the naval command being given to Captain 
Savary. General Hardy and his division were to 
sail simultaneously from Brest, in a ship-of-the-line 
and six frigates under Bompard, to be followed by a 
larger body under General Cherin. The total strength 
of the force was originally estimated at 8,000 troops, 
but it suffered much in the process of pruning. With 
characteristic courage, and urged on by the voluble 
Napper Tandy, 1 Humbert lost no time in carrying 
out the work entrusted to him, and on the 5th August 
his armament was completely ready. Considerable 
trouble followed, for the troops were clamouring for 
arrears of pay and had also been promised three 
months' wages in advance. How the General managed 
to raise the money is not quite clear, but Wolfe Tone's 
son tells us that Humbert called upon the merchants 
and magistrates of La Rochelle to advance the neces- 
sary sum. 2 On the following day the division weighed 
anchor, having eighty officers and 930 non-commis- 
sioned officers and men, mostly recruited from the 
Vendean army, on board, including Matthew Tone, 3 

1 James Napper Tandy, born in Dublin 1740, died in France 
1803. He was arrested at Hamburg in 1799 and handed to the 
British authorities. After being tried and acquitted on a point of 
law he was sentenced to death on a second trial in 1801, but par- 
doned at the instigation of Napoleon and Cornwallis, although he 
had to leave Ireland. 

2 The Autobiography of Theobald Wolfe Tone, 1763-1798, Vol. II., 

P- 347- 

3 Matthew Tone (1770-1798). Brother of Theobald Wolfe 
Tone. Captured at Ballinamuck, and executed 29th September, 


Teeling/and Sullivan, 2 and a cargo of 3,000 muskets and 
bayonets, 3,000 pouches, 400 swords, 200,000 cartridges, 
1,000 French uniforms, ammunition, a liberal supply of 
biscuit, several barrels of brandy, and three field-guns. 
The secret instructions issued to Captain Savary, 
who hoisted his flag on the Concorde, are deserving 
of study if only on account of their extraordinary 
nature. He was to use the utmost precautions to 
avoid falling in with the British squadrons and to 
steer for Achill Head, the Mullet, or Cape Tellin. 
After having disembarked the troops the ships were 
to return to France. Should the enemy make a 
" successful attack during the landing," the soldiers 
were to be reinforced by the crews and the ships 
burnt ! This novel method of campaigning has a 
certain grim humour about it which makes one sur- 
'mise that the French Government or the person who 
was responsible for the secret instructions had some 
ulterior motive in cutting off the only way of escape. 
If Savary came up with Bompard, the latter, being 
his superior in rank, was to assume command. 3 

1 Bartholomew Teeling (1774-1798). He paid his first visit to 
France in 1 796, and served with Hoche under the name of Biron ; 
Aide-de-camp to Humbert. Executed the 24th September, 1798. 

2 Sullivan was nephew of Madgett, a native of Cork and ex- 
Roman Catholic priest who was at the French Foreign Office. 
Although Sullivan was taken prisoner he was not recognised. 

3 Savary 's log throws a curious sidelight upon the position held 
by the Republican Calendar in contemporary minds. The log, of 
course, is officially dated Messidor, Fructidor, etc., but Savary drops 
into " the weather of the month of August," etc., as naturally as 
Silas Wegg dropped into poetry. Apparently the new chronology 
never penetrated very deep in the affections of the French people. 
See Desbridre, Vol. II., Part I., pp. 84-85. 


On the 2Oth August land was sighted, and the 
captain put in at Killala Bay. As events proved, 
this disobedience to orders was propitious. The 
British flag having been hoisted, a pilot from a passing 
brig was secured without much difficulty, and a 
row-boat containing the port surveyor, two sons of 
the Bishop of Killala, and a captain of the Prince of 
Wales's Fencible Infantry provided a preliminary 
batch of prisoners. On the 22nd the French troops 
were on Irish soil, and thus began one of the most 
remarkable military adventures of modern times. 
To-day the name of Humbert is apotheosised in 
song and story, and he certainly did wonders with 
the miniature army at his command, but the embers 
of the rebellion were scarcely smouldering and refused 
to be fanned into a flame. A picturesque glimpse 
of their doings is afforded in Dr. Stock's Narrative* 
but the following, from the pen of another eye-witness, 

1 A Narrative of what passed at Killalla, in the County of Mayo, 
and the Parts A djacent, during the French Invasion in the Summer of 
1798. By an Eye Witness [Dr. Stock, Bishop of Killala]; Dublin, 
1800. "This pamphlet," says Lord Holland, "was little noticed 
at the time, and some pains were taken to deprive it of the celebrity 
to which it was entitled. Many were offended that republican 
Frenchmen should be described, and that by a bishop too, as they 
really were, and not as it had suited the purposes of ministerialists 
to represent them, monsters of impiety, treachery, and inhumanity. 
Dr. Stock was never promoted, and this publication was, it is said, 
urged as an objection when Mr. Fox, however, in 1806, considered 
it as an additional recommendation to his acknowledged learning 
for translating him to a better bishoprick, other reasons were found 
to counteract his liberal intentions " (see Memoirs of the Whig 
Party during my Time. By Henry Richard Lord Holland. Vol. I., 
pp. 136-137). The reference to promotion is not quite clear, as 
Dr. Joseph Stock (1740-1813) became Bishop of Water ford and 
Lismore in 1810. He held the see of Killala from 1798 to 1810. 


is a more graphic account of the events of this memor- 
able day : 

" A serene and cloudless sky, and brilliant sun, 
rendered the 22nd of August one of the finest days 
of that remarkable season. 

" It was on the morning of that day, whilst pro- 
ceeding from Palmerstown to Killala, I first beheld 
a ship of war ; three vessels of unusual size, magnified 
by the still calm of the ocean, stretched slowly across 
the bay of Rathfran (on the larboard tack), weathering 
the reef which divides it from the bay of Killala : a 
smaller vessel appeared in the offing. 

" About twelve o'clock the frigates were visible 
from the Steeple Hill and the higher parts of the 
town ; they showed English colours. 

" The collector and some other persons proceeded 
on board ; between two and three o'clock, p.m. the 
frigates were standing across towards the bay of 
Rathfran ; marks of agitation and restlessness be- 
came now apparent amongst several of the inhabitants. 
I met O' Kearney, the classical teacher, as he was 
returning from the ' Acres,' a remote and elevated 
quarter of the town ; a half-suppressed smile of satis- 
faction played on his countenance as he saluted me ; 
it was the last time we ever spoke. At four o'clock 
the agitation and alarm increased ; the revenue 
officers had not returned. The inhabitants were 
fronted on the Steeple Hill, Captain William Kirk- 
wood of the yeomanry, now joined in uniform, as 
well as several of his corps, who began to make their 
appearance. Two officers of the carabineers arrived 


from Ballina ; they had been at the Cape of Good 
Hope, and were judges of all those sort of things ; 
we awaited their opinion with anxiety they could 
form none. ' Here/ said Captain Kirkwood, handing 
his telescope to an old seaman belonging to the town, 
who had served under Howe and Rodney, ' here, 
tell me what these vessels are.' ' They are French, 
sir,' replied the veteran, ' I know them by the cut 
and colour of their sails.' 

" Quitting the crowd, Captain Kirkwood was 
accosted by Neal Kerugan (afterwards an active 
chief of insurgents), inquiring, what nation the frigates 
belonged to. ' Ah, Neal,' replied the Captain, ' you 
know as well as I do.' Returning now to Palmerstown, 
I had scarcely arrived, when a neighbouring peasant 
on horseback, breathless, and with the perspiration 
of terror streaming down his forehead, announced 
that a body of strangers in dark uniforms had landed 
from the ships were distributing arms had been 
joined by several of the inhabitants, and were actually 
advancing. ' There they come,' said he, pointing 
to an eminence a mile and a half distant, over which 
the road passed, and we beheld a dark and solid mass, 
moving onwards ; their arms glittered in the rays of 
the declining sun. They were occasionally visible 
as they passed over the inequalities of the ground, 
till emerging from a banky part of the road, within 
a quarter of a mile of Palmerstown, we beheld their 
column of about eight hundred men, silently, but 
rapidly, advancing. They were preceded at some 
distance by a single horseman, a robust middle-aged 


man, dressed in a long green hunting frock, and high 
conical fur cap ; stopping for a moment, he saluted 
us in the Leinster patois of Irish, with ' Go de mu ha 
tu ' (how do ye do ?). A general officer (Sarrazin) 1 
and aide-de-camp (Mr. Tone) were now close up ; a 
laugh of approbation was interchanged between the 
chasseur and his general. 

" The commander-in-chief (Humbert) seated in a 
gig now advanced at the head of this celebrated band 
of warriors, which regularly, but with precision, 
pressed rapidly forwards ; calm and unconcerned, 
they presented no indication of men going into com- 
bat. Having crossed the bridge of Palmerstown, 
about three hundred men were countermarched and 
bivouacked on the green esplanade in front of the 
village ; the remainder marched on to Killala. 

" The sun had set behind the western wave and 
the grey twilight of evening was fast advancing, 
as the French, descending the hill of Mullagharn, 
beheld the yeomanry and a party of the Leicestershire 
fencibles forming on a commanding ridge, at the en- 
trance of the town ; Captain Kirkwood had been 
just apprised of the hostile landing, by a fisherman, 
who had crossed at Rathfran, whilst the French de- 
toured by Palmerstown, and had ordered his men to 
this post ; from which, however, they retired into 
the town, on the nearer approach of the French. 
Three streets diverge from the centre of Killala, in 
the form of a sportsman's turnscrew : one southerly 
towards the ' Acres ' ; a second westerly, by which 

1 Adjutant-General. 


the French were advancing ; the third or main street, 
easterly, winding by the church-yard wall, on a steep 
declivity to the castle ; and onwards towards Ballina. 
" It was on the edge of this declivity the military 
reformed ; Moreau could not have chosen a more 
judicious position for a retreat. Humbert on reaching 
the outskirts of the town, made his dispositions : 
he detached a party under Neal Kerugan (who had 
first joined him), across the Meadows, to enter by 
the Acres road, in order to cut off the retreat of the 
military by that rout, or turn them if in position ; 
he advanced a few sections, en tirailleur, to occupy 
the ridge from which the military had retired. The 
chasseur galloped into the town to reconnoitre ; he 
was scarcely out of sight in the winding street, when 
a single shot was heard, followed at a short interval 
by a random scattery volley : it was a moment of 
anxious suspense, but the chasseur bore a charmed 
life. On approaching the market-place, he was 
challenged by a yeoman, (a young gentleman of the 
place), who had loitered behind his companions, with 
' What do ye want, you spy ? ' the answer was a 
bullet through the body, and he fell dead into the 
door of a house at which he was standing. The 
veteran then reconnoitred the line of the military, 
and receiving their fire, returned to his comrades : 
he related these events with the sangfroid of an amateur; 
he had been in twenty battles, and had never had the 
honour of receiving the entire fire of the enemy's line 
before. The tirailleurs were warmly engaged ; the 
column redoubled its speed, and at the centre of the 


town, a party of grenadiers which marched at its 
head, deployed on the main street ; they were re- 
ceived by an ill-directed volley from the military, 
at about one hundred yards distance ; their captain 
was struck with a ball on the foot ; foaming with 
rage, he ordered his grenadiers to charge. It was 
refused by the military ; the yeomanry first broke 
ground and were soon followed by the fencibles. Pro- 
tected by the declivity and the church-yard wall, 
from the French fire, the yeomanry escaped through 
the castle gates ; the fencibles fled onwards towards 
Ballina ; Captain Kirkwood turned down, by his 
own house, to the strand, expecting to reach Ballina, 
unperceived, by that route. One yeoman alone 
remained, Mr. Smith, the respectable apothecary of 
the town ; aged and afflicted with gout, he was un- 
able to keep pace with his companions ; excluded, 
on shutting the castle gates, he struggled to reach his 
own house, it was not distant one hundred yards, 
but his days were numbered ; the chasseur was at 
his heels : eager to make Captain Kirkwood, (whom 
he first observed) his prisoner, he disdained the same 
favour to a soldier belonging to the ranks he fired, 
and the unfortunate man fell a lifeless corpse." x 

As the yeomen and fencibles totalled fifty men, 
according to Dr. Stock, whose evidence is accepted 
by Lecky, the first " victory " of the French was 
not particularly far-reaching in its consequences. 

1 Popular Songs, illustrative of the French Invasions of Ireland. 
Edited, with Introductions and Notes, by T. Crofton Croker (London ; 
The Percy Society, 1845), Part IV., pp. 73-78. Reprinted from the 
Dublin Penny Journal. 


Humbert and his colleague Adjutant-General Fon- 
taine assert that 200 men opposed them ; Sarrazin 
gives half that number. 1 Captain Kirkwood and 
Lieutenant Sills of the fencibles were made prisoners, 
the latter being sent on board one of the frigates 
the following day and taken to France. The prelate 
and his guests, including the dean, as well as nineteen 
yeomen, were kept in custody at the castle, but re- 
ceived kindly, if not polite, treatment at the hands 
of Humbert. Dr. Stock gives us a sympathetic pen- 
portrait of the French commander. "Of a good 
height and shape," he says, " in the full vigour of 
life, prompt to decide, quick in execution, apparently 
master of his art, you could not refuse him the praise 
of a good officer, while his phisiognomy forbad you 
to like him as a man. His eye, which was small 
and sleepy (the effect, probably, of much watching) 
cast a side-long glance of insidiousness, and even of 
cruelty ; it was the eye of a cat preparing to spring 
on her prey. His education and manners were in- 
dicative of a person sprung from the lowest orders 
of society, though he knew how (as most of his country- 
men can do) to assume, where it was convenient, the 
deportment of a gentleman. For learning, he scarcely 
had enough to enable him to write his name. 2 His 
passions were furious, and all his behaviour seemed 
marked with the characters of roughness and violence. 
A narrower observation of him, however, served to 

1 DesbriSre, Vol. II., Part I., p. 87. 

2 The facsimile signature reproduced on p. 103 of Crofton Croker's 
Popular Songs (Part IV.), would seem to disprove this statement. 


discover that much of this roughness was the result 
of art, being assumed with the view of extorting by 
terror a ready compliance with his commands." 1 

When Cornwallis heard the alarming intelligence, 
which travelled rapidly as ill news is wont to do, 
and was received in the capital on the day Humbert 
landed, he at once began to plan his arrangements 
for the disposition of troops. 2 Exact information as 
to the number of men who had disembarked was not 
forthcoming, it seldom is in the early stages of a 
campaign, but the general belief that the allies were 
fairly well received was disquieting. For this reason 
Brigadier-General Taylor, 3 in command at Sligo, 
was told to reconnoitre without coming to actual 
fighting with the enemy, and Lake was ordered to 
Galway to concentrate a force sufficiently large to 
enable him to make a decisive stroke. General Nu- 
gent 4 was " to act on the side of Sligo." Moore was 
directed to make his way to Athlone, the head-quarters 
of the army now being assembled by Cornwallis in 
person, which was reached on the 27th August. 

1 Dr. Stock's Narrative, pp. 34-35. 

2 Cornwallis Correspondence, Vol. I., p. 390. According to 
Lake's biographer the intelligence was not received at Dublin until 
the 24th August. See Memoirs of the Life and Military Services of 
Viscount Lake, Baron Lake of Delhi and Laswaree, 1744-1808. By 
Colonel Hugh Pearse, p. 116. 

3 Afterwards General the Hon. Robert Taylor. Born the 26th 
November, 1760, died the 23rd May, 1839. M.P. for Kells from 
1791 to the Union. 

4 Sir George Nugent (1757-1849). Served in Holland 1793 ; 
he commanded in the South of Ireland and afterwards at Belfast 
1798 ; Adjutant-General in Ireland 1799-1801 ; Lieutenant-General 
of Jamaica 1801-1806 ; created a baronet 1806 ; Commander-in- 
Chief in India 1811-1813 ; general 1813 ; G.C.B. 1815. 


Major-Generals Hutchinson 1 and Trench were to 
march on Mayo. 

So far so good, but Hutchinson imprudently led 
his force to Castlebar before the arrival of Lake, 
whose obvious course was to go to the assistance of 
his colleague, their total strength being about 1,700 
men. 2 On the 27th they were routed by Humbert, 
who, under the guidance of an Irish priest, had travelled 
along a track but little used. Many of the Longford 
and Kilkenny Militia took scarcely any part in the 
action and deserted to the other side on the first 
opportunity that offered, while the Galway yeomanry 
took to their heels, hence " the races of Castlebar." 
Dr. Stock mentions that after the fight fifty-three 
men of the Longford Militia marched into Killala 
and exchanged their uniforms for " the blue coats 
of France ! " 3 Two days afterwards the defeated 
generals joined Cornwallis, Lake sending a dispatch 
in advance complaining that it was " impossible to 
manage the militia ; their whole conduct has been 
this day of action most shameful. . . ." 4 The French 
remained in the captured town until early in the 
morning of the 4th September. Finding it necessary 
to muster all his available forces, Humbert was com- 
pelled to send for the 200 French soldiers who had 

1 Hon. John Hely Hutchinson (1757-1832). Second in com- 
mand to Sir Ralph Abercromby in Egyptian Expedition ; created 
Baron Hutchinson 1801 ; second Earl of Donoughmore 1825. 

2 History of the British Army. By the Hon. J. W. Fortescue, 
Vol. IV., p. 592. 

3 Narrative, pp. 46-47. 

4 Tuam, 28th August, 1798, 5 o'clock a.m. Cornwallis Corre- 
spondence, Vol. II.. p. 393. 


formed the garrison of Killala, two officers named 
Charost 1 and Ponson being left to guard the town 
with about 200 Irish recruits. " All the horrors, that 
had been acted at Wexford, now stared the loyalists 
in the face," notes the worthy bishop. 2 Fortunately 
Charost was able to keep some resemblance to order 
and subordination. On the 5th Humbert was 
attacked by Colonel Vereker 3 and a force of the 
Limerick City Militia, whom he discomfited, capturing 
two guns and making some sixty prisoners. It was 
not until the 8th that the French commander and his 
tattered army, or what remained of it, were finally 
run to earth at Ballinamuck, while endeavouring 
to force their way to Granard, by Lake's advanced 

Moore says that Humbert's forces never totalled 
more than 5,000, but adds that Cornwallis's troops 
" were bad and undisciplined, and if he had met with 
the least check the country was gone." 4 Throughout 
this short and eventful campaign all manner of rumours 
were current as to the reception of the French and the 
help they were afforded by the disaffected peasantry. 
After Castlebar Lake was considerably perturbed, as 
well he might be, owing to the lack of definite in- 
formation on the matter. " I have reason to appre- 

1 Lieutenant-Colonel Charost. According to Bishop Stock 
Charost was born in Paris, but had spent much of his early life in 
St. Domingo. 

1 Narrative, p. 49. 

Charles Vereker (1768-1812), M.P. for Limerick City 1795- 
1800 and 1802-1817 ; second Viscount Gort 1817. 

* Moore's Diary, Vol. I., p. 324. 



hend the people of the country are flocking in to the 
French very fast," he writes, 1 but four days later 
Cornwallis tells the Duke of Portland on the authority 
of a captain who had been taken prisoner by the enemy 
that his intelligence " affords every ground for per- 
suasion that the number of the French soldiers has 
been grossly exaggerated, that they have as yet been 
joined by a very inconsiderable portion of the in- 
habitants, and those (with very few exceptions) 
of the lowest order. No material disaffection has 
shown itself in other parts of the kingdom." z He 
afterwards came to the conclusion that the number 
of rebels who joined Humbert did not exceed 4,000. 3 
The prelate already cited, an unwilling and en- 
forced spectator of so much that was bad in the Irish 
character, holds no brief for either the rebels or the 
loyalist army. According to him, those in possession 
of Killala until its relief helped themselves fairly 
liberally to other folks' possessions, destroyed much, 
and behaved in an altogether unsatisfactory way. 
When the troops were advancing from Sligo, " A train 
of fire too clearly distinguished their line of march, 
flaming up from the houses of unfortunate peasants." 4 
Dr. Stock also draws attention to " the predatory 
habits of the soldiery. The regiments that came to 
their assistance being all militia, seemed to think they 
had a right to take the property they had been the 

1 28th August. Cornwallis Correspondence, Vol. II., p. 393. 

2 Knock Hill, ist September, 1798. Ibid., p. 399. 

3 Ballyhaunis, 5th September, 1798. Ibid., p. 400. 

4 Dr. Stock's Narrative, p. 135. 


means of preserving, and to use it as their own, when- 
ever they stood in need of it. Their rapacity differed 
in no respect from that of the rebels, except that they 
seized upon things with somewhat less of ceremony 
or excuse, and that his Majesty's soldiers were in- 
comparably superior to the Irish traitors in dexterity 
at stealing." 1 

In speaking of the priests and the part they played 
in the aftermath of the Wexford rebellion Bishop 
Stock makes a suggestion which is worthy of considera- 
tion. " The almost total dependence," he writes, 
" of the Romish clergy of Ireland upon their people 
for the means of subsistence is the cause, according 
to my best judgment, why upon every popular com- 
motion many priests of that communion have been, 
and until measures of better policy are adopted, 
always will be found in the ranks of sedition and 
opposition to the established government. The 
peasant will love a revolution, because he feels the 
weight of poverty, and has not often the sense to 
perceive that a change of masters may render it 
heavier : the priest must follow the impulse of the 
popular wave, or be left behind on the beach, to 
perish." * 

Had Hardy's division set off simultaneously with 
that of Humbert the historian would probably have 
a different story to tell, if not a different moral to 
interpret. The embarkation of troops did not begin 
until the 5th August, and there was the same trouble 

1 Dr. Stock's Narrative, p. 163. 

2 Ibid., pp. 98-99. 


over financial matters which had delayed the first 
expedition. Fifteen days later Bompard set off with 
the Roche (74), and the frigates Immortalite (40) 
Romaine (40), Loire (40), Coquille (36), Embuscade (36), 
Semillante (36), Resolu (36), Bellone (36), Biche (36), 
and Fraternite, notwithstanding the British blockading 
squadron, but two of his ships collided and Admiral 
Bruix sent an urgent dispatch that the fleet was not 
to sail until the enemy was forced to bear away 
owing to stress of weather. The news brought by 
Savary of the safe arrival of Humbert aroused the 
authorities to something approaching enthusiasm, 
and the idea of sending the former with further 
troops and supplies was discussed and put in channel 
for further development. At last there seemed a 
glimmer of hope for Ireland, but it was only the flicker 
of a guttering candle. 

There is more than a suggestion of romance about 
the strangest of all strange relief expeditions which 
left Dunkirk on the 4th September under Napper 
Tandy in the brig Anacreon. What practical service 
a handful of Irish refugees was likely to render to 
the land of their birth at such a time is open to ques- 
tion. Perhaps it was to give " moral support " to 
their countrymen, although this notion seems scarcely 
tenable, as Napper Tandy appears to have been a 
man " who'd rather drink than pray," for tradition 
has it that when he landed in Ireland the first thing 
he did was to get intoxicated. They duly reached 
Arran Bay, and after spending a few hours on the 
island of Arran, decided that discretion was the 


better part of valour. Accordingly they sailed for 
the Shetlands, fought a brig of the British navy 
which came up with them, and eventually succeeded 
in boarding her. Further good fortune attended the 
piratical crew by the capture of two merchant ships, 
the Langton of Lancaster, and the Tom from Peters- 
burg, the latter of which they successfully convoyed 
to Bergen in Norway. The Langton was abandoned 
owing to the inauspicious appearance of an armed 
vessel, which subsequently took possession of her. 1 

The pygmy had been successful where the giant 
had so far failed. With a walletful of instructions 
and precautions very similar to those given to Savary 
and 6,000 muskets and bayonets, 1,000,000 cartridges, 
6,000 pouches, 1,200 swords, 2,000 French uniforms, 
and equipment for 150 dragoons stowed away in 
the holds of their ships, Hardy and Bompard still 
walked the quarter-deck of the Roche waiting for the 
wind which was to play the British false. On the 
i6th September the opportunity came, but two 
frigates and a brig of the Brest blockading squadron 
followed them until the 3rd of October and then 
managed to join the fleet cruising off the North of 
Ireland under Commodore Sir John Borlase Warren. 2 
Hardy and Bompard doubtless congratulated them- 
selves on shaking off " the ravening wolves of the sea," 

1 See deposition of Thomas Roper, master and owner of the 
Langton. Castlereagh Correspondence, Vol. I., pp. 400-403. 

8 Sir John Borlase Warren (1754-1822). M.P. for Great Mar- 
low in two Parliaments and Nottingham in two later Administra- 
tions. Ambassador-extraordinary to St. Petersburg, 1802 ; com- 
mander on coast of America, 1812. 


to use Napoleon's expression. Not for long did this 
elation last. Off Tory Island they found the two 
frigates, plus nine other sail including three ships- 
of-the-line, showing unmistakable signs of fight. 
Both the contestants proved worthy of their differing 
causes, but the Romaine, Semillante, and Biche alone 
returned to France, the remaining vessels being either 
captured or sunk. Wolfe Tone fought with the ardour 
of a demon on board the Roche. This was not the 
nursery warfare of Bantry Bay, it was a matter of 
blood and iron such as his soul loved. The story told 
in Tone's Memoirs as to his betrayal by Sir George 
Hill is dismissed by Crofton Croker as apocryphal, 
or at any rate altogether devoid of the treachery im- 
puted. This authority states that in a letter dated 
ten days before the arrival of the French flag-ship in 
Lough S willy Lord Castlereagh says : "I congratulate 
England no less on the capture of the Hoche, than I 
do Ireland on the value of her cargo. The arch-traitor 
Tone is himself a very capital prize." * Determined to 
avoid execution, the man who had sacrificed his all 
on behalf of the United Irish movement cheated the 
gallows by committing suicide in prison. 

On the very day the French flags were being hauled 
down off Tory Island Savary set off with 1,090 troops 
under Adjutant-General Cortez in half a dozen vessels 
to reinforce Hardy and Bompard. Four of the ships 
anchored in the desired haven of Killala Bay, two 
frigates parting company before Irish waters were 
reached. Savary's orders were that he should return 

1 Popular Songs etc., pp. 111-112. 


at once if bad news were forthcoming. After having 
captured a boat-load of British officers and men 
who had not learnt the lesson of the fate which awaited 
a similar company on the occasion of Humbert's arrival, 
he again set sail for France. His vessels narrowly 
escaped capture the following day, and a running 
fight with two British ships which lasted for seventy- 
two exciting hours ensued. On the 24th October two 
Dutch frigates with some 300 soldiers left the Texel 
for Galway Bay, and were captured by the British 
frigate Sirius. 

With such a record of disaster the Directory decided 
that the case of their Irish allies was hopeless, and 
wisely decided to allow them to doctor their own 
wounds. Not that adventurous spirits were wanting 
in coming forward to champion any movement in that 
direction. Several offers were made and wisely re- 
jected, for a lost cause is best relegated to the limbo 
of dead things. 

The remaining entries in the Detail Book for the 
month of August are unimportant, but on the 27th 
inst. a detachment of the Cavan Militia, consisting of 
100 men under the command of Captain James Adams, 
joined the Camolin Cavalry. The letter from the Earl 
of Mount Norris which is subjoined shows that he had 
nearly as much difficulty in obtaining money for his 
corps as had Humbert and Hardy. 

" Aug. 28 th , 1798. 

" Dear Sir, 

"It is impossible for me to say how long the 
Corps of Yeomanry will continue embodyed, nor can 


I apply to the Lord Lieutenant, now out of Town, to 
have them removed to Camolin. The remaining on 
permanent Pay, must depend on the State of the Civil 
War ! But every friend to his country will of course 
wish the Rebellion to be terminated as speedily as 
possible, and the Forces to be reduced, however he 
may lament the Inconveniencies that Individuals may 
suffer, I am glad to hear that the Corps are attentive 
to their Duty. I shall speak tomorrow to Gen 1 Lake 
about our quitting Ferns for Camolin. I am fagging 
to get our Arrears of pay, which are considerable beyond 
Expression. I am, with good Wishes to all friends, 

" Dear Sir, 

" Your's faithfully, 


[Address : " Dublin August Twenty Eight 1798. 
L* Smyth, Camolin Cavalry, Camp, Ferns. Mount 

" August 31. No duty except the usual Parades. 
At ii o'clock, an express arrived from Brigade Major 
FitzGerald, Wexford, to the Officers commanding the 
Yeomanry Corps at Gorey, which was immediately 
forwarded by one file. By the same express the 
following Orders were Received : 

" ' Brigade Orders. Wexford, August 31, 1798. 

" ' That the Yeomanry Corps stationed at Ferns 
will parade at 8 o'clk tomorrow morning in the full 
strength of their respective Establishments The 
Senior Officer in order of precedence will appoint the 
place of Parade and form it, inspect the Corps, collect 
the Reports, and see them to be proper and correct, 


according to a form laid down in the standing Orders 
for Yeomanry Corps. The Senior Officer is requested 
to be particular in examining the Reports. No 
Horses are to be reported that come under the de- 
scription of Croppy Horses. In inspecting the Cavalry 
every Mounted Man is to appear fully accoutred, 
otherwise he cannot be permitted to parade with the 
Corps. The Senior Officers will be particular in case 
any of the Officers should be absent, to see they are 
properly accounted for in the Reports. For the 
information of the Corps, forms of the Morning and 
Evening Reports are enclosed as precedents These 
orders to be copied by each Corps of Yeomanry at 

" ' B. E. FITZGERALD, Brigade Major.' " 


My dear Orange brothers, have you heard of the news, 
How the treacherous Frenchmen our gulls to amuse, 
The troops that last April they promised to send, 
At length at Killala they ventured to land. 
Good Croppies, but don't be too bold now, 
Lest you should be all stow'd in the hold now, 
Then to Bot'ny you'd trudge, I am told now, 
And a sweet orange lily for me. 


SEPTEMBER i. In consequence of the 
Brigade Orders received last night, the 
Troop paraded at 8 o'clock this morning 
fully accoutred, and remained mounted 
'till ii o'clock, waiting for the arrival of the Brigade 
Major, who did not come, but sent Orders that he 
would be at Ferns at 2 o'clock, and also directions to 
send of[f] a file of Men to Enniscorthy to inform the 
Commanding Officer of Yeomanry that he would be 
there at 4 o'clock. About two he arrived, and tho' 
the Troop was in readiness, he did not inspect them, 
but requested of them to be regular as to their Duty, 
&c., &c. 

" September 2. One file with dispatches from 
Major Gen. Johnson at Waterford, to the Officers 
Commanding the Yeomanry Corps stationed at Ferns. 



By the express, which brought the above, the following 
Orders from Gen. Johnson to the Yeomanry stationed 
at Ferns, was received, and ordered to be entered in 
the Orderly Book : 

" ' Head Quarters G. 0. Waterford, August 31, 

" ' It being judged necessary that the Yeomanry 
Corps throughout the District should without loss 
of time be put upon permanent Duty, I am directed 
by Major Gen. Johnson to desire you will take im- 
mediate steps for assembling the Corps under your 
Command at such place (making it your Head Quar- 
ters) as you shall deem most expedient for the pro- 
tection and keeping the peace of the District, forming 
such Guards and Patroles as you may judge necessary. 
You will send a state of your Corps, as soon as possible 
to Major Gen. Johnson at Waterford, continuing to 
do so every fortnight untill further Orders. 

" ' JOHN ROGERS, Acting Brigade Major.' 

" Sept. 3. One file with dispatches from B.M. 
FitzGerald, Wexford, to the Officers commanding the 
Ballakeen, Castletown, Coolgreney, Gorey and Wing- 
field Troops of Yeoman Cavalry. By the same express 
the following Orders was received : 

" ' Brigade Orders. Wexford, Septem r 2, 1798. 

" ' Brigade Major FitzGerald begs leave to observe 
to the Commanding Officers of the Yeomanry Corps, 
that no returns are to go in at present but the Cer- 
tificate (No. i) on which an advance of pay will be 

" ' Major FitzGerald received a letter, dated the 30 


Ultimo, from the War-office ; He begs the Certificate 
(No. i) of Permanent Duty may be sent to him as 
expeditiously as possible, in order that He may transmit 
them to Dublin.' " 

Four days later Lord Mount Norris's Corps were still 
in difficulties as regards finances. 

" Dear Sir, " Se P tr 6 ' ^ 

" Whatever orders you have received from 
Gen 1 Hunter, should have been sent to me ! The 
Corps need not stir from Ferns 'till my Return ! I am 
all impatience for the account from M r Mahor, which 
M r Blake promised to forward to me on his arrival 
in the Country. He left Town on the 29 th of last 
month ! He is also to get for me the Commissary's 
Account, as the Charges for Forage and Rations are 
charged to the Troop and are to be deducted from the 
Pay ! Urge Jemmy Blake to Dispatch, for, with the 
best Intentions, he is rather indolent. Be assured 
that the Corps cannot be more desirous to see their 
account than I am to Pay it before them. When they 
see it, they will, I am certain, be ashamed of having 
been led into a very erroneous Idea of the State of 
things. We are very anxious to hear from L d Corn- 
wallis, to whom Col 1 Crawford l has shown the way to 
Victory, by the Defeat and Slaughter of some hundreds 
of Rebels, five of whose Captains were taken. 
" Your's faithfully, 


1 Lieutenant-Colonel Crawford (1764-1812). Served in India 
under Cornwallis ; mortally wounded at Ciudad Rodrigo ; died the 
29th January, 1812. 


" The Yeomen have beaten the Rebels at Granard, 
tho' the latter were six to one against them L d 
Cornwallis is in pursuit of the French, who have 
evacuated Castle Bar and gone to Foxford. This Day 
they were to be attacked. 

" Why don't you order M r Blake to quarters, as he 
has not my leave of Absence. If he or any other 
Person should disobey, report him or them." 

" September 7. An express arrived this day from 
Newtown Barry, mentioning that Gen. Lake was 
attacked on the morning of the 27 Ult by the French 
at a village near Castlebar, 1 and after a smart conflict 
the General was compelled to retreat, leaving 6 field 
pieces and some ammunition, which fell into the hands 
of the Enemy. Night patrole as usual and Report. 
Everything perfectly quiet. 

" September 10. 

" ' Brigade Orders. Wexford, September 7, 1798. 

" ' I beg leave to request that you will be particular 
in sending me your Morning and Evening Reports of 
the Week on the last day of every week, and that you 
will keep your Men close in Quarters in order that they 
may be ready to parade at half an hour's notice ; and 
you will be particularly observant in the compliance of 
the Standing Orders, Instructions, and Arangements 
directed for the Yeomanry service ; it is necessary 
you should attend to the exercise and manoeuvring 
pointed out by command of Field Marshal, His Royal 
Highness, the Duke of York. His Royal Highness is 

1 See ante, p. 256. 


pleased to direct that every officer of Cavalry shall be 
provided with a copy of these Regulations. 

" ' B. Edw* 1 FITZGERALD, Brigade Major. 

' N.B. You will please to observe to practice 
firing with Blank Cartridges.' 

" An officer and 5 file, accompanied by Captain 
Adams, went from hence on an information lodged 
against a man named John Murphy, charged upon oath 
with having murdered two Loyalists at Vinegar Hill 
subsequent to the breaking out of the present Rebellion ; 
made close search, but could not find the person so 
sworn against. The file which was dispatched with an 
express to Newtown Barry this morning returned with 
an express from Col. Maxwell to Cap. Adams giving 
the pleasing intelligence that Lieut.-Gen. Lake and 
the forces under his Command had come up with the 
French in the County of Longford, and defeated them 
no particulars mentioned. 

" September 13. One file with Circular dispatches 
from the Brigade Major, to the Officers Commanding 
the Castletown, Coolgreny, Ballakeen, Gorey and 
Wingfield Cavalry. By the same express the following 
Orders were received, and addressed to the Officer 
Commanding the Yeoman Cavalry stationed at Ferns. 


' Brigade Orders. Wexford, September n, 1798. 

' I have to request that you will please to have 
a Similar Certificate of No. i filled up and transmitted 
to me on the 16 Instant, stating the Numbers to be on 
Permanent Duty for the ensuing Month, so that the 


Certificate may arrive at the War-Office, on or about 
the 20, and the Pay be actually in the Agents hands 
on the first of the Month according to the late Arange- 
ments for Yeomanry Corps on Permanent Duty. 

" ' You are requested to send in immediately your 
Monthly returns of Ammunition according to the Form 
in the Standing Orders, accounting for the Expenditure, 
&c., &c. 

" ' The Brigade Major requests the different Returns 
will be sent in in future regularly, or you may abide 
the Consequence. 

" ' B. E. FITZGERALD, Major of Brigade.' 

" September 14. One file as an escort from hence to 
Gorey, with Lieut. Smith and M r James Blake, 
Secretary to the Cavalry, to settle the Regimental 
Accounts of the Corps with the then Commissary, 
the former one, M r Ashe, not to be heard of ; applied 
to said Commissary for a Settlement, who said, he 
had not a power to settle any accounts of his pre- 
decessor M r Ashe, but furnished duplicates of the 
receipts passed for Lieut. Smith for Oats, Bread, and 
Beef, during said Ashe's time. 

" September 17. Between 12 and i o'clock in the 
morning the Camp was much alarmed by the firing of 
Guns from different parts of the Country, near to the 
Camp. Several shots were fired at the Sentry, sup- 
posed to be from Miltown, but cannot tell by whom 
said shots were fired. The whole of the Militia and 
Yeomanry remained armed 'till 7 o'clock. 

" September 18. A Serjeant and 6 file went to the 
house of Dennis Murphy of Raheenagee, hearing that 


he, the said Murphy, had entertained a Banditti of 
People, supposed to be the party who had committed 
the robberies on the houses of John Wright of Ballin- 
clay, and George and James Graham of Ballydainell on 
the night of Sunday the 16 Instant. After making close 
search, which was done without effect, the party re- 
turned back again to Quarters. This day the following 
Orders was received, and addressed to the Officers 
Commanding the Yeomanry Corps stationed at Ferns : 

" ' Circular. Bri. Orders. Wexford, Septem r 17, 1798. 

" ' I beg leave to enclose you Copies of Letters 
respecting the Permanent Duty of Yeomanry Corps 
in this Country. You will see it clearly explained by 
the Letter No. i. The Letter No. 2 I send which will 
explain any part of the former Letter, which you may 
not understand. It being Circular you will be par- 
ticularly carefull that all the Corps in your station 
will be officially made acquainted with this Order. 
" ' B. EDW. FITZGERALD, M. of B.' 

(Circular Letter, No. i.) 
< 5i r " ' Dublin Castle, 14 Sept em r 1798. 

"'The Lord Lieutenant being anxious to avail 
himself of the earliest opportunity of relieving the 
Yeomanry from that Duty which they have under- 
taken with so much Zeal and Alacrity, I am com- 
manded to signify to you that it is His Excellency's 
pleasure that the Yeomanry Corps should by Saturday 
the 22 Instant, be placed precisely on the same footing 
with respect to Permanent Duty as they were on 
previous to my Letter of the 29 August. The above 


arrangement will be communicated by this Post to the 
Generals, but as the circumstances of the Service 
may have called several of them from their Districts, 
it is his Excellency's desire, that to prevent delay, his 
directions on this Subject may be carried into effect 
by the Brigade Majors of Yeomanry without further 
Instructions, and you will therefore take immediate 
measures for this purpose in the District to which you 

are attached. ,, , T , ,, TT i_ o o 

I have the Honor to be, &c. &c. 

" ' To Major of Brigade FitzGerald, Wexford.' " 

(Circular Letter, No. 2.) 

" Letter of the 2gth August, alluded to by Lord 
Castlereagh : 

< si r " ' Dublin Castle, 29 August, 1798. 

" ' It being judged expedient under the present 
circumstances of the Country that the Yeomanry 
Corps throughout the Kingdom should without loss 
of time be put on Permanent Duty, I have the Lord 
Lieutenant's commands to desire that you will take 
immediate Measures for assembling the Corps in the 
District in which you are stationed, at such places, 
as the General to whom you are attached shall direct. 
" ' I have the Honor to be, &c. &c. &c. 
" ' To Major of Brigade FitzGerald, Wexford.' " 

The next letter from Lord Mount Norris is bitter- 
sweet. He has a grievance to air and the news of 
additional military forces to relate : 


[September 18, 1798] 

" Pray give the enclosed to Johnny Roe ! Captain 
Adams, being a superior Officer to you, has a Right 
to direct you to make daily returns to him, as I did 
to General Needham at Gorey. Therefore you cannot 
refuse, with* a Risque of being brought to a Court 
Martial, a Complyance with his orders, for you are 
certainly under his command. But this Power, 
which I am surprised he chooses to exercise, is not 
always enforced. It does not proceed from Captain A. 
himself, but originates out of kindness, elsewhere. This 
will, however, cease when I come to the Country, 
which I mean to do as soon as the Month's Returns 
to the first of August shall have been paid. Captain 
Adams, as far as I have been able to judge of him, 
is too much of a Gentleman to render Quarters un- 
pleasant to a brother Soldier. Remember me to all 
the Corps, and believe me, Dear Sir, 

" Your's faithfully, 


" A number of fine Regiments arrived, amounting 
to near 20,000 men. The Coast is now well guarded 
against Invasion. 

" The Reason for the daily returns, is to prevent a 
Continuance of those abuses, committed by Yeomen 
Captains, who have charged for many non effective 

[Address : " Dublin, September Eighteen, 1798. 
Lieut* Smyth, Camolin Cavalry, Ferns. Mount 


" September 19. An Officer and 12 file went towards 
Corrigrua Hill to reconnoitre, and scour that part of 
the Country, having heard that there were Rebels 
lurking in and about said Hill, but could not dis- 
cover any of them. 

" September 22. 

" ' Brigade Order. Wexford, September 21, 1798. 

" ' You have been furnished with a Copy of a Letter 
from Lord Castlereagh signifying to you his Excel- 
lency's pleasure that you would, after the 22 Instant, 
place yourselves on the same footing relative to 
Permanent Duty that you were on before the 29 
of August last, it being understood by his Excellency 
the Lord Lieutenant that you were before that date 
put off from Permanent Duty, according to a General 

' It is therefore necessary to inform you that after 
the 22 Inst. you will place yourselves on the same 
footing you were before the first of May last, observing 
the Weekly Exercise. 

" ' B. EDW. FITZGERALD, M. of Brigade.' 

" Night Patrole as usual and Report. All Quiet 
and WeU. 

" September 23. This morning the troop paraded 
at 10 o'clock and were immediately after marched for 
Ballycanew, in order to partake of an entertainment 
given them there by their two Lieutenants. In the 
Evening the Corps was disembodied, agreeable to the 
Order received yesterday from the Brigade Major. 
The Loyal Mount Norris Rangers were marched from 


Gorey to Camolin, where they were disembodied 
also, agreeable to the same Order. 1 

" October 5. This day a file of Yeoman Cavalry 
from Enniscorthy brought the following Letter from 
B. M. FitzGerald, Wexford, and Orders from Major 
Gen. Johnson, Waterford. 

, Sir " ' Wexford, October 5, 1798. 

" ' I have just received an Order from Major 
Gen. Johnson, Waterford, desiring I would im- 
mediately put the Yeomanry of my District upon 
Permanent Duty, a copy of which Order, I take the 
liberty of inclosing to you, requesting you will com- 
municate it as soon as possible to the Officers of 
Camolin Cavalry and Infantry, the former of which 
must be stationed at Ferns, the latter at Camolin. 
Be so good as to excuse this trouble, which the hurry 
of business urges me to. 

' ' I have the Honor to be, &c. &c. &c. 

" ' B. Eowd FITZGERALD, B.M. Yeom y . 
" ' To the Officer Commanding Cavan Militia, Ferns." 

Inclosed Order from Major Gen. Johnson, Waterford. 

" ' Head Quarters G.O. Waterford, Octo r 4, 1798. 

" ' From the present disturbed state of the Country, 
I am directed by Major Gen. Johnstone to desire, that 
you will without loss of time, put the Yeomanry, 
Cavalry and Infantry in your District, upon Permanent 
Duty, and that you will send a state of the several 
Corps as soon as possible to our Head Quarters at 

1 The missing dates are not given in the Detail Book. 


Waterford, continuing to do so every fortnight untill 
Ordered to the Contrary. 

" ' JOHN ROGERS, Acting B.M. 

" ' To Major of Brigade FitzGerald, Wexford.' " 

" Captain Burro wes of the Cavan Militia, who had the 
Command in Ferns, on receiving these Instructions 
dispatched Messengers to the Cavalry Officers, and in 
return found they had gone to Dublin some days before 
on their private affairs, and their return uncertain. 
However, the Service suffered no inconvenience on 
that account, as all expresses, &c. which arrived, were 
forwarded with expedition by some of the Cavalry 
who remained in Ferns since they were disembodyed. 
Prior to the arrival of the Officers from Dublin, the 
Major of Brigade visited Ferns, and not finding the 
Corps assembled according to Orders, he left the 
following : 

" ' Ferns, October 8, 1798. 

" ' The Major of Brigade FitzGerald has visited 
Ferns this Morning and was astonished not to find 
the Corps of Camolin Cavalry and Infantry assembled 
according to an Order from Major Gen. Johnstone, 
which B. M. FitzGerald conveyed to Ferns by express, 
directed to the Officer commanding there. The 
Officer or Non-commissioned Officer of the Corps 
will send 12 effective Dragoons tomorrow morning at 
6 o'clock, each well accoutred under the command of 
a non-commissioned Officer, and fully appointed with 
Carbines, &c. &c. to Wexford. As soon as the de- 


tachment arrives near town, a Man will be dispatched to 
the Brigade Major's Quarters.' 

" Agreeable to the above Order, a Serjeant and 
6 file marched for Wexford, remained there the chief 
part of the Day, and returned to Ferns, without seeing 
the Brigade Major, or receiving any Orders from him. 

" Two days after the Order arrived from Gen. 
Johnson, for putting the Corps on Permanent Duty, 
Sir Frederick Flood was favoured with the following 
letter, to the same purport : 

t( , ~. " ' Newtown Barry, October 7, 1798. 

" ' I authorize you to put the whole of Lord 
Mount Norris's Corps, Infantry and Cavalry, on 
Permanent Duty from tomorrow inclusive, twenty of 
the Cavalry to be stationed at Camolin, the remainder 
at Ferns. 

" ' I have the Honor to be, &c. &c. 

" ' ROB* TAYLOR, Brigadier General.' 

" Sir Frederick Flood in reply to Brigadier General 
Taylor's foregoing letter, stated his wishes to have 
at least an equal proportion of the Cavalry stationed 
at Camolin as Head Quarters, & received a second 
letter from the General, of which the following is a 

, ~. " ' Newtown Barry, October 9, [1798.] 

" ' In answer to your's of this day, with which 
I have just been honoured, I am to express that I have 
no objection to your making that arrangement of the 
Cavalry part of Lord Mount Norris's that you desire. 


I only made the former division of it, on account of 
the accommodation, which I was given to understand 
was better at one place, than the other. 

" ' I have the Honor to be, &c. 

" ' ROB* TAYLOR, E.G. 
" ' Sir Fred. Flood, Bart. Camolin.' " 

Lord Mount Norris has now a really serious complaint 
to make : 

"Oct r II th 1798. 
" Dear Sir, 

" I am very sorry you did not call on me in your 
Way out of Town, as I had a packet for you. M r 
Brigade Major FitzGerald has sent me a Return with 
his Observation ' that the number stated of Cavalry 
in the Return were not present.' That is, saying 
that you and I have certifyed a falsehood. You must 
therefore send me up an affidavit, signed by you, 
Jones, &c, that all the men, stated in the August Return 
were either present or on out Duty by order. Blake's 
not sending the Return or Account is shameful. I 
expect to hear from you by Return of post, and am 

" Your's faithfully, 


" You will probably get a Packet from me by post. 

" The best thing you can do, is to go off express to 
Wexford, and to assure the Brigade Major (what I 
pledge my Honor is a fact) that I did not receive his 
Letter, with the Return, for my observations ; that 
I should have otherwise replyed. You can also 
pledge yourself that all the men, you certifyed, were 


present on Duty, except Peter Crannel (sent by his 
Direction to Donoughmore) and a few others, who 
were on Duty or on furlow. Also that two were ill, 
and c d not attend, Nesbit and Newbold. Don't Delay 
this Business a moment. Ask Captain Adams's leave. 

[Address : " John Smyth Esq re , Ballyduff, Ferns." 

"Oct* i8th, 1798. 
Dear Sir, 

" I am glad you are arrived at last, for your 
Absence so long was injurious to the Country, to the 
Corps, and to you, as an officer ! But, as you have 
now joined I expect that you and John Jones will be 
attentive. The Service must not suffer, nor must the 
Government be trifled with. M r Blake's not [wishing] 
to join is intolerable. M r Nesbit's absenting himself, 
whether through Illness or not, is a Hardship [to] his 
Brother Troopers. Remember me to them and believe 
me faithfully Your's, M t NORRIS." 

[Address : " Dublin October Seven 1798. N seven. 
L* Smith, Camolin Cavalry, Camolin, Gorey. Mount 

" Ocf 23 rd , 1798 

" I have no doubt of your Attention and Honor and 
those of my Corps. M r Peter Taylor's Reason for 
wishing for leave to resign, is very extraordinary, 
if any thing can be counted odd in the present times. 
A letter from M r FitzGerald, the Brigade Major at 
Wexford, contains the following extraordinary Para- 
graph : ' Your letter of the n th I would have an- 
swered before now, but expected to comply with your 


Request of making Enquiries into the certainty of the 
number of men being actually present for the Days 
stated in the Return, but my attendance in Station 
prevented my Intention. Give me leave to assure 
your L p I took that Precaution before I made any 
Remark on the Return and did question L* Smyth on 
the Subject, who acknowledged the number of men 
were not actually present. However, I will be happy 
to give Lieut. Smith an opportunity of arranging the 
mistake, if it is one.' This Paragraph carrys its own 
Command, for it charges you with having certifyed a 
false Return, which I, depending on your accuracy, 
confirmed by my signature, as Captain. It is in- 
cumbent on you, as an Officer, to rectify this Business, 
as it regards your Honour, as well as that of 
" Your humble Svt, 


1 'Till you have rectifyed the gross Error which you 
have committed and which you have most ungenerously 
led me into, the Pay will be stopped I I would not, 
for iooo have had it happened, for it makes you and 
me appear in a very awkward Point of View, to which 
I cannot submit, as I have been innocently led in by 
a man, in whom I confided. Make me an Exact Return 
of every man, who absents himself, for I will not be 
privy to cheating the publick and Government." 



The curse which has made that wretched island the world's 
by-word is not in Ireland itself, but in the inability of its 
conquerors to recognise that, if they take away a nation's 
liberty, they may not use it as the plaything of their own 
selfishness or their own factions. FROUDE. 


concluding letters in the Mount Norris 
Correspondence range from the 22nd 
November, 1798, to the nth September,* 
1803. Although they are not numerous, 
the deficiency in quantity is largely atoned by the 
interesting quality of the communications. Depreda- 
tions continued to be made by the few rebels who 
remained unrepentant, and it must be confessed that 
the Camolin Cavalry was not particularly successful 
in putting a stop to the lawless misdoings of the 
insurgents who infested the neighbourhood. There 
was also a " rift in the lute " as regards the conduct 
of the corps, which justly called forth a stern rebuke 
from the Earl. It is satisfactory to note, however, 
that almost the last document has a pleasing reference 
to " my brave Corps of Yeomen, who did themselves 
so much Credit and me so much Honour in the late 
cruel Rebellion." 



" Nov r 22 d , 1798. 

" I am shocked to hear that things are not going 
on as they ought, in the Neighbourhood of Camolin. 
Those frequent Burnings disgrace our Neighbourhood, 
and ought to be put a Stop to ! 1 The Blame will fall 
upon those, who I should wish to be free from the 
Imputation of winking at the too prevalent Disorders. 
I am often asked what my Yeomen are about, to 
suffer such nightly Depredations ! Government are 
angry, and I should not be surprized if they forbid a 
Continuance of our permanent Duty ! I am told that 
great Expectations have been raised about the Com- 
pensation to be paid to the Loyal Sufferers. But I 
have well founded fears that People will not be paid half 
their losses. There is no fund yet established, nor is there 
any likelyhood of it, as the Claims are too enormous 
to be discharged. 2 I am impatient for Blake to come 

1 " The Counties of Mayo, Wicklow, and Wexford, are still so 
disturbed, that it is impossible, with any effect, to send the King's 
commission into them : nothing but martial authority can repress 
the daring outrages of the Rebels, who still infest those counties " 
(Lord Castlereagh to Mr. Wickham, Phoenix Park, igth November, 
1798). See Castlereagh Correspondence, Vol. II., p. 8. " I am sorry 
to say there are symptoms of returning turbulence in Wicklow, 
Kildare, Wexford, Antrim, Down, Tipperary. The French were 
expected at Christmas " (Mr. Cooke to Lord Castlereagh, 2oth 
December, 1798). See Ibid., Vol. II., pp. 49-50. 

* Writing to Pitt four months later (29th March, 1799), Lord 
Castlereagh states that above 3,500 loyalists had sent in claims, 
involving about 600,000. " As the claimants are in general in the 
utmost distress," it was proposed that those who required 
sums under 500 should receive one-third. Claims amounting to 
311,341 is. 7d. were sent in by the inhabitants of Wexford prior 
to the 6th April, 1799 (Taylor, p. 168). See also ante, p. 232. " Per- 
haps," says Gordon (p. 203), " if the whole amount of the detri- 


up to Town, to settle the accounts as far as he and I 
can now that M r Ashe is not to be found. Tell Chilling- 
worth that I will write to him next Post ! Remember 
me to all friends. " Your's faithfully, 

" M." 

[Address : " Dublin November Twenty two 1798. 
L* Smith, Camolin Cavalry, Camolin, Gorey. Mount 

" Nov r 27 th 1798. 

" I am very sorry, my good Sir, to hear that a flag 
has been put upon the Church, and am convinced 
that whoever placed it there, had no good object in 
View, otherwise why not take the Sense of all the 
Inhabitants on the occasion, particularly of our worthy 
Pastor, who, as well as myself, ought to have been 
previously consulted. Jemmy Blake informed me 
of the particular State of things, which we all lament, 
as every honest man and good Subject must. It is the 
Duty of every Loyal Person, to endeavor to quiet 
the public Mind, and to bring back the Inhabitants to 
their Houses. It is the Wish of Government that 
religious controversy should cease, and they will 
consider those, who keep the War alive, as Enemies 
to their King and Country. I send you a note to my 
friend Billy Walsh to supply the needfull to my Men. 

" Your's faithfully, 


" Remember me to all Friends. I hear that M r 

ment sustained by this unfortunate island, in consequence of the 
united conspiracy, were conjectured at two millions, a sum of such 
magnitude might not exceed, or even equal the reality." 


Anthony Newbold thinks he is of our Corps, from 
which he has been many months struck out, therefore 
you must not allow him any pay, as it would be out of 
your own pocket. 

" If you should receive a Parcel for the late Brigade 
Major FitzGerald, forward it by a military Express." 

[Address : " Dublin November Twenty seven, 1798. 
L* Smith, Camolin, Gorey. Mount Norris."] 

"Dear Smyth, "Dublin Jan* 2g th 1799. 

" The Proposition for an Union is damned ! 
I contributed my Aid to the Rejection of a Measure 
which my Country decidedly disapproved of. 1 As 
the too prevalent Evil of the Day, appears to be a turn 
for Robbery, I beg and make it a Point with you, to 
give your utmost aid to detect and PUNISH EVERY sort of 
Peculation. Anyone, that does otherwise, I can never 
consider my friend ; for, till the Property of Individuals 
is considered safe, who is considered safe, who can 
support a Constitution, which is subjected to the 
Pilfering of every nightly Plunderer ? Let us then 
support the Honor of a Yeoman who is embodyed to 
support the civil Power ! Should any thing new occur, 
I hope to hear from you ! This City is perfectly quiet, 
and I trust that the public Peace will not be molested 
by any attempt at Innovation on the Constitution, 
who no one reverences more than I do ! Remember 
me to all Friends, in particular to your Son. 

" Y" faithfully, 


1 The proposal was rejected in the Irish Parliament in January, 


" Pray write often to me ! Every occurrence 
relative to the County of Wexford interests my 
feelings, beyond Expression." 

[Address : " Dublin January Twenty nine 1799. 
Lieutenant Smyth, Camolin Cavalry, Camolin, Gorey. 
Mount Norris."] 

" Feb y 9 th [1799] 
" Dear Smyth, 

" Being obliged to go to London on particular 
Business, and having failed in my application ' to 
have both my Corps put upon permanent Duty ' 
(it being contrary to Regulation) I shall not have the 
pleasure of seeing you before the middle of next 
Month, when Sir Frederick Flood and I are to return 
together, to the Country of Wexford. Should the 
French Consul put his Threats in force, I shall wheel 
back directly to Ireland, even if the News reaches 
me on the Road. 1 It is a great Satisfaction to me, to 
leave my Corps in your hands, for my opinion of your 
Courage and good Conduct can only be equalled by 
the Esteem, with which I am, 

" Dear Smyth, 

" Your's faithfully, 


" I depend on your, hi future, constantly attending 
the Parades. Remember me to Tom and to all other 
real Friends." 

[Address : " Captain Smyth."] 

1 The invasion of Ireland was then thought to be imminent. 
See Castlereagh Correspondence, Vol. II., pp. 162-168, 180, 186, 


" Feb y 12, 1799. 

" I have omitted to write to you having nothing 
particular to communicate. The Idea of an Union 
has blown over, nor do I suppose that the Question 
. will be again agitated, unless it shall be brought for- 
ward by our Countrymen ! You have, I find from 
your letter, agreed to take Rockspring, and I sincerely 
wish it may answer. Having formed your Plan, it 
would be wrong to give you an opinion, tho' I con- 
sider it a very great undertaking, which I should 
hesitate embarking in even in Times previous to the 
Rebellion, and unless I had a capital of 2ooo to build 
upon, in Cash. There has not been any payment 
made on account of my Corps, but when I receive 
any, they shall hear from me. In the meantime, 
I should be very sorry that they wanted any thing, 
in my power to purchase for them. Remember me 
to all my brother Soldiers. Tell Jemmy Blake that 
I request to be informed, by the Return of Post, 
the times and Places, when and where my Troop 
and Company were upon permanent Duty. Your's 

faithfully, ... XT 


[Address : " Dublin February Twelve 1799. Lieut* 
Smith, Camolin, Gorey. Mount Norris."] 

" Feb y 21 st 1799. 
" Dear Sir, 

" Of course, the Corps will comply with Gen 1 
Taylor's Requisition, as we shall otherwise be put off 
from permanent Pay, which would, I am afraid, 


inconvenience them. 1 I am happy to hear that the 
Country is quieter ! 2 . . . 

" Your's faithfully, 

" M " 

[Address : " Dublin February Twenty one 1799. 
Lieut 1 Smith, Camolin, Gorey. Mount Norris."] 

" April 23 d , 1799. 

" I am shocked to hear that those nightly Depre- 
dators are still plundering in the County of Wexford, 
and that they have lately committed two Robberies 
at Meadowful. 3 We must search all about Ferns and 
in that neighbourhood, also near Ballycanew, as those 
Miscreants must be somewhere, and cannot be far off. 
Take out a Party of the Cavalry and Infantry to look 
for the Things lost, searching every house without 
distinction, which will prevent any one's being offended ! 
Indeed, my good Lieutenant, we will not be allowed 
to continue a Corps, if such horrid Acts shall be re- 
peated, for we are embodyed to preserve the Peace of 
that part of the District, and Blame must and will 
attach to us, unless by our Exertions we detect or 

1 In May, 1799, Lord Cornwallis "directed the yeomanry 
throughout the kingdom to be placed on permanent duty, in order 
to guard against the early enterprises of the disaffected, on its being 
understood that the enemy are at sea." 

1 According to information given voluntarily by Joseph Holt, 
details of which will be found in the Castlereagh Correspondence, 
Vol. II., pp. 186-187, the rebels had given up meetings, "but they 
carry on their plots by writing little notes to one another," and 
" encourage the disaffected to enlist in the regiments of Militia." 

3 These outrages were presumably committed by the " Babes 
in the Wood." See Hay, p. 298. 


prevent Repetition. Say every thing due and ac- 
ceptable to all friends from, Dear Smith, 
" Your's faithfully, 

" Mt NORRIS." 
[Address : " Lieut* Smyth, Camolin Cavalry."] 

" Head Quarters at Camolin, May I 8t , 1799. 

" Ordered that a guard of seven Infantry, one 
a non-commissioned Officer and of three Cavalry, 
be kept upon Duty, as well by Day as by night, during 
the 24 hours. Any person absenting himself, to be 
fined two Days pay, which is to form a fund for any 
extra appointments that may be deemed requisite 
for the Corps. Ordered that the expresses shall 
be conveyed by the Camolin Legion, when Camolin 
shall be expressed in the Rout[e], and in no other 
Case, except by the special Command of the General 
of the District, under whose Controul alone the Legion 
is to be considered. Should any field Officer pass 
through Camolin, an Escort as far as Ferns or Gorey 
ought to be given, tho' the aforesaid Officer has no 
Right to command it, as the military Regulation is 
against it. Any man losing a part of his appoint- 
ments must have them replaced out of his pay, for 
which the paymaster should stop one shilling per 
week 'till the amount shall be discharged. The Sentry 
to mount guard at the Door of the commanding officer 
present. The second Sentry Box to be mounted at the 
guard House door. Any of the Guard who shall be found 
in Liquor to be confined 24 hours on Bread and Water, 
forfeiting two Days pay for the first offence ; and if 


guilty of said offence a second time, to be sent to 
New Town Barry or Gorey to be tryed by Martial 
Law. And, for the third Offence, to be fined, confined 
and drummed out, first being stripped of his Uniform 
&c. Any man, who shall draw his Sword, against 
his comrade, to be put under close arrest and to be 
tryed by Martial Law. Any man who shall omit to 
give the Salute to his Superior Officer to be reprimanded 
at the Head of the Corps. Any person behaving dis- 
respectfully to his superior Officer to apologise at the 
Head of the Corps, which, if he shall refuse to do, he 
must be dismissed from the Legion, and rendered 
incapable of ever serving again in any Yeomanry 

" M* NORRIS, Captain of the Camolin Legion." 

" Every non commissioned Officer to see that those 
men under his immediate command come to Parade 
clean and fully accoutred, under the penalty of two 
Days pay, which shall be stopped from the Private, 
in case it appears that the s d Private refused to comply 
with such orders from his superior. 

" Ordered, by Command of General Taylor, that 
Nicholas Hollinsworth, John Jackaberry and Benjamin 
Jackaberry and Robert Lee be dismissed from the 
Camolin Cavalry for Neglect of Duty, and that they be 
required to deliver up all their appointments under 
the Penalty of ten pounds, pursuant to the Yeomanry 
Act. M* Norris, Captain of the Camolin Legion, 
May I st 1799. Head Quarters, Camolin." 

" Whenever a Cavalry man shall be upon Guard, 


it is my Orders that he take the Command for the 
night, unless that there shall be a commissioned 
Officer of the Infantry present. 

" Head Quarters " M* NORRIS, 

" at Camolin, " Cap. Cam. Legion." 

" May 2 d , 1799 " 

" May 22 d , 1799 

" You cannot conceive, my Dear Sir, how much 
hurt I feel at the late Conduct of the dismounted 
men of the Camolin Legion at Ferns. Should they 
dare to act in a similar manner again, Government 
shall know it and they will be degraded from the 
Rank of a Yeoman, which they have disgraced. I 
will not participate in that Disgrace, by conniving 
at such want of Discipline, such Dishonor to a set 
of men who as well as their families are supported 
by that Country for the maintainance of whose laws 
they were embodyed, and not to trample upon them. 
I feel mortifyed that any of my Tennantry, who were 
always so respected, should behave in [a] manner, 
that degrades human Nature. Let them look to the 
Lash, given by Government, to the Infantry of Rath- 
farnham, who have been disarmed and dismissed, 
as unworthy of serving their King, having turned 
Robbers, instead of being the Protectors of their 
Neighbours. Write to me soon and often and you 
will gratify, Dear Smyth, 

*' Your's faithfully, 

" M* NORRIS." 

" Remember me to all Friends at Norris M* and 


" I depend on your right Attention to the fair of 
Camolin, where the buyers and sellers must be pro- 
tected. Let the Infantry be kept under Arms the 
whole time and whosoever dare to be riotous let 
them be marched, with a guard to New Town Barry." 

[Address : " Dublin May Twenty three, 1799. L* 
Smyth, Camolin, Gorey. Mount Norris."] 

" Dear Jack, " Feb " 7- l8 <*>- 

" I have given Directions to have three hundred 
pounds, besides what was lately paid, to be forthwith 
handed to Sir F. Flood, for the Regiment of my Cavalry 
and Infantry, whose accounts I mean to settle to 
the end of the year. I intended to have gone down 
to the Country next Week, but cannot now fix a 
time, having a great deal of Business on my Hands. 
I have sold my House in Dublin, as my future Plan 
is to pass a good deal of my time at Camolin, and as 
Gentlemen ought to reside upon their Property. 
Besides, my own Inclinations prompt me to spend a 
good part of my Income where I receive it. I hope 
this will find you and family well. Believe me, Dear 
Jack, with Esteem, Your's faithfully, 


[Address : " Dublin, February Seven, 1800. John 
Smyth, Esq re ."] 

There is a gap of three years in the Correspondence. 
The Earl no longer resents the Union, but is deeply 
incensed by the conduct of Napoleon, who was now 
busily preparing for the invasion of England : 


,11 the collection of Mr. A. M. Kroadlty 


" June 8* h , 1803. 

" Nothing has been a more bitter interuption of my 
domestick Comforts than the Accounts, which I have 
lately received, my Dear Sir, of the sad Riot which 
took place at the last Fair of Carnew. How it began 
or who were the agressors I have not been able to 
ascertain. But, in my opinion, whoever caused the 
tumult and whoever did not try to suppress it, deserves 
severe reprehension ; and I hope that the keenest 
Lash of the Law will lay hold of them and punish 
them ! I was in hopes that Party had so far subsided 
as to induce People to bury in Oblivion old grudges, 
and to consult their own Interest in preserving the 
Tranquility of their Country, which must otherwise 
become a Province to France, whose gripping Arm 
has desolated every Nation on which she has forced 
her galling Chains, by Intrigue, by threats, or by her 
armies. 1 If we are pleased with our present happy 

1 War was declared against France on the i6th May, 1803, and 
Bonaparte had announced his intention to invade England. It is 
evident that at one time Napoleon seriously thought of sending 
an expedition to Ireland. According to a letter from T. A. Emmet, 
the brother of the ill-fated Robert, to Dr. McNeven, dated ist 
Pluviose, 1804 (2ist January), Napoleon had gone so far as to 
dictate a design for the colours, which were to bear the legend, 
" L' independence de I' Irelande Liberte de Conscience," which is 
surely a proof of his intense political acumen. Robert Emmet's ill- 
considered attempt at rebellion was partly based on the belief that 
Bonaparte hoped to cross the Channel in August, 1803, and how 
impossible this would have been is proved by the fact that but few 
of the hundreds of small boats which he ordered to be built for the 
project were then on the stocks (see Napoleon and the Invasion of 
England, by H. F. B. Wheeler and A. M. Broadley, Vol. II.). Robert 
Emmet intended to attack Dublin Castle, secure the Viceroy and 
his family, and keep them as hostages. Dwyer, who had taken 


Constitution, we should act with Unanimity, and 
join hand in hand in defending what every honest 
man will consider a common Cause. You have it in 
your power to conciliate, and I have no doubt (from 
my knowledge of your loyal Principles) of your exert- 
ing all your Influence to restrain Impetuosity when 
hurryed away by Passion and to counteract the deep 
Machinations of those who may wish to mislead the 
deluded Multitude by your utmost Endeavours to 
conciliate the Commonality, who can at all times be 
reduced to a Sense of their Duty should the gentle 
Art of Persuasion fail ! I speak as a friend to my 

part in the rebellion of '98, was to march from the Wicklow Moun- 
tains with 500 or more men, Nicholas Gray was to lead several 
thousands of Wexford men to the city, and a general rising was 
anticipated, more especially in the counties of Kildare, Wicklow, 
Wexford, Carlow, and Kilkenny. On the day of the proposed out- 
break Dwyer failed to arrive owing to the non-delivery of a letter 
from Emmet, the Kildare men came and went, probably owing to 
treachery, and only 200 or 300 Wexford men stayed in Dublin to 
await orders. On the 2jrd July, 1803, the eighty confederates who 
had gathered at the depot in Marshalsea Lane were wrongly in- 
formed that the military were on their track. Determined to sell 
his life dearly, Emmet led his none too sober followers towards the 
Castle. Practically no order was maintained, murder and theft were 
committed with little discrimination, and the climax was reached 
by the cold-blooded assassination of Lord Kilwarden, Chief Justice 
of the King's Bench, and his nephew. Emmet fled to the Wicklow 
mountains, but wishing to see Sarah Curran, to whom he was pas- 
sionately attached, he indiscreetly made his way to Harold's 
Cross. He was arrested there on the 2$th August, and executed 
on the 2Oth of the following month. The memory of Sarah Curran 
is kept green in Moore's sympathetic poem, beginning : 

" She is far from the land where her young hero sleeps, 

And lovers around her are sighing ; 
But she coldly turns from their gaze and weeps, 
For her heart in his grave is lying." 



native Island ! Whenever required I intend to head 
my brave Corps of Yeoman, who did themselves so 
much Credit and me so much Honour in the late cruel 
Rebellion. I beg you will immediately let me have 
or let Jemmy Blake send me an exact Statement of 
my Cavalry and infantry and of their appointments, 
writing to my friend, our Brigade Major (in the most 
urgent Terms) to have all Deficiencies replaced. As 
to the Politics of this Kingdom, however Individuals 
may differ, they are united in an unanimous Deter- 
mination to give every energy to the executive Power. 
Our fleets were never in a more flourishing Situation, 
and such a Spirit has been imbibed by our Tars and 
our Soldiery as will make the Emperor of Gaul tremble 
pn his Throne at the Tuileries, for I have no Doubt of 
the Event of this War of Necessity. Our Motto is 
to be, ' Death before Dishonour.' Remember me to 
all friends, in particular to Tom. Send your Answer 
under Cover to the Hon ble George Cavendish, Treasury, 
Dublin. Believe me, with Esteem, 
" Dear Smyth, 

" Your's faithfully, 

" M* NORRIS." 

" Dublin Sep tr n th , 1803. 
" Dear Smyth, 

" I landed last night, after a Passage of thirty 
six Hours ! You must immediately let me know 
what Deficiencies there are in the appointments of 
the Camolin Cavalry, as I shall only defer my Return 
to my Corps, 'till I can obtain them from the proper 


offices. I request your answer by Return of Post ! 
Your's with Esteem, 

" very faithfully, 


" Best Comp ts to Tom. 1 Remember me to rny Corps, 
whom I long to be with." 

[Address : " Captain Smyth."] 

1 In a letter dated " Febx i8 th 1810," to "Dear Smyth," 
Lord Mount Norris says that the departure of Brownrigg of Norris 
Mount from the County of Wexford " enables me to comply with 
your's and my young friend Tom's wish ' that you should succeed 
him in the Command of the M l Norris Rangers.' I comply with 
particular Pleasure." That the corps was still in existence in 
1814 is proved by a letter from the Earl to the same correspondent, 
and dated "London, Jan? 28 th ." The former had "escaped from 
the Jaws of Death," but he states that " I am likely to again visit 
my native Country, where I look forward with infinite pleasure to 
joining you and my respectable Cavalry, of whom I often think." 


A general review of the History of Ireland presents few features 
that will gratify the pride of a native or the feelings of an 
Englishman. Conquered, without being subdued, a wild and 
unruly spirit of independence flickered amongst the chieftains 
from age to age, unextinguished by a deluge of blood : the 
faith pledged to the victors was broken at every favourable 
opportunity ; revolt succeeded revolt, and what was by one 
party considered as treason and rebellion, was by the other 
regarded as just, or at least justifiable : this proceeded from 
an imperfect and individual, rather than an universal conquest. 



Rt. Hon. James Bryce has given it 
as his opinion that there is "no parallel 
in modern history to the conduct of those 
who ' restored order ' in 1798-9, except 
that of the Jacobin party in France during the Terror 
of 1793, and if there was more bloodshed during the 
Terror in France, there was more torture during the 
Terror in Ireland." 1 That there were wild excesses 
on both the Royalist and " Patriotic " sides will be 
admitted by all who have read any of the numerous 
contemporary narratives, many of which have been 
referred to in this volume. Certainly the melodramatic, 

1 Two Centuries of Irish History, 1691-1870. With Introduc- 
tion by James Bryce, M.P. (1888), p. xxv. 



if somewhat inaccurate drawings, by George Cruik- 
shank in Maxwell's History, have scared some of us 
since childhood. A careful examination of the many 
authorities makes it appear probable, in the opinion 
of the present writers, that the men of Wexford, in 
whose beautiful county the flames of Rebellion raged 
fiercest, would never have resorted to arms had it 
not been for the outrages of the soldiery in the first 

" The atrocities on both sides were horrible," to 
quote Mr. Bryce again, " yet the massacres perpe- 
trated by the peasantry at Vinegar Hill yield to the 
hideous cruelties in which the Orangemen revelled, 
and which the Government refused to repress or 
punish." - 1 Dr. George Sigerson sums up the case in 
no less unmistakable language :*" Lord Charlemont 3 
said : ' A rebellion of slaves is always more bloody 
than an insurrection of freemen.' The rebellion in 
Wexford justified the saying. Under no military 
control, undisciplined, and practically unled ; goaded 
to revolt by intolerable barbarity, they flew to arms, 
without preparation, as a desperate resource. Such 
a struggle inevitably exhibited some of the features 
of a jacquerie. The peasants, refused quarter them- 

1 Two Centuries of Irish History, ibgi-iSfo. With Introduc- 
tion by James Bryce, M,P. (1888), p. xxv. 

a Ibid., p. 1 66. 

3 James Caulfeild (1728-1799), fourth Viscount and first Earl 
of Charlemont. He rendered conspicuous service in commanding 
the levies raised for the defence of Belfast after Carrickfergus had 
been occupied by the French in February, 1760. Commander-in- 
chief of the Irish Volunteers, 1780; President of the Volunteer 
Convention held at Dublin, 1783. 


From the collection of Mr. A. M. Rroadliy 


selves, often gave none, and on some occasions com- 
mitted acts of outrage and horror, in murderous 
retaliation, on their foes. Their leaders, clerical and 
lay, Protestant and Catholic, did their utmost to 
control them, and were generally successful. But, 
in some instances, the insurgents unhappily imitated 
the example of the regular soldiery ; and, flushed 
with momentary success, wreaked a dreadful vengeance 
on the instruments of the tyrants by whom they had 
long been oppressed and degraded. . . . The truth 
is, outrages were not committed by rebels until they 
had been taught innumerable lessons in barbarity 
by their foes." 

The correspondence of Viscount Castlereagh, 1 who 
undertook the arduous duties of Chief Secretary to 
Lord Camden during Mr. Pelham's illness, and sub- 
sequently succeeded to the office and served under 
the Marquess Cornwallis, contains many allusions to 
the matter. Drastic precautions had to be taken to 
prevent the troops from imbibing too freely, a temp- 
tation common in all warfare, but particularly harm- 
ful in Ireland at that time, when the whisky was fiery 
and of none too good a quality. Before the rebellion 

1 His Memoirs, especially the first two volumes, have been laid 
under severe contribution by the present writers, for Castlereagh 
bore much of the burden and heat of the day. If Lord Brougham 
in his Historical Sketches of the Statesmen of the Reign of George III. 
delivers him to Pilate on some points, he does not find it necessary 
to sit in judgment on the affairs of the rebellion. " Lord Castle- 
reagh," he writes, " uniformly and strenuously set his face against 
the atrocities committed in Ireland ; and that to him, more than 
perhaps any one else, was to be attributed the termination of the 
system stained with blood. . . ." (p. 126). 


began Lieutenant-General Ralph Dundas was com- 
pelled to have a large quantity of liquor destroyed, 
" without which the troops would have got drunk, 
and done much mischief." * An officer of the Guards 
writing from Waterford on the 2Qth August, 1798, 
complained to the Duke of Portland of the outrageous 
behaviour of the Irish Militia, who plundered in- 
discriminately, terrorised the inhabitants, and got 
almost out of hand. " All confidence is lost wherever 
they make their appearance," he adds, and remarks 
that " drunkenness is prevalent beyond anything 

1 ever witnessed before ; and I am sorry to say our 
non-commissioned officers are not clear of this vice." 2 
In the covering letter mention is made of " salutary 
measures, which his Excellency [the Lord-Lieutenant] 
will probably find it necessary to take for the re- 
establishment of order and discipline in the Irish 
army." 3 

Sir Ralph Abercromby, who was Commander-in- 
Chief in Ireland from December, 1797 to March, 1798, 
frankly admitted that he was disgusted with the 
behaviour of the army, and the testimony of the 
hero of Aboukir and Alexandria is not easily set aside. 

Here is an excerpt from an order dated the 26th 
February, 1798, three months to a day before the 
rebel standard was raised in Wexford, which blurts 

1 Castlereagh Correspondence, Vol. I., p. 188. Letter from Lieut.- 
General R. Dundas to Sir R. Abercromby, dated Castle Martin, 

2 jrd April, 1798. 

* Extract from a letter, dated 29th August, 1798. Ibid., 
Vol. I., p. 342. 

3 Mr. Wickham to Lord Castlereagh, dated Whitehall, loth 
September, 1798. Ibid., Vol. I., p. 341. 


out incontestable facts in no compromising fashion, 
and had much to do with the General's subsequent 
recall. When truth is hauled up from the bottom of 
the well in which it is supposed to hide somebody 
suffers, usually the man at the winch. The path of 
the reformer in military matters is perilous in the 
extreme, whether it is traversed in 1798, 1898, or 
1908. Abercromby comments on " the frequency of 
courts-martial and the many complaints of irregu- 
larities in the conduct of the troops in this kingdom 
having too unfortunately proved the army to be in 
a state of licentiousness which must render it for- 
midable to every one but the enemy, the Commander- 
in-chief thinks it necessary to demand from all Generals 
commanding districts and brigades, as well as com- 
manding officers of regiments, that they exert them- 
selves and compel from all officers under their com- 
mand the strictest and most unremitting attention 
to the discipline, good order, and conduct of their 
men, such as may restore the high and distinguished 
reputation which the British troops have been ac- 
customed to enjoy in every part of the world. It 
becomes necessary to recur and most pointedly to 
attend to the standing orders of the kingdom, which 
at the same time that they direct military assistance 
to be given at the requisition of the civil magistrate, 
positively forbid the troops to act (except in case of 
attack) without his presence and authority, and the 
most clear and precise orders are to be given to the 
officer commanding the party for this purpose, . . ." l 

1 Diary of Sir John Moore, Vol. I., p. 283. 


This order, in the opinion of Jacks in and out of office, 
contradicted that of Lord Carhampton which gave 
the military the right to act on their own initiative 
and without resorting to a magistrate. 1 However, 
the Lord- Lieutenant in Council proclaimed the whole 
kingdom to be in rebellion, and Abercromby had no 
alternative but to issue an order giving that military 
licence to which he had so rooted an objection. 2 
Cranmer burnt the hand that had offended, and the 
Commander-in-chief forthwith tendered his resig- 
nation. In commenting on this occurrence in his 
Diary, Abercromby's colleague notes that " Those 
who have the government of the country sefim to 
have no plan or system but that of terrifying the 
common people ; they will give you every power to 
act against them, but the rest of the community are 
to be indulged in every abuse." Moore himself was 
tired of the sickening business and asked to be re- 
called. " The measures likely to be adopted will be 
most odious, and whoever attempts to execute them 
with lenity or moderation risks giving displeasure and 
being ruined." 3 

Repeated representations were made to Lord Cam- 
den, with the result that he gave instructions to 
General Lake, who succeeded Abercromby, that 
troops were not to live at free quarters for any length 
of time, as " the loyal and well-affected have in many 

1 See ante, Chapter I., p. 33. 

a See Castlereagh Correspondence, Vol. I., pp. 164, 168-169. 
3 Diary of Sir John Moore, Vol. I., p. 288, under date, Bandon, 
1 6th April [1798]. 


instances suffered in common with the disaffected, 
from a measure which does not admit in its execution 
of sufficient discrimination of persons. . . ." l Lake 
was therefore to " adopt such other vigorous and 
effectual measures for enforcing the speedy surrender 
of arms as in your discretion you shall think fit, and 
which shall appear to you not liable to these ob- 
jections." 2 We know that Lake carried out his in- 
structions to the letter ; his was no sparing hand. 
" The measure of ' free quarters/ ' says his bio- 
grapher in mitigation of the General's methods, 
" was ordered by Lord Camden, the Governor-General 
in Ireland, and not by the military authorities, who 
merely carried out the orders of the civil power." 
He adds : "It appears, unhappily, clear that in 
Wexford, at least, the misconduct of the militia and 
yeomanry, and particularly that of a corps of German 
cavalry and of the Welsh corps known as the Ancient 
Britons, was largely to blame for the outbreak. No 
Englishman can read the accounts of what was done 
in that county before the outbreak without profound 
regret, nor can any consolation be derived from a 
catalogue of the subsequent horrors perpetrated by 
the rebels. It can only be said that cruelty and 
oppression produced a yet more savage revenge." 3 

Desertion to the rebels was by no means infrequent, 
and when the Bill of Pardon was being drafted it 

1 Castlereagh Correspondence, Vol. I., p. 189. 

z Lord Castlereagh to Lieut.-General Lake, dated Dublin Castle, 
25th April, 1798. Ibid., Vol. I., p. 189. 

3 Memoirs of the Life and Military Services of Viscount Lake, 
pp. 88 and 95. 


was proposed to except from clemency all who had 
joined the insurgents and those who had administered 
illegal oaths, " this description of yeomen being the 
active seducers of their own body, and, in many in- 
stances, having entered into the service expressly 
for the purpose." 1 In the early days of the outbreak 
there was not much cause for complaint on this score, 
the militia acting with " the most determined spirit," 
and a few corps of yeomanry only having been cor- 
rupted. These facts seem to have somewhat sur- 
prised the authorities at Dublin Castle. " In this 
point of view," writes Castlereagh to Mr. Wickham, 
" the insurrection, if repressed with energy, will 
have proved an invaluable test of our national force, 
on the disaffection of which our enemies either actually 
did, or professed, very extensively to rely." 2 Three 
months later Camden was complaining of the mis- 
behaviour of the Longford and Kilkenny regiments, 
and not without reason, for over 100 of the rank-and- 
file eventually deserted to the rebels, while the state 
of the army was " very alarming." 3 Lord Cornwallis, 
who never censured without reason and was in- 
clined to smooth things over whenever possible, 
was obliged to call attention at head-quarters to the 
disgraceful conduct of the 5th Dragoons, and both the 
King and the Duke of York advised the "breaking" 

1 Lord Castlereagh to Mr. Wickham, dated Dublin Castle, 
3Oth July, 1798. Castlereagh Correspondence, Vol. I., p. 244. 

2 Dated Dublin Castle, i2th June, 1798. Ibid., Vol. I., pp. 

3 Lord Camden to Castlereagh, dated Walmer Castle, 25th 
September, 1798. Ibid., Vol. I., p. 378. 


of the regiment. 1 On another occasion he writes : " I 
am much afraid that any man in a brown coat who is 
found within several miles of the field of action, is 
butchered without discrimination." 2 A more damning 
admission it is impossible to conceive. 

Of the unjustifiable attempts of magistrates to 
exact information the less said the better. The no- 
torious case of High Sheriff Thomas Judkin Fitz- 
gerald of Tipperary is perhaps the most glaring in- 
stance. His zeal was second only to his cruelty, 
and he displayed such passion towards sinner and 
innocent alike, that an action was brought against 
him in the early days of 1799, which he lost. The 
House of Commons also debated the matter. The 
lash was Fitzgerald's favourite instrument of torture, 
and he used it with an unsparing hand to induce 
suspected persons to reveal secrets. At Clonmel he 
sentenced a Mr. Wright to be flogged, confined him 
in jail, refused him medical attendance for several 
days, and when the worm turned had to pay him 
compensation to the extent of 500. This inhuman 
representative of law and order received a vote of 
thanks from the Grand Jury of Tipperary for the 
active part he had taken in suppressing the rebellion. 3 
Sir John Moore witnessed such another flogging in 
the open street when he was passing through Clogheen 
on his way to Waterford. With bowed knees and 

1 Lord Camden to Castlereagh, dated Arlington Street, isth 
January, 1799. Castlereagh Correspondence, Vol. II., p. 112. 

2 To the Duke of Portland, dated Dublin Castle, 28th June, 
1798. Cornwallis Correspondence, Vol. II., p. 357- 

3 Lecky, Vol. IV., p. 277. 



bared heads the country people were witnessing 
the unseemly spectacle, probably wondering whose 
turn it was next. Fitzgerald was exacting in- 
formation with the aid of the lash. Moore tells 
us that he had " already flogged truth out of several 
respectable persons, who had confessed themselves 
to be generals, colonels, captains, &c., of the rebels. 
The rule was to flog each person till he told 
the truth and gave the names of other rebels. 
These were then sent for and underwent a similar 
operation. Undoubtedly several persons were thus 
punished who richly deserved it. The number flogged 
was considerable. It lasted all the forenoon. That 
some were innocent I fear is equally certain. Mr. 
FitzGerald, however, is considered as an active good 
magistrate, and it is universally allowed that he will 
soon restore perfect tranquillity. There must be 
persons who disapprove of such promiscuous and 
severe punishments. I am convinced that Mr. Fitz- 
Gerald is acting conscientiously, and conceives he 
deserves praise ; he said so to the people assembled 
in a long speech, which was received with shouts and 
' God save the King ' " 1 According to Miles Byrne, 
" Archibald Hamilton Jacob and the Enniscorthy 
yeomen cavalry never marched out of the town 
without being accompanied by a regular executioner, 
with his ropes, cat-o'-nine-tails, etc. Hawtry White, 
Solomon Richards, and a Protestant minister of the 
name of Owens were all notorious for their cruelty 
and persecuting spirit ; the latter particularly so, 

1 Diary of Sir John Moore, Vol. I., pp. 294-295. 


putting on pitch caps, and exercising other tor- 
ments." * 

Gordon, the Protestant historian, and probably 
the most reliable of them all, cannot find excuse for 
the barbarous means often employed to bring suspects 
to their senses. He also confesses that he is unable to 
venture an opinion as to whether these acts of severity 
actually brought the insurrection to a head. Gordon 
asserts, however, that " In the neighbourhood of 
Gorey, if I am not mistaken, the terror of the whippings 
was in particular so great, that the people would 
have been extremely glad to renounce for ever all 
notions of opposition to government, if they could 
have been assured of permission to remain in a state 
of quietness." He instances the case of a man named 
Dennis M'Daniel, which came under his own ob- 
servation. This poor fellow, who was a labourer, con- 
fessed to him that he had taken the United Irishmen's 
oath and paid is. 7|d. for a pike which was not in his 
possession. Gordon advised him to surrender to a 
magistrate, which was the usual course, but this he 
refused to do because of the thrashing usually ad- 
ministered to those who could not produce a weapon 
or state where it could be found. M'Daniel was 
therefore told to remain quietly at home, which he 
did, but so great was his fear of punishment that he 
fell down dead a few days later near Gordon's house. 2 

1 Memoirs of Miles Byrne, Vol. I., p. 23. In the general retreat 
from Wexford Jacob made good his escape to Waterford, and from 
thence to England (see Hay, p. 118). 

* Gordon, pp. 88-89. 


The same authority also tells us that " A mode of 
proceeding against imputed rebels, more summary 
still than that of trials by court-martial, was practised 
from the commencement of the rebellion by soldiers, 
yeomen, and supplementaries, who frequently executed 
without any trial such as they judged worthy of death, 
even persons found unarmed in their own houses. 
This practice of the soldiery and yeomen, which, con- 
ducted with too little discrimination of guilt and 
innocence, denied safety at home to the peaceably 
inclined, augmented for a time the numbers of the 
rebels, and would, on their dispersion, have in great 
measure depopulated the country, if it had not been 
restrained by the just policy of government, on the 
appointment of the Marquis Cornwallis, in place of 
Lord Camden, to the Lord Lieutenancy of Ireland. . . . 
The earlier appointment of such a Viceroy might have 
prevented rebellion, and consequently the loss of 
thousands of lives and of immense property to the 
kingdom. His activity and wisdom, in the discharge 
of his high function, soon exhibited a new phenomenon 
in a country where the viceroyalty had been generally 
a sinecure, and the Viceroy a pageant of State." l 
He adds on a later page of his interesting volume : 
" The devastation and plundering sustained by the 
loyalists was not the work of the rebels alone. Great 
part of the damage was committed by the soldiery, 
who commonly completed the ruin of deserted houses, 
in which they had their quarters, and often plundered 
without distinction of loyalist and croppy. ... By 

1 Gordon, pp. 188-189. 


what influence the plundering was permitted so long 
to the soldiery, in some parts of the country, after 
the rebellion was quelled, I shall not at present pre- 
tend to state. The publication of some facts, of which 
I have acquired information, may not perhaps be as 
yet safe." x 

Authentic instances of the ferocious character of 
the soldiery could be multiplied until they filled a 
volume, but the reader is referred to the records of 
Hay, Teeling, Holt, Taylor, Byrne, Gordon, and many 
others. Although some of them are violent partisans 
of the rebels, it is obvious that when the same stories 
are repeated they cannot all be based on myth. Often 
little or no quarter was given, houses were set on 
fire, villages were pillaged, women outraged, and 
children brutally treated. Lecky singles out for 
special mention in this direction the North Cork 
Militia, the Welsh Regiment of Ancient Britons, 
and two Hessian regiments. 2 Of the yeomanry corps 
perhaps that of Hunter Gowan, a magistrate who 
commanded a band of bloodthirsty individuals nick- 
named the " black mob," 3 is the most notorious. 

The North Cork Militia was commanded by Lord 
Kingsborough, and consisted largely of Orangemen. 

1 Gordon, p. 197. 

2 Lecky, Vol. IV., p. 275. See also Gordon (p. 197), who re- 
marks : " The Hessians exceeded the other troops in the business 
of depredation ; and many loyalists who had escaped from the 
rebels, were put to death by these foreigners. To send such troops 
into the country in such a state of affairs, was, in my humble opinion, 
a wrong step in government, who cannot be supposed indifferent to 
the lives of loyal subjects." 

3 Memoirs of Miles Byrne, Vol. I., p. 24. 


Their favourite mode of obtaining information from 
suspects was by means of a cap of linen or brown 
paper, profusely covered with pitch, which was heated 
and placed on the head of the unfortunate victim. 
To get the pitch-cap off was as difficult as it was 
painful, and one can easily believe that not only 
the hair, but parts of the scalp were frequently torn 
off in the process. Anyone who wore his hair short 
was immediately dubbed a United Irishman, that 
being one of their distinguishing marks, although an 
extremely foolish one, and as such was regarded as 
legitimate quarry. This was but one of the methods 
of warfare utilised by the North Cork Militia, and 
according to Edward Hay, no responsible person ever 
interfered. 1 Gordon instances the case of a soldier 
of the Downshire Militia in plain clothes who was ill- 
used by the North Cork men because they mistook 
him for a " croppy." Three officers and many soldiers 
were wounded in the fray which ensued, and the 
result would have been even more serious had not 
the former succeeded in getting their recalcitrant 
troops under control. 2 " The wearing of the green " 
also aroused suspicion, from which members of the 
fair sex were not exempt. 

Although it cannot be said that Sir John Moore 
had any great belief in his fellow-men his Diary 
certainly reveals him a confirmed pessimist his 
sincerity cannot be doubted in the actual records 

1 History of the Insurrection, etc., pp. 57-59. 

2 Gordon, pp. 58-59. This incident happened in Wicklow, April, 


he has left of the stormy days of '98. The rebel 
historians, as we have already noticed, invariably 
speak of him as a man of honour and considerably 
less of a barbarian than Lake ; indeed, it would not 
be far wrong to say that they regard him with some- 
thing approaching affection. After helping to take 
St. Lucia in 1796 while serving in Sir Ralph Aber- 
cromby's expedition to the West Indies, Moore 
had been made Governor of the island, from which 
he returned, somewhat broken in health and spirits, 
in the summer of the following year. When Aber- 
cromby was appointed Commander-in-Chief in Ireland 
Moore was asked to join his staff "as a brigadier," and 
on 2nd December, 1797, he landed at Dublin. From 
Cove he was removed to Bandon, where he took over 
a command of upwards of 3,000 men, who were " con- 
sidered as the advanced corps of the south," l invasion 
being thought highly probable if not actually imminent. 
From the beginning he saw the injustice of many of 
the acts of those in authority. Individuals arrested 
upon suspicion and exiled ; districts proclaimed and 
the military put upon free quarters all are duly 
noted. " By these means the disturbances have been 
quelled," he notes on the loth January, 1798, " an 
apparent calm produced, but the disaffection has been 
undoubtedly increased. The gentlemen in general, 
however, still call out aloud for violent measures as the 
most proper to be adopted, and a complete line seems 
to be drawn between the upper and lower orders." 2 

1 The Diary of Sir John Moore, Vol. I., p. 272. 
8 Ibid, Vol. I., p. 271. 


He finds the men under his command, many of 
whom were Militia, " upon the whole well-behaved," 
but with " no sort of respect for their officers," who 
" are in general profligate and idle." l " The officers 
of the Militia," he adds, " are in general Protestants, 
the men Roman Catholics. The hatred between these 
different persuasions is inveterate to a degree, and 
the officers have so little sense or prudence as not to 
conceal their prejudices." z To Moore, who hated 
the strife of sects, and might well have asked with 
Carlyle, " Why should we misknow one another, 
fight not against the enemy but against ourselves, 
from mere difference of uniform ? " 3 this was well- 
nigh intolerable. Moore maintains that whereas 
the Roman Catholics had been " enemies to the 
liberty and constitution of these kingdoms," the 
objection had ceased to maintain for many years. 
" Can it then be sound policy in a Government to 
favour one part of its inhabitants against nineteen 
that are oppressed ? Every man is oppressed to 
whom the privileges of his fellow-citizens are denied. 
That so much has been granted to the Roman Catholics 
is a bad argument for withholding from them the little 
that remains." 4 A few days after Moore had com- 
mitted this opinion to the privacy of his Diary he 
had occasion to speak to his troops on some meetings 

1 Diary of Sir John Moore, Vol. I., p. 273 ; see also pp. 277 and 
281 in this connection. 

2 Ibid., p. 274. 

8 On Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History (Ed. 
Chapman and Hall, 1893), p. in. 

* Diary of Sir John Moore, Vol. I., p. 275. 



of "Orange boys" which had been held. He told them 
very plainly that " for a man to boast or be proud 
of his religion was absurd. It was a circumstance in 
which he had no merit ; he was the one or the other 
because his parents were so before him, and it was 
determined for him before he had a choice. Any 
man might fairly pride himself upon being just and 
honest, but not on his religion. If they followed the 
doctrines of the one or the other they would be good 
and upright." 1 

When Moore received instructions in April, 1798, 
to disarm the Carberries, 2 he remarks : " The better 
sort of people seemed all delighted with the operation 
except when it touched their own tenants, by whose 
ruin they saw they themselves must suffer, but they 
were pleased that the people were humbled, and would 
be civil. I found only two gentlemen who acted with 
liberality or manliness ; the rest seemed in general 
to be actuated by the meanest motives. The common 
people have been so ill-treated by them, and so often 
deceived, that neither attachment nor confidence 
any longer exists. They have yielded in this instance 
to force, are humbled, but irritated to a great degree, 
and unless the gentlemen change their conduct and 
manner towards them, or Government steps in with 
regulations for the protection of the lower from the 
upper order, the pike will appear again very soon." 3 

A few quotations from the correspondence of Lord 

1 Diary of Sir John Moore, Vol. I., p. 280. 

2 The country which lies from Crookham along the coast to 

3 Diary of Sir John Moore, Vol. I., p. 290. 


Cornwallis, who found his position as Lord- Lieutenant 
of Ireland altogether devoid of the brilliancy of the 
latter-day Viceregal Court and that of Commander- 
in-Chief far from enviable, may not be out of place. 
In endeavouring to arrive at a thorough understanding 
of a case prolixity has its use even in a court of law, 
and we are bound to admit that the evidence in this 
historical retrospect is extremely and embarrassingly 

Writing on the ist July, 1798, he confides to Major- 
General Ross that " The violence of our friends, 
and their folly in endeavouring to make it a religious 
war, added to the ferocity of our troops who delight 
in murder, most powerfully counteract all plans of 
conciliation." * Seven days later he tells the Duke 
of Portland that " The Irish militia are totally with- 
out discipline, contemptible before the enemy when 
any serious resistance is made to them, but ferocious 
and cruel in the extreme when any poor wretches 
either with or without arms come within their power ; 
in short, murder appears to be their favourite pas- 
time." 2 Lord Cornwallis had no better to say of 
the yeomanry. " The overt rebellion is certainly 
declining, . . . but the whole country is in such a 
state that I feel frightened and ashamed whenever 
I consider that I am looked upon as being at the head 
of it. Except in the instances of the six state trials 3 
that are going on here [Dublin], there is no law either 

1 Cornwallis Correspondence, Vol. II., p. 357. 
8 Dublin Castle, 8th July, 1798. Ibid., p. 359. 
8 Of Henry and John Sheares, Byrne, Maccan, Bond, and 
Neilson for high treason. They were all concerned in the rebellion. 


in town or country but martial law, and you know 
enough of that to see all the horrors of it, even in 
the best administration of it, judge then how it must 
be conducted by Irishmen heated with passion and 
revenge. But all this is trifling compared to the 
numberless murders that are hourly committed by 
our people without any process or examination what- 
ever. The yeomanry are in the style of the Loyalists 
in America, only much more numerous and powerful, 
and a thousand times more ferocious. These men 
have saved the country, but they now take the lead 
in rapine and murder. The Irish militia, with few 
officers, and those chiefly of the worst kind, follow 
closely on the heels of the yeomanry in murder and 
every kind of atrocity, and the Fencibles take a share, 
although much behindhand with the others. The 
feeble outrages, burnings, and murders which are still 
committed by the Rebels, serve to keep up the san- 
guinary disposition on our side ; and as long as they 
furnish a pretext for our parties going in quest of 
them, I see no prospect of amendment. 

" The conversation of the principal persons of 
the country all tend to encourage this system of blood, 
and the conversation even at my table, where you 
will suppose I do all I can to prevent it, always turns 
on hanging, shooting, burning, &c., &c., and if a 
priest has been put to death the greatest joy is 
expressed by the whole company. So much for 
Ireland and my wretched situation," 1 

1 Major-General Ross. Dublin Castle, 24th July, 1798. Ibid., 
P- 37i- 


When Humbert and his men arrived on the scene, 
the disaffection in the militia regiments still continued, 
and the disgraceful behaviour at " the races of Castle- 
bar " has been referred to briefly in an earlier chapter. 
Writing from Balinamore on the 3ist August, Captain 
Taylor tells Lord Castlereagh that " Every endeavour 
has been used to prevent plunder in our corps, but 
it really is impossible to stop it in some of the regi- 
ments of militia with us, particularly the light bat- 
talions." l He affirms that the women were " far the 
greatest plunderers," but they had now been left 
behind. On the same day the Viceroy was forced to 
issue General Orders asking all officers " to assist 
him in putting a stop to the licentious conduct of 
the troops, and in saving the wretched inhabitants 
from being robbed, and in the most shocking manner 
ill-treated by those to whom they had a right to look 
for safety and protection. Lord Cornwallis declares, 
that if he finds that the soldiers of any regiment 
have had opportunities of committing these excesses 
from the negligence of their officers, he will make those 
officers answerable for their conduct ; and that if 
any soldiers are caught either in the act of robbery, 
or with the articles of plunder in their possession, 
they shall be instantly tried, and immediately exe- 
cution shall follow their conviction." 2 After the 
surrender of the French forces he thanked the army 
for its zeal, spirit, perseverance, and meritorious 
exertions, and concluded with a special reference to 

1 Cornwallis Correspondence, Vol. II., p. 396. 
8 Ibid., p. 397. 


the good conduct of the yeomanry, who " have 
rendered the greatest services, and are particularly en- 
titled to the acknowledgment of the Lord-Lieutenant, 
from their not having tarnished that courage and 
loyalty, which they displayed in the cause of their 
King and country, by any acts of wanton cruelty 
towards their deluded fellow-subjects." 1 

Lord Holland, writing from the Whig point of view, 
naturally sides with the insurrectionists, but he ad- 
mits that " The propensity to exaggeration, common 
to all Irishmen, renders it extremely difficult to 
ascertain the exact truth as to any transaction in 
that country." 2 It is an " incontrovertible " fact, 
he assures us, " that the people of Ireland were driven 
to resistance, which possibly they meditated before, 
by the free quarters and the excesses of the soldiery, 
which were such as are not permitted in civilised 
warfare, even in an enemy's country." 3 The noble- 
man whose name is inseparably associated with the 
brilliant Holland House circle pours scorn on the trials 
under martial law, and he would have us believe that 
Justice sat deaf as well as blindfolded when they were 
being held. " It often happened," he says, " that 
three officers composed the Court, and that of the 
three, two were under age, and the third an officer of 
the Yeomanry or Militia, who had sworn in his Orange 
Lodge eternal hatred to the people over whom he 

1 General Orders. Head-quarters, Camp near St. Johnstown. 
9th September, 1798. Cornwallis Correspondence, Vol. II., pp. 403-4. 

2 Memoirs of the Whig Party during my Time, Vol. I., p. 112. 

3 Ibid., p. 113. 


was thus constituted a judge. Floggings, picketings, 
death, were the usual sentences, and these were some- 
times commuted into banishment, serving in the 
fleet, or transference to a foreign service. Many were 
sold at so much per head to the Prussians. 1 Other 
less legal, but not more horrible, outrages were daily 
committed by the different corps under the command 
of Government. Even in the streets of Dublin, a 
man was shot and robbed of 30^. on the loose recol- 
lection of a soldier's having seen him in the battle of 
Kilcally, and no proceeding was instituted to ascertain 
the murder or prosecute the murderer. Lord Wycombe, 
who was in Dublin, and who was himself shot at by a 
sentinel between Black Rock and that city, wrote to 
me many details of similar outrages, which he had 
ascertained to be true. Dr. Dickson (Bishop of 
Down) 2 assured me that he had seen families re- 
returning peaceably from mass assailed, without 
provocation, by drunken troops and yeomanry, and 
the wives and daughters exposed to every species of 
indignity, brutality, and outrage, from which neither 
his remonstrances, nor those of other Protestant 
gentlemen, could rescue them." 3 

Sir Jonah Barrington briefly refers to the matter 
in his discursive Personal Sketches. 9 - " I was," he says, 

1 " I have much satisfaction in informing your Lordship that, 
contrary to my expectation, the King of Prussia has consented to 
receive the Irish recruits " (Mr. Wickham to Lord Castlereagh, 
Whitehall, 8th May, 1799). See Castlereagh Correspondence, Vol. II., 
p. 300. 

2 William Dickson (1745-1804), Bishop of Down and Connor. 

3 Memoirs of the Whig Party, Vol. I., pp. 113-114. 

4 Pp. 145-146. 



"at all times ready and willing to risk my life to put 
down that spirit of mad democracy which sought to 
subvert all legal institutions, and to support every 
true principle of the constitution which protected 
us ; but at the same time I must in truth and candour 
say, and I say it with reluctance, that during those most 
sanguinary scenes the brutal conduct of certain frantic 
royalists was at least on a parallel with that of the 
frantic rebels." 

Absentee landlordism has been one of the many 
curses of Ireland, an insidious serpent which has defied 
modern St. Patricks, and had the gentry done their 
duty in the matter of settling down on their estates 
when the rebellion was almost crushed confidence 
would doubtless have been restored much sooner and 
with considerably less bloodshed on both sides. 1 
Cornwallis fully recognised this evil, but he had a 
much more serious problem to face. " The principal 
persons of this country," he tells Portland in a private 
and confidential communication, " and the Members 
of both Houses of Parliament, are, in general, averse 
to all acts of clemency, and although they do not 
express, and perhaps are too much heated to see the 
ultimate effects which their violence must produce, 
would pursue measures that could only terminate in the 
extirpation of the greater number of the inhabitants, 

1 His Majesty King Edward VII. has had occasion to refer to 
this matter. " I am assured," he says, " that if the many gentle- 
men and landlords who very often find some difficulty in leaving 
England, but who have large interests and large estates in this 
country [Ireland], could contrive to come over here more frequently, 
it would do more good than anything else I could imagine." 


and in the utter destruction of the country. The words 
Papists and Priests are for ever in their mouths, and by 
their unaccountable policy they would drive four-fifths 
of the community into irreconcilable rebellion ; and 
in their warmth they lose sight of the real cause of 
the present mischief, of that deep-laid conspiracy to 
revolutionize Ireland on the principles of France, 
which was originally formed, and by wonderful assid- 
uity brought nearly to maturity, by men who had 
no thought of religion but to destroy it, and who 
knew how to turn the passions and prejudices of the 
different sects to the advancement of their horrible 
plot for the introduction of that most dreadful of all 
evils, a Jacobin revolution." l 

While we do not think that the latter contention is 
sufficiently proven, there can be no doubt as to the 
allegations against certain Members of Parliament 
continuing to beat the war-drum as violently as possible 
when the bugle had almost ceased to be heard in the 
field, and when, as Cornwallis says, the rebellion was 
" reduced to a predatory system in the mountains 
of Wicklow and the bogs of Kildare " the importance 
attached to the doings of miscreants " is purposely 
exaggerated by those who wish to urge Government 
to the continuance of violent measures, or, according 
to a fashionable phrase of some men of great con- 
sequence here, to keep Government up to their traces." 
He recapitulates his conviction that, " as far as it 
concerns the great mass of the deluded people, amnesty 

1 Dated Dublin Castle, 8th July, 1798. Cornwallis Corre- 
spondence, Vol. II., p. 360. 


is more likely to succeed than extirpation," adding 
the significant statement that " My sentiments have 
coincided with those of the British Cabinet and with 
those of the Chancellor, 1 whose character has been 
much misrepresented in England." 2 Later the Vice- 
.roy tells us that " the minds of people are now in 
such a state, that nothing but blood will satisfy them, 
and although they will not admit the term, their 
conversation and conduct point to no other mode 
of concluding this unhappy business than that of 
extirpation." 3 When Oliver Bond's life was saved 
by Arthur O'Connor, Dr. McNev^n, and Thomas 
Addis Emmet agreeing to furnish full particulars of 
the conspiracy to Government and incurring per- 
petual banishment, Castlereagh made no secret of 
the amount of " feeling " on the subject, but told 
Wickham in unmistakable terms that "... The 
respite of Mr. Bond did not fail to produce considerable 
warmth in this town, [Dublin] to which the conversa- 
tion of some of the friends of Government materially 
contributed. Every sort of misrepresentation pre- 
vailed, and there were m my well-disposed men in- 
discreet enough to expect in Parliament an explanation 
of the grounds upon which Government had acted. 
In moving an adjournment till the gth I had an 
opportunity of repressing the disposition to clamour 
too prevalent amongst our friends, and one of them 

1 John Fitzgibbon, Earl of Clare. 

2 To Major-General Ross, Dublin Castle, ijth July, 1798. 
Cornwallis Correspondence, Vol. II., pp. 363-364. 

3 To the Duke of Portland, Dublin Castle, 26th July, 1798. 
Ibid., p. 374. 



observed with very great spirit upon the pains that 
had been taken out of doors to mislead the public 
mind on this subject. . . ." 1 

The editor of the Castlereagh Correspondence is 
forced to admit that " the sanguinary scenes enacted 
there, [in Wicklow and Wexford] not by rebels only, 
but by the King's forces also, were most disgraceful 
to both parties " ; but we are not altogether in agree- 
ment with him in his concluding remarks as to " the 
detestable ingratitude which appears so frequently 
in the conduct of the lower Irish as almost to make one 
doubt whether attachment or kindly feeling for benefits 
received find any place in the national character." 
While we do not hold a brief for the malcontents, 
impartial historians cannot be blind to the patent 
fact that when poverty enters the door patriotism 
often flies out of the window. Several years after 
the rebellion Sir Walter Scott paid a brief visit to 
Ireland, and although he hesitated to give his opinion 
" upon a subject so difficult to comprehend," we think 
he was nearer to the solution of the problem than his 
modesty permitted him to allow. Surely the novelist 
hid his identity in the statesman when he wrote : 
" I had a strong belief in the progressive influence 
of common sense, when it gets permission to act, in 
silencing party spirit, even at the expense of con- 
cessions. At the same time, this is only a general 
opinion, hastily formed by a stranger, much un- 
acquainted with the peculiar circumstances of a 

1 Viscount Castlereagh to William Wickham, Esq., Dublin, 
3ist July, 1798. Cornwattis Correspondence, Vol. II., p. 381. 


country which must be in one sense termed very un- 
fortunate, though so fine a land in itself, and con- 
taining so noble a population as the Irish undoubtedly 
are." 1 

Humanitarian principles and warfare are not neces- 
sarily antagonistic, although a prolonged course of 
Froude might perhaps lead us to this conclusion. We 
do not hold that Abercromby, Cornwallis, and Moore 
showed the " white feather " because their justice 
was tempered with mercy. Whether the inhabitants 
of a conquered country have. a right to rebel, either 
from a legal, political, or a moral point of view, is 
a problem as difficult of solution as that of free-will. 
History has provided many instances of the slave 
becoming the taskmaster. The English have cer- 
tainly not been conspicuously successful in their 
rule of Ireland, but they saved her from herself in 
the latter days of the eighteenth century, and from 
the iron fetters with which Jacobin France would 
most surely have bound her. If the sores of '98 are not 
yet healed the wound is slowly closing, and a rejuven- 
ated Ireland may yet become one of the triumphs of 
Democratic civilisation. 

1 Cornwallis Correspondence, Vol. I., pp. 103-104. 




[N.B. It is not claimed that this bibliography is exhaustive, but 
the following works will be found useful to the student of the 
Irish Rebellion of 1798.] 

Ball, Right Hon. J. T., Historical Review of the Legislative 
Systems operative in Ireland from the Invasion of Henry 
the Second to the Union. Dublin, 1888. 

Harrington, Sir Jonah, Historic Memoirs of Ireland. 2 vols. 
London, 1833. 

Bryce, Right Hon. James, and others, Two Centuries of 
Irish History, 1690-1870. London, 1888. 

Byrne, Memoirs of Miles Byrne. Edited by his Widow 
[F. Byrne]. A New Edition with an Introduction by 
Stephen Gwynn. 2 vols. Dublin, 1907. 

Castlereagh, Memoirs and Correspondence of Viscount 
Castlereagh, Second Marquess of Londonderry. Edited 
by his Brother, Charles Vane, Marquess of Londonderry. 
4 vols. London, 1848. 

Cloney, Thomas, A Personal Narrative . . . during the 
Period of 1798. Dublin, 1832. 

Cornwallis, Correspondence of Charles, First Marquis Corn- 
wallis. Edited, with Notes, by C. Ross. 3 vols. 2nd 
edition. London, 1859. 



Croker, T. Crofton, Popular Songs, illustrative of the French 
Invasions of Ireland. Parts III. and IV. The Bantry Bay 
and Killala Invasions. Edited, with Introductions and 
Notes, by T. Crofton Croker. London : The Percy 
Society, 1847. 

Researches in the South of Ireland, illustrative of the 
Scenery, Architectural Remains, and the Manners and 
Superstitions of the Peasantry. With an Appendix, con- 
taining a Private Narrative of the Rebellion of 1798. 
[By Jane Adams.] London, 1824. 

Curry, J., Historical and Critical Review of the Civil Wars 
in Ireland. New edition, edited by C. O'Conor. Dublin, 

Derry, V. Life of the Rev. James O'Coigly. Edited by 
V. D. London, 1798. 

Desbriere, douard, Projets et Tentatives de Debarquement 
aux lies Britanniques, 1793-1805. [Vol. I.] 4 vols. 
Paris, 1902. 

Edgeworth, R. L., Memoirs of R. L. E., begun by himself 
and concluded by his Daughter, M. Edgeworth. 2 vols. 
London, 1820. 

Fontaine, L. O., Notice Historique de la Descente des 
Franfais en Irlande. By L. O. F[ontaine], adjutant- 
general of General Humbert. Paris, an. ix. (1801). 

Froude, James Anthony, The English in Ireland in the 
Eighteenth Century. 3 vols. London, Ed., 1895. 

Gordon, Rev. James, History of the Rebellion in Ireland, 
in the year 1798, etc. Dublin, 1801. 

Grattan, Henry; the Younger. Memoirs of the Life and 
Times of the Rt. Hon. Henry Grattan, 5 vols. London, 

Guillon, douard, La France et I' Irlande pendant le Revolu- 
tion. Paris, 1888. 


Gurney, J., The Trial of James O'Coigly, etc. Taken in 
short-hand by J. G. London, 1798. 

Hancock, Thomas, The Principles of Peace, exemplified in 
the Conduct of the Society of Friends in Ireland, during 
the Rebellion of the Year 1798. 2nd ed. London, 1826. 

. Harder, C. W., Die Auslieferung der vier politischen Fliicht- 
linge Napper-Tandy, Blackwell, Morris und George Peters. 
Leipzig, 1857. 

Hardy, Francis, Memoirs of the Political and Private Life of 
James Caulfield, Earl of Charlemont. London, 1810. 

Harwood, Philip, History of the Irish Rebellion of 1798. 
London, 1848. 

Hassencamp, R., The History of Ireland, from the Reforma- 
tion to the Union. Translated by E. A. Robinson. 
London, 1888. 

Hay, Edward, History of the Insurrection of the County of 
Wexford, A.D. 1798. Dublin, 1803. 

Holland, Lord, Memoirs of the Whig Party during my Time. 
Edited by his Son, Henry Edward, Lord Holland. 2 vols. 
London, 1852. 

Holt, J., Memoirs of J. Holt, General of the Irish Rebels in 
1798. Edited from his original Manuscript by T. Crofton 
Croker. 2 vols. London, 1838. 

Jones, John, An Impartial Narrative of each Engagement 
which took place between his Majesty's Forces and the 
Rebels, during the Irish Rebellion, 1798. 4th ed. Dublin, 

Kavanagh, Rev. Patrick F., A Popular History of the In- 
surrection of 1798 : derived from every available Record and 
reliable Tradition. Centenary Edition. Cork, 1898. 

Lecky, W. E. H., A History of Ireland in the Eighteenth 
Century. 5 vols. New ed. London, 1892. 


MacNeven, William James, Pieces of Irish History, etc. 
New York, 1807. 

Madden, R. R., Literary Remains of the United Irishmen of 
1798. Collected and edited by R. R. Madden. Dublin, 

The United Irishmen : their Lives and Times. 7 vols. 
London, 1842-46. 

Maxwell, William Hamilton, History of the Irish Rebellion 
in 1798. London, 1845. 

Moore, Thomas, The Life and Death of Lord Edward Fitz- 
gerald. 2 vols. London, 1831. 

Morgan, Edward, A Journal of the Movements, of the French 
Fleet, in Bantry Bay. Cork, 1797. 

Morris, W. O'Connor, Ireland, 1494-1868. Cambridge 
Historical Series, 1896. 

Ireland, 1798-1898. London, 1898. 

Musgrave, Sir Richard, Memoirs of the different Rebellions 
in Ireland. Dublin, 1801. 

Pearse, Col. Hugh, Memoirs of the Life and Military Ser- 
vices of Viscount Lake, Baron Lake of Delhi and Las- 
war ee, 1744-1808. London, 1908. 

Plowden, Francis, An Historical Review of the State of 
Ireland from the Invasion of that Country under Henry II. 
to its Union with Great Britain. 2 vols. London, 1803. 

The History of Ireland, as above. 2 vols. London, 1809 
Reynolds, T., The Life of Thomas Reynolds, Esq., formerly 

of Kilkea Castle in the County of Kildare. By his Son. 
2 vols. London, 1839. 

Stock, Rt. Rev. Joseph, A Narrative of what passed at Kil- 
lalla, in the County of Mayo, and the Parts adjacent, during 
the French Invasion in the Summer of 1798. By an Eye- 
witness. Dublin, 1800. 


Tandy, ]., An Appeal to the Public. Dublin, 1807. 

Taylor, George, A History of the Rise, Progress, and Sup- 
pression of the Rebellion in the County of Wexford in the 
Year 1798. A New Edition corrected. Dublin, 1829. 

Taylor, W. C., History of the Civil Wars of Ireland, etc. 
London, 1826. 

Teeling, Charles Hamilton, Personal Narrative of the Irish 
Rebellion. London, 1828. 

Sequel to the Personal Narrative of the Irish Rebellion. 
London, 1832. 

Tone, Theobald Wolfe, Memoirs. 2 vols. London, 1827. 
Troude, O., Batailles Navales de la France. 4 vols. Paris, 

Wheeler, H. F. B., and Broadley, A. M., Napoleon and the 

Invasion of England. 2 vols. London, 1907. 
Wright, Thomas. History of Ireland from the earliest period 

of the Irish annals to the present time. London and New 

York, 1854. [Vol. III., pp. 1-153.] 

Among the anonymous works may be mentioned : 

Serious Reflections on the late and continued Disturbances in 
Ireland. By a Citizen of the World. Dublin, 1798. 

Narrative of the Sufferings and Escape of Charles Jackson 
of Wexford. London, 1798. 

The Last Speech and Dying Words of Martin Loughlin. 
Cork, 1799. 

An Impartial Relation of the Military Operations in conse- 
quence of the Landing of the French Troops. By an 
Officer who served under Lord Cornwallis. 1799. 

An Account of the late Insurrection in Ireland; in which is 
laid open the Secret Correspondence between the United 
Irish and the French Government, through Lord E. Fitz- 
gerald and others. London, 1799 (?). 


History of the Rebellion in Ireland in the Year 1798. New- 
castle, 1803. 

History of the Rebellion in Ireland in 1798, containing an 
Impartial Account of the Proceedings of the Irish Revolu- 
tionists. Workington, 1806. 

A Narrative of the Confinement and Trial of William Steel 
Jackson. Dublin, 1812. 

The Life of J. P. Curran, late Master of the Rolls in Ireland. 
2 vols. London, 1819. 

The Year Ninety-eight : being another and truer Ballad Ver- 
sion of the Events of the Year of the Great Irish Rebellion. 
London, 1844. 

Life and Death of Lord Edward Fitzgerald : with a Selection 
of Historical and Biographical Sketches and Anecdotes of 
Celebrated United Irishmen. Dublin, 1848 (?). 

The History of the Irish Rebellion in the Year 1798. Published 
by Alston, Cumberland. 

A collection of addresses, proclamations, etc., relating 
to the events of 1797-1799 will be found in the British 



Abercromby, Sir Ralph, 40-42, 
44, 46, 47, 300-2, 311 

Achill Head, 247 

Addington, Henry, Viscount Sid- 
mouth, 98 

Allegiance, Addresses of, 55-8 

Oaths of, 49, 55, 82 
American aid expected by the 

rebels, 215 
Antrim, 283 n. 
Arklow, 74, 86, 87, 92, 94, 100, 

in, 115, 116, 117, 121, 123, 

128, 141, 142, 146, 158, 202, 

204, 209 n. 

battle of, 119-25, 128 
Asgill, Sir Charles, 61, 144, 213, 


Ask, Hill of, 141 n., 142, 146 
Athlone Convention, 8 
Aughrim, 140, 141, 220 n. 
Aylmer, William, leader of the 

Kildare rebels, 219 n., 220 n., 

221 n. 

" Babes in the Wood," 288 n. 
Balinamore, 316 
Ballenheale, 197 
Ballina, 253 
Ballinamuck, 246 n. 

battle of, 257 
Balliorrell, 92 
Ballyboghill, rebels routed at, 

220 n. 

Ballycanew, 57, 58, 59, 81, 89, 
101, 104, 105, 108, no, 217, 


Ballycarney Bridge, 144 
Ballycogne, 141 
Ballydarnill Bridge, 209 
Ballyellis, 216 

battle of, 210 
Ballyfad, 205, 215 

Ballygullen, battle of, 218, 

219 n., 221 n. 

Ballymenane Hill, 102, 105, 106 
Ballymore, 101, 104, 109 
Ballynation, 165 
Ballyraheen Hill, 217 n. 
Bandon, 25 
Bantry Bay Expedition, 21-7, 


Barrington, Sir Jonah, 160 

Barrow, River, 212 

Belfast, 8 

Belleone, 166 

Bellevue, 163 

Blackfeet, the, 8 

Blackstair Mountains, 143 

Blayney, Andrew Thomas, 
Baron, 223, 225, 226, 228 

Bolaring, 209 

Bompard, Divisional-Comman- 
der, 246, 260, 261 

Bonaparte, Napoleon, 22, 64, 65, 
68, 141 n., 245, 246 n., 286, 
292, 293 n., 295 

Bond, Oliver, 21, 321 

Bookey, Lieutenant Thomas, 79, 
82, 83 

Borris, 144, 149 

Boulavogue, 56, 78, 86 

Bourke, Lieutenant, 154 n., 155 

Bouvet, Admiral, 24 

Bray, 120 

Breen, Francis, rebel, 136, 294 n. 

Broe, Father John, 188 

Brougham, Lord, on Viscount 
Castlereagh, 299 n. 

Brownrigg, Isabella W., 199 

Bruix, Admiral, the part he 
played in the French Expedi- 
tion to Ireland (1798), 245, 




Bryce, Rt. Hon. James, on the 

Irish Rebellion, 297, 298 
Burrowes, Rev. Robert, murder 

of, 87, 88, 165 
Byrne, Garret, rebel, 122, 141 n., 

158, 205 n., 217 n., 219 n., 

220 n., 222 n. 

Miles, cited, 22, 26, 33, 77, 
102, 121-3, 2I 3 

William Michael, rebel, 122, 
217 n. 

Camden, Sir John Jeffreys Pratt, 
second Earl and first Marquis 
of, ii, 12, 23, 42, 43, 45-7, 55, 
57, 69, 127, 299, 302-4, 308 

Camolin, 81, 82, 83, 86, 92, 101, 
108, 144, 264, 276, 283, 289 

Park, 50, 84, 94, 211 n. 
Camperdown, battle of, 64, 245 
Carberries, disarming of the, 313 
Carhampton, Lord, 17, 40, 42 
Carlow, 72, 78, 102, 103, 107, 

in n., 213, 294 n. 
Carnew, in n., 117, 141 n., 143, 

210 n., 211, 217 n., 218, 224 
Carrickbyrne Hill, 102, 114, 129, 

134, 143, 144, 151 
Carrigrew Hill, 92 
Carty, Robert, 155 n., 190 
Castlebar, 316 

battle at, 256 
Castlebridge, 85 
Castlecomer attacked by rebels, 

Castlereagh, Robert Stewart, 

Viscount, 59, 80, 103, 118, 

126, 232, 244, 262, 273, 275, 

283 n., 299, 304 
Castletown, 123, 139, 220 n. 
Cathcart, William Schaw (Earl 

Cathcart), 19 

Catholic Relief Bills, 6, 9, 11, 12 
Caulfield, Rt. Rev. James, Roman 

Catholic Bishop of Ferns, 174, 

Charlemont, James Caulfeild, 

Earl of, 298 
Charost, Lieut.-Colonel, French 

commander at Killala, 257 
Cherin, General, his part in the 

French Expedition (1798), 246 

Clare, John Fitzgibbon, Earl of, 

44. 3 2 i 
Cleaver, Euseby, Bishop of Cork 

and Ferns, 88 

Clinch, Father, rebel, 157, 158 
Clogh, no, 201, 202, 222 
Clogheen, 305 
Clonakilty, 25 

Clonard, skirmish at, 220 n. 
Clone, 141 

Cloney, Thomas, 155 n. 
Clonmines, 144 
Colclough, John Henry, rebel, 

97, 102, 221 n. 
Colours used by the Wexford 

rebels, 74 

Colpoys, Admiral Sir John, 26 
Commercial restrictions, Ire - 

land's, 5 
Connaught, 103 
Coolgreny, 87, 118, 138, 139, 

146, 203, 217 
Copper Mine Rocks, 141 
Cork, 25 
Cornwallis, Charles Mann, Earl 

of, 45, 46, 221 n., 230, 231, 

240, 255, 269, 288, 299, 304, 

308, 314, 316, 317, 319, 320. 

Corrigrua Hill, 78, 101, 102, 104, 

106, 108, 109, no, 141 n., 

148 n., 217, 218, 219, 275 
Cortez, Adjutant-General, his 

expedition to Ireland, 262-3 
Cove, 311 

Craghen Hill, 201, 2090. 
Crawford, Lieut.-Colonel, 268 
Cullen, Rev. David, Roman 

Catholic priest, 55, 58 
Curran, Sarah, 294 n. 

Dalhousie, Lord, 154, 159 
Dalrymple, Maj.-Gen.Sir Hew, 15 
D'Arblay, Madame, 66 n. 
D'Arcy, Edward, murder of, 87 
Defenders, the, 8 
Dickson, Rt. Rev. William, 

Bishop of Down and Connor, 

Dillon, Rt. Rev. Edward, Bishop 

of Kilmacduagh and Kilfe- 

nora, 61, 63 



Disarming of the peasants in 

1797. 33 
Dissenters and the Society of 

United Irishmen, 20 
Dixon, Thomas, rebel leader, 

122, 167-71, 179, 184-9, 193 
Donoughmore, 280 
Donovan, Private John, death 

of, 79. 83 
Down, 283 n. 
Drumaleague, 25 
Drumgoold, 96 
Dublin, 69, 8 1, 102, 106, 120, 

125, 126, 220 n., 311, 314 

Bay, guard vessel which 
served as prison in, 141 

Duff, Major-General Sir James, 
J 43-5> iSS n '> 2I 8, 219 n. 

Dunain, 213 

Duncan, Adam, Admiral Lord, 
40 n., 64 

Duncannon, 81, 152, 167, 169 

Dundas, Henry (Viscount Mel- 
ville), 15, 17 

Dunmanway, 26 

Edenderry, 220 n. 

Edward VII. His Majesty King, 

on absent landlords, 319 n. 
Elliot, William, Under-Secretary 

in Ireland, 47 

Ely, Charles, first Earl of, 50 
Emmet, Robert, his attempt at 

rebellion (July, 1803), 293 n. 

Thomas Addis, rebel, 21, 
293 n., 321 

Enniscorthy, 81, 88, 89, 92, 95, 
98, 100, 102, 144, 153, 155-7, 
159, 160, 164, 166-8, 223, 224, 
226-8, 238, 240, 244, 266 

surrendered to the rebels, 95 
Esmond, Sir Thomas, 57 
Eustace, General, 208 

Fawcett, Major-General Sir Wil- 
liam, 97, 99 

Ferns, 83-5, 88, 92, 144, 209, 
217, 219, 220, 223, 227, 230, 
2 37. 239, 2 44. 264, 266, 267, 
270, 277 

Ferry Bank, 167 

FitzGerald, Brigade-Major B. 
Edward, 224, 227 n., 229, 264, 
267, 270-2, 275, 276, 280 

Lord Edward, 21 33, 69 
Fitzgerald, Edward, rebel lead- 
er, 97, 158, 176, 197, 219 n., 
220, 221 n. 

Thomas Judkin, his zeal for 
flogging, 305, 306 

Fitzwilliam, William Wentworth, 

second Earl, 9-11, 14, 45 
Flood, Sir Frederick, 39, 82, 278, 

Fontaine, Adjutant-General, and 

the French expedition (1798), 

Foote, Colonel, of the North 

Cork Militia, 89, 165 
Fort George, rebels imprisoned 

at, 221 n. 
Forth, Mount, 96 
Foulkes's Mill, 144, 145 
France and Ireland, 4, 20, 21, 

64, 65, 161, 244-63 
Frederick, Duke of York, 15, 17, 

19, 28, 47, 269, 304 
Friends of the People, 4 
Froude, James Anthony, on 

Abercromby, 41, 42 

Galway, 255 

George III, King, 16, 18, 55, 57, 


Glenmalure, rebel camp at, 22on. 
Goffs Bridge, 152, 185, 191 
Gold Mine, the, 140, 217 
Goresbridge, captured by the 

rebels, 212 

Gorey, 48, 81 n., 86, 87, 92, 95 n., 
102, 104, 108-14, 117, 124, 
128, 138, 140, 141 n., 142-4, 
148, 149, 158, 160, 161, 164, 
201, 202, 206, 209-11, 219, 
227, 230, 276, 290 

evacuated by the Loyalists, 

experiences of a prisoner at, 

Gowan, Hunter, 309 
Graignamanagh, 144 
Granard, 257, 269 
Grattan, Henry, 5, 9, n, 12, 45 



Gray, Nicholas, secretary of the 
Wexford Rebel Council, 150, 

Greenmound, 163, 166 

Grenville, William Wyndham, 
Baron, 69 

Grey, General Sir Charles, 17, 1 8 

Grogan, Captain John, 85 n. 

Cornelius, rebel, 71, i2on., 
221 n. 

Thomas Knox, 119, i2on., 

Grose, Brig.-Gen., 218, 227, 228, 

Grouchy, Emmanuel, and the 

Bantry Bay Expedition, 24, 


Hacketstown, 143 

Hackett, rebel chief, 220 n., 

221 n., 222 n. 
Hancock, Dr. Thomas, 53 
Hardy, General, his division of 

the French expedition (1798), 

246, 259-62 
Harvey, Beauchamp Bagenal, 

rebel, 100, 102, 114, 129, 130, 

134, 173, 175, 176, 178, 195, 

196, 221 n. 
Hay, Captain Philip, 222 

John, rebel, 121, 173 
Hewitt, Major-General, 239 
Hill, Sir George, and the be- 
trayal of Theobald Wolfe 
Tone, 262 

Historians of the Rebellion, 13, 
SO. S3> 7 2 > 82, 112, 162, 248, 
297, 298, 307, 309 

Hoche, General Lazare, com- 
mander of the Bantry Bay 
Expedition, 22-4, 26, 39 

Holland and the Irish rebels, 
64, 65, 245, 263 

Holland, Henry Richard Vassall 
Fox, third Lord, 47, 317 

Holt, Joseph, rebel, 205 n., 220 n., 

222 n., 288 n. 

Hore, Lady Anne, 179, 194 
Hulse, Lieut. -Gen. Sir Samuel, 


Humbert, Joseph Amable, lead- 
er of French Expedition to 

Ireland, 245, 246, 251, 252, 

254-7, 3i6 

Hunter, Major-General, 226 
Huntly, Marquis of, 118 n., 219 

n., 230, 231 
Hutchinson, Major-General the 

Hon. John Hely Hutchinson, 


Irishmen, Society of United, 8, 
13. 20-3, 33. 55. 61, 64, 69, 

70, 188, 189 n., 310 

Irish Military Establishment 
(from 1793-6), 14, (in 1797) 
28, (in 1798) 65 n. 

Militia. See Regiments. 

Jacob, Archibald, magistrate, 

71, 194 

Dr. Ebenezer, Mayor of Wex- 
ford, 172, 190-2 

Jenkin, Meredith, Lord Mayor 

of Dublin, letter re Loyalist 

claims, 233 
Johnson, Maj.-Gen. Sir Henry, 

132, 143, 144, 151, 159, 266, 

267, 276 
Junta of the United Irishmen, 21 

Kavenagh, Rev. Francis, rebel 

chief, 55, 86 n. 

Kearns, Rev. Moses, rebel lead- 
er, 102, 107, 108, non., 215, 

217 n., 220 n., 221 n. 
Keugh, Captain Matthew, rebel, 

99, 100, 176, 178, 180, 183, 

190, 195, 196, 221 n. 
Kilcaven Hill, 1 17, 141 n., 147 n., 

212 n. 
Kilcomney Hill, battle of, 213, 

Kildare, 72, 78, 102, 103, 107, 

217 n., 283 n., 294 n., 320 
Kilkenny, 78, 102, 136, 213, 

294 n. 
Killala, 257, 258 

Bay, 248, 262 

landing of the French at, 244 
Killaughram, rebels in the woods 

of, 215, 217 n., 220 n. 
Killedmond, 212 
Kfflena[gh], 82, 83 



Killthomas Hill, 86 n., 225 
Kilmuckridge, 87, 88 
Kilwarden, Lord, assassination 

of, 294 n. 
Kingsborough, George King, 

Viscount, 154, 155, 196, 39 
King's County, the, 78, 103 
Knottown, 75 
Kyan, Esmond, rebel captain of 

artillery, 122, 124, 125, 158, 

220 n. 
Kyle, 88 

Lacken Hill, 137, 149, 183 
Lacy, Rev. Michael, Roman 

Catholic priest, 55 
Lake, Lieut. -Gen. Gerald, 30, 

31, 40, 76, 143, 148, 152, 155. 

159, 174, 190, 197, 230, 355, 

256, 257, 264, 302, 311 
Landlordism, absentee, 319 
Langrishe, Sir Hercules, 6 
Lanigan, Rt. Rev. John, Bishop 

of Ossory, 61 
La Rochelle, 245, 246 
Lecky, W. E. H., on Aber- 

cromby, 45 
Le Hunte, Colonel, 89, 165, 181, 

Leinster, ridge of, 213 

seizure of arms in, 33 
L'Estrange, Colonel, 107, 217, 

219, 222 

Lewens, Edward John, repre- 
sentative of the United Irish- 
men in France, 20, 65 

Limerick, 209 

Hill, 138, 141 n., 143, 147 n. 
Little Limerick, 216 

Loftus, General, no, inn., 

117, 143, 144, 156 
London Corresponding Society,4 
Longraige, 152 n. 
Loughlinstown Camp, in, 120 
Louth, 220 n. 
Loyalist losses, compensation of, 

232, 233-5, 283 
Lyster, John Henry, 71, 163 

Macomores, suggested decima 
tion of the, 227 n. 

Magistrates and the Rebellion, 
48, 70, 82, 301, 302, 305-7 

Martial law, horrors of, 82 n. 

Maxwell, Colonel, 97 

Maynooth, establishment of, n 

Mayo, 256, 283 n. 

McManus, Captain, 155 n. 

McNeven, William James, mem- 
ber of the Junta of the United 
Irishmen, 21, 293 n., 321 

Meath, 72, 103, 220 n. 

Meyrick, Brig.-Gen., 220 

Monaghan, Richard (alias Dick 
Monk), 122 

Monart, rebels in the woods of, 
237. 238 

Monaseed, 215 

Moore, Maj.-Gen. Sir John, 
122 n., 143-5, iSi-3. iSS. 
159, 190, 193, 197, 207 n., 
231, 255, 257, 302, 305, 310, 

Mount Howard House, 104 

Nebo, 209, 218 

Norris, Arthur Annesley, Earl 

of, 35. 49. So- 2 , 54-7, 59. 6 7. 
84, 85, 101 n., ii2, 116, 125, 
216, 217, 223-6, 228, 233, 263, 
268, 274, 280, 283-93, 295, 

Norris, Lady, 95 

Pleasant, 141 

Mountjoy, Rt. Hon. Luke Gar- 
diner, Lord, 129, 132 

Muir, Thomas, 4 

Mullet, the, 247 

Munster, 103 

Murphy, Rev. John, rebel lead- 
er, 55, 56, 78, 79, 86, 88, 92, 
96, 97-101, 108, 122, 123, 158, 

Rev. Michael, 55, 57, 58, 59. 
86 n., 89, 92, 106, 120, 121, 
127, 182 

Musgrave, Sir Richard, his use 
of Mrs. Brownrigg's Diary, 

Napoleon. See Bonaparte. 

Needham, Maj.-Gen. the Hon. 
Francis, in, 116, 118, 124, 
139, 141 n., 143-5. H7-9. 155. 



156, 2OI, 2O4, 2O5, 2O9, 211, 

Needham's Gap, 156 
Newbridge, 212 n. 
Newgate Jail, Dublin, 69 
New Ross, 99, 102, 109 n., 129, 

130, 136, 152, 158, 1 60, 166, 

178, 208 n., 230 

battle of, 1 30 
Newton Butler, 75 n. 
Newtownbarry, 102, 106, 178, 

222, 223, 230, 278, 290 
Newtown Kennedy, 120 
Nugent, General Sir George, 255 

Oak Boys, the, 8 

Oath, Black Test, 188, 189 n. 

O'Coigly, Father James, arrest 
and trial, 66 n. 

O'Connor, Arthur, member of 
the Junta of the United Irish- 
men, 21, 66, 68, 321 

O'Hara, Lt.-Col., 206 

O'Hea, Captain, I54n. 

Old Ross, 143, 150, 151 

Orange Lodges, establishment 
of, 8 

Oulart, 57 n., 79, 86, 87, 89, 90, 
144, 145, 155, 178, 203-5 

defeat of Loyalists at, 89 

Paine, Thomas, 4, 61 
Palmerstown, 249-51 
Pardon, Bill of, 303 
Parliament, the Irish, 5, 6, 10- 

13, 35- 319 

Peep-o'-Day Boys, the, 8 
Pelham, Rt. Hon. Thomas, 44, 

47, 127, 299 
Pellew, Sir Edward, 26 
Peppard's Castle, 158, 227 
Perry, Anthony, rebel chief, 102, 

106, 108, non., 113, 158, 

200, 201, 203, 205, 220 n., 

221 n. 

Pitch-cap, torture of the, 310 
Pitt, Rt. Hon. William, 5-8, 10, 

15, 17, 26 

Sir William Augustus, 18, 19 
Poolahoney Wood, 118 
Portland, William Henry Caven- 
dish Bentinck, third Duke of, 

10, 12, 17, 19, 42, 43, 258, 300, 


Prendergast, John, rebel, 74 

Priestley, Joseph, 4 

Priests and the Rebellion, Ro- 
man Catholic, 54, 55, 58, 60, 

Prisoners, experiences of Loyal- 
ist, 112, 162-94 

Proclaiming of disaffected dis- 
tricts, 13, 8 1 n. 

Proclamations, military, 31, 33, 

Prosperous, 72 

Protection, certificates of, 207 

Protestant interest in Ireland, 
the, 5, 6, 12, 40 

Prussia, Irish recruits sold to the 
King of, 318 

Queen's County, the, 78, 213 

Rathdrum, 121, 149, 205 

Rathfarnham, 291 

Rathfran, Bay of, 249 

Rebels, their personal appear- 
ance, 73-5 ; costumes worn 
by> 73 ' commissariat, 77 ; 
under arms on the eve of 
hostilities, 78 ; outbreak in 
Wexford, 78 ; organisation, 
78 ; first affray, 84 ; march 
to Camolin Park and Rock- 
spring, 84 ; Camolin sacked, 
86 n. ; defeat Loyalists at 
Oulart, 86 ; proceed to Ferns, 

88 ; attack Car new garrison, 

89 ; capture Enniscorthy, 94, 
95 ; establish Vinegar Hill 
camp, 95 ; fight at the Three 
Rocks (May 3oth), 97 ; enter 
Wexford, 98, 108 ; perman- 
ent camps, 101 ; independent 
corps formed, 101 ; enter 
Newtownbarry, 107 ; drilled 
by yeomen, 108 ; victory at 
Tubberneering, no; enter 
Carnew, 117; defeated at 
Arklow, 118-25 ; attack New 
Ross, 129-33 ; concentrate at 
Vinegar Hill, 141 n. ; on Hill 
of Ask, 142 ; retreat from 



New Ross, 1 50 ; defeated at 
Taghmon, 152-3 ; defeated 
at Vinegar Hill, 155-8 ; re- 
treat from Wexford, 159, 192 ; 
division, 212 ; the colliers 
of Dunain, 213 ; division, 
215 ; defeated at Kilcomney 
Hill, 214 ; engagement at 
Ballyraheen Hill, 217 n. ; de- 
feated at Ballygullen, 218 ; 
routed in Monart Woods, 
2 37-8 ; final movements, 
219 n.-22 n. 

Redmond, Rev. Edmond, Ro- 
man Catholic priest, 55 

Rev. John, rebel, 55, 58, 94, 
no n., 211 

Rev. Nicholas, Roman Ca- 
tholic priest, 55 

Michael, rebel, 120 n. 
Regiments : 

Ancient British Light Dra- 
goons, 108, 140, 147, 210, 
216, 303, 309 

Antrim Militia, 93, 94, 105,109, 

Arklow Yeomanry, 109, 116, 
140, 147, 204, 221 n. 

Armagh Militia, 109 

Ayrshire Fencible Cavalry, 28 

Ballakeen Yeomanry, 86, 105, 
139, 210, 216, 222, 267, 

Borris Yeomanry, 149, 238 

Camolin Yeomanry, 36, 37, 38, 
39, 66, 67, 81-7, 94, 100, 
104-6, 108-12, 116-21, 138- 
42, 145-9, ID X 201-12, 216- 
30, 237-40, 243-4, 264- 

Car low Cavalry, 107 

Castletown Yeomanry, 113, 
119, 1 20, 147, 149, 202, 204, 
267, 270 

Cavan Militia, in, 116, 140, 

147, 219, 220, 223, 238, 263 

Clare Militia, 129 

Coolgreny Yeomanry, 1 47, 148, 

204, 205, 267, 270 
Donegal Militia, 129, 149, 167, 

1 68 
Downshire Militia, 310 

Regiments (contd.) : 
Dragoons, 4th, 107 

5th, 129, 140, 210, 216, 304 

6th, 15 

1 2th Light, 15, 1 6 
Dublin CountyMilitia, 1 29, 1 32, 

230, 240, 244 
Dumbarton Fencible Infantry, 

29, 109, 118 

Durham, Loyal, Fencibles, 29, 

118, 147, 148 

Enniscorthy Yeomanry, 306 
Gorey Yeomanry, 147, 148, 149, 

200, 202, 210, 216, 267, 270 
Healthfield Yeoman Cavalry, 


Hessian regiments,the,223, 309 
Hompesch Cavalry, 151 
Kilkenny Militia, 256, 304 
King's County Militia, 107,219, 

222, 238 

Le Hunte's Cavalry, 165 
Limerick City Militia, 257 
Londonderry Militia, 109 
Longford Militia, 256, 304 
Lowenstein Hompesch regi- 
ment, 1 6 
Loyal Tay Fencible Infantry, 

15, 16 

Manx Fencible Infantry, 15 
Meath Militia, 97, 99, 129 
Midlothian Fencibles, 129 
Mount Norris Corps. See 

Camolin Yeomanry 
Newtownbarry Yeomanry, 

107, 219, 222 

North and South Yeoman Ca- 
valry, 148 

North Arklow Yeomanry, 148 
North Cork Militia, 83, 86, 87, 
89, 94, 105, 154 n., 165, 168, 
309, 3io 

Prince of Wales's Fencible In- 
fantry, 248 

Romney Fencible Cavalry, 28 
Scarawalsh Infantry, 85 n. 
Shilelah Yeomanry, 217 n. 
Shilmalier Cavalry, 90 
Suffolk Light Infantry, 109 
1 3th Regiment of Foot, 243 
True Blues of Tinnehely, 2 1 7 n. 



Regiments (contd.) : 

Tyrone Light Infantry, 109 
Waldstein Regiment, 16 
Waterford Militia, 213 
Wicklow Cavalry, 149 
Wingfield Yeomanry, 204, 267, 

Yagers, 6oth, 151 

Reynolds, Michael, rebel, 205 n. 

Right Boys, the, 8 

Roche, Edward, rebel, non., 

157, iS8, 198 

Rev. Philip, rebel leader, 102, 
108, in n., 136, 151, 153, 155, 

158, 160, 212, 221 n. 
Rochefort, 245 

Roden, Robert, second Earl of , 157 
Roman Catholics and the Irish 
Parliament, 5, 9, u, 12 

and the Rebellion, 48-50, 
52, 53. 55-8. 78-80, 113, 259, 
312, 315 

and the Society of United 
Irishmen, 20 

Ross, Major-General Robert, 46, 


Rosslare Ford, 189 
Rossminoge, 226 
Ryan, Captain, 69 

Saint Austins, 202 

Saltee Islands, 97 n. 

Sarrazin, Adjutant-General, and 
the French Expedition (1798), 
251- 254 

Savary, Captain, naval com- 
mander of Humbert's expedi- 
tion, 246, 247, 260, 262 

Scarawalsh, 144, 224 

outrage at, 83, 84 
Scollagh Gap, 213, 214 

Scott, Sir Walter, on Ireland, 322 
Sigerson, Dr. George, on the 

Irish rebellion, 298 
Sirr, Major, 69 
Skerret, Col., 118, 124, 205 
Slaney, the river, 96, 144 
Sledagh, 158, 212 
Slievebuoy, 224 
Sligo, 255, 258 
Slyeeve-Keelter, rebel camp on, 

136, 137 

Society for Constitutional In- 
formation, 4 

Solsborough, 156 

Stafford, Rev. Nicholas, Roman 
Catholic priest, 55 

Stock, Joseph, Bishop of Killala, 
248, 253, 254, 256, 257-9 

Swan, Major, 69 

Synnott, Rev. Nicholas, Roman 
Catholic priest, 55 

Taghmon, 145, 152, 154, 208 n., 

214, 230 

Tandy, James Napper, 246, 260 
TarahHill, 139 
Tate, Colonel, and the invasion 

of Wales, 39 n. 
Taylor, Brigadier - General 

Robert, 255, 278, 287, 290 
Teelin, Cape, 247 
Teeling, Bartholomew, 23, 247 

Charles Hamilton, 23 
Templeshannon, 96 

Three Rocks, the, 96, 97, 101, 
102, 129, 151 n., 152, 153, 
157-9, 168, 185 

Tinnehely, 141 n., 217 n. 

Tipperary, 283 n. 

Tommagaddy, 104 

Tone, Matthew, sails with Hum- 
bert's expedition, 246 

Theobald Wolfe, 20, 68, 244, 
251, 262 

Tooke, John Home, 4 

Tory Island, 262 

Troy, John Thomas, Archbishop 

of Dublin, 61 
True Blues, the, 8 
Tubberneering, 147 

defeat of Loyalists at, no 
Tullow, 143 205 n. 

Ulster, 103 

seizure of arms in, 33 
Underwood, Brigade Major 

Charles, 140, 142, 146, 147, 
204, 206-10, 216 
Union of Great Britain and 
Ireland, 3, 9, n, 285 n. 

Vereker, Col. Charles, his action 
with the French, 257 



Vinegar Hill, 95, 96, 101, 108, 

141 n., 145, 148 n., 151, 152, 

JSS. !59> 160. 161, 187, 191, 
201, 270, 298 

battle of, 157 

General Lake's military 
orders re the taking of, 143 

Volunteers of 1778-82, 4 

Walpole, Colonel Lambert Theo- 
dore, 109, no, in n., 121 n., 
142 n. 

Warren, Commodore Sir John 
Borlase, 261 

Waterford, 78, 81, 98, 102, 126, 
132, 136, 164, 266, 305, 307 n. 

Wemyss, Maj-Gen., 220 n. 

Westmorland, John Fane, tenth 
Earl of, 6 

Wexford, town of, 81, 86, 87, 89, 
90, 94-9, 102, n6n., 128, 
141 n., 145, 152-4, 158, 159, 
164, 166, 168, 192-5, 229, 

White boys, the, 8 

White, Captain Hawtrey, 71, 92, 
227 n., 306 

Whitefeet, the, 8 

Whiteheaps, the, 201, 203 n., 
215, 217 n., 218 

Wickham, William, Under- 
secretary in the Home De- 
partment, 103, 126, 283 n. 

Wicklow, 78, 100, 102, 103, in, 
116, 120, 124, 138, 140, 161, 
200, 203, 205, 210, 215, 217, 
231, 240, 243,283 n., 294 n., 320 

'.Cornwallis's Memorandum as 
to the state of affairs in the 
county of (Aug. 1798), 240 

Lord, 148 

Windmill Hill, near Wexford, 

Wycombe, Lord, shot at by a 

sentinel in Dublin, 318 
Wynne, Colonel Sir Watkin 

Williams, 109, 119 

Yeomanry, behaviour of the, 
301, 303, 304, 308, 309, 315 

embodied in 1796, 35 



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most conveniently arranged for reference. It will appeal to a very large 

Sphere. " This handsome volume. Mr. Broadley and Mr. Rose, both of 
whom have done no slight service to Napoleonic literature . . . exceed- 
ingly readable and entirely interesting. These authors must be con- 
gratulated upon a notable piece of work a permanent contribution to 
the literature of the epoch." 

Saturday l^e-vie-w. "The authors have rendered a real service to history in 
producing this book and have displayed much industry in collecting 
material. They have succeeded in giving us what was lacking before in 
English a clear and consecutive account of Dumouriez's remarkable 

Pall Mall (jazette. " It is worthy of a place in military history ... a well- 
written book." 

World. "The whole sketch is deeply interesting. Messrs. Rose and 
Broadley have put together, with a ihrewd appreciation of the topical side 
of the subject, an excellent memorial of an able Frenchman." 

'Bibliophile. "In 'Dumouriez' Dr. Holland Rose and Mr. A. M. Broadley 
have given us a careful and elaborate study of one of the most remark- 
able adventurers of modern times." 

Nation. " This fine volume. We have nothing but praise. There is a 
valuable bibliography, an iconography even more precious, and many 
interesting illustrations. The book must assuredly take its place as a 
standard work upon one phase of an epoch of inexhaustible interest." 

Daily Telegraph. " Handsome well-illustrated volume before us, a work of 
much artistic beauty and considerable literary ingenuity." 

Westminster (jaxette. "The whole of this book is illuminating and deeply 

Literary World. "The numerous portraits and other illustrations add con- 
siderably to th value of the work." 




Demy Svo (9 x 5| inches). Price l6s. net. 


Globe. " Mr. Broadley has made an interesting book, full of the olla 
podrida of life at a fascinating period : and since it throws much fresh 
light on the relations of Dr. Johnson, Mrs. Thrale, and the rest of that 
distinguished Company, it will surely find a place on the shelves of 
every good Johnsonian." 

Pall Mall Gazette. "After all the loose writing about Dr. Johnson, that 
his bicentenary has brought down on us, it is a pleasure to meet with 
a few authentic records well edited and well presented. Mr. Broadley 
has told the story of the recent celebrations at Lichfield, with a careful 
pen. The publisher has added a number of good reproductions of con- 
temporary prints and portraits, and these, like the illustrations that 
Mr. Broadley supplies, add much to the range of our Johnsoniana." 

Atheneeum. " Mr. Broadley has done well in putting on permanent record 
various unpublished things, which, we gather, have found a place in his 
own extensive collections." 

Guardian. " This handsome and attractive volume, with its wealth of new 
material. The work which is carefully furnished with explanatory 
Notes and Appendices, and embellished with interesting portraits and 
other illustrations, forms a really valuable addition to the literature of 
a period of undying interest." 

Daily Express. "The book is a history of the life and times of Dr. Johnson 
and Mrs. Thrale, and there are many illustrations and facsimiles of 
letters which will be welcomed by Johnsonian students." 

Nation. " Mr. A. M. Broadley is to be congratulated upon the wealth of 
Johnsoniana to be found in his library at Bridport." 

Daily Ne-ws. "Mr. Seccombe has written a brilliant account of the 
household of the Thrales, and has given us a vivid impression of the 
atmosphere of the social and literary circle. The book will appeal to 
the lover of general literature." 

New Age. " Mr. Seccombe's high-spirited introductory essay renders the 
volume invaluable. It has the controlled and fine acerbity which marks 
Mr. Seccombe off from all other modern essayists." 




Joint Author of "Napoleon and the Invasion of England," Dumouriez and the 

Defence of England against Napoleon," " Nelson's Hardy : His Life, Letters, and 

Friends," Etc. 




Author of "A Life of Napoleon," Napoleonic Studies," " The Making of the 
European Nations," Etc. 

ORIGINALS. IN Two VOLUMES. DEMY 8vo (9x5! inches.) 

Demy8vo(9x 5! in.). Price 2 2s. net. Postage gd. extra. / Preparation 

IT is computed that over 3000 caricatures of Napoleon 
are in existence, of which nearly all were published 
between the years 1795 an d 1815. Although the 
majority of these satiric prints, as Dr. Holland Rose 
points out in his important introductory essay to Mr. Broadley's 
work, are specially valuable and interesting as side-lights on 
Napoleon's history, and often assist the student to master 
problems otherwise incapable of solution, no work on the sub- 
ject as a whole has ever appeared. Mr. John Ashton and 
Monsieur Jean Grand- Carteret have partially dealt with the 
English side of the question, but we know little or nothing of 
these quaint informative productions as far as France, Germany, 
Russia, Italy, Holland, Spain, and the United States of 
America are concerned. Not only has Mr. Broadley formed a col- 
lection of his own probably quite unequalled in extent, but after 
ransacking the treasures of the Paris Bibliotheque Nationale 
and Musle Carnavalet, he has succeeded in enlisting the 
sympathetic assistance of brother workers in the same field like 
Monsieur Jean Grand-Carteret, Mr. William Latta of Phila- 
delphia, Signor Achille Bertarelli of Milan, Mr. Van Gyn of 
Dordrecht, and many others. The book, upon which so much 
pains have been bestowed, will assuredly find a place in every 
public and private library, and prove as useful to students as it 
will unquestionably be attractive to collectors. 

By F. LORAINE PETRE. A Military History of Napoleon's First 
War with Russia, verified from unpublished official documents. 
With Maps and Plans. New Edition. Demy 8vo. 12s. 6d. net. 

Times." From every point of view_it is difficult to overpraise Mr. Petre's work. 
It is evidently the work of laborious study, and all authorities are judicially 
weighed. The references and copious footnotes are admirable. . . . The 
maps are clear and excellent. . . . And the descriptions of the more striking 
episodes are as picturesque as they are vivid and lucid." 

Contemporary Review. " I do not know whether Mr. Petre has had actual 
experience of war, but his battle-pieces are singularly graphic, the description 
of the Battle of Eylau, in particular, being almost as good as the masterpieces 
of Carlyle and Tolstoi. . . . The work is a valuable addition to the histories of 
the Napoleonic wars." 

Anny and Navy Gazette. " We have read his book with extreme interest, and 
have a very high opinion of the masterly way in which he has assembled his 
materials, the skill with which he has balanced the opinions of various writers, 
and the ability with which he has brought out his conclusions." 


By F. LORAINE PETRE, Author of "Napoleon's Campaign in 
Poland, 1806-7." With an Introduction by Field-Marshal EARL 
ROBERTS, K.G., v.c., etc. With numerous Maps, Battle Plans, 
Portraits and other Illustrations. Demy 8vo. I2s. 6d. net. 

Outlook. "Mr. Petre has visited the battlefields and read everything, and his 

monograph is a model of what military history, handled with enthusiasm and 

literary ability, can be." 
Westminster Gazette. "Mr. Petre has written an invaluable book which should 

be read by all soldiers and by every man who is now, or hopes in the future to 

be, a competent statesman." 
Globe. " Opens with a masterly sketch of the origin of the war. . . . Mr. Petre, in 

his account of the battles, again proves himself a military historian of 

exceptional ability." 
Manchester Guardian. " The book is very competently put together . . . always 

careful, scholarly, and adequate . . . may be worthily welcomed as filling up a 

real gap in our literature." 


A History of the Franco-Austrian Campaign in the valley of the 
Danube in 1809. By F. LORAINE PETRK. With eight Illustrations 
and five sheets of Maps and Plans. Demy 8vo, 12s. 6d. net. 

Pall Mall Gazette. " Mr. Petre has given us a solid work that will long remain 

the book on its subject." 
Literary World. " Mr. Petre has followed up his vajuable studies of Napoleon's 

campaigns of 1806 and 1807 by a full and interesting account of that war with 


kely to remair 
which it treats.' 

Nation. " Mr. Petre's work is one for the military expert, though the lay reader 
who, while attracted by Napoleon, cares for something solider than the usual 
gossipy compilation will find much of interest in this history." 
lobe. "The author of this able historical study has already demonstrated his 

qualifications as a military critic and chronicler." 

'nited Service Magazine. " . . . Deeply interesting and instructive. . . . 
Presented in such a form as to fascinate people who are not usually disposed to 
read history merely for history's sake." 
Manchester Guardian. " By far the most detailed and up-to-date account of the 


as a master of war and strategy." 


Confidences of a Collector of Ceramics and Antiques throughout 
Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Holland, Belgium, 
Switzerland, and Turkey. From the year 1869 to 1885. Edited 
by MONTAGUE GUEST, with Annotations by EGAN MEW. With 
upwards of 100 Illustrations, including some in colour. Royal 8vo. 
Two volumes. 42^. net. 

** Mr. Montague Guest had long been at work upon tkest two volumes when 
his death took place suddenly at Sandringham last year. The journals front 
Lady Charlotte Schreibers own hand, describe her many tours from the year i8tg 
to 1885 in. seanh, especially, of those examples of English \?,th century porcelains 
which now form so splendid a feature of the Victoria and A ibert Museum at 
S. Kensington. In these "notes ceramic," as Lady Charlotte called her diary, 
she tells of many amusing traffics and discoveries ; the prices -wonderfully small, 
judged by modern standards the names of dealers ; and addresses of private 
collectors; and a thousand other interesting details. As with all of Lady 
Charlotte's undertakings, she followed the art of collecting with immense vigour 
and enthusiasm, and neither- she ntr the late Mr. Charles Schreiber spared them- 
selves in their desire to gather together a perfect collection. Like other collectors 
they often strayed from the strict pursuit of china ware, with the result that hun- 
dreds, one might say thousands, of other objects of art Jell to their active and 
accomplished chase, many of which are illustrated in these volumes for the first 
time. Apart from the interest which this work possesses for the collector of 
ceramics and antiques, the life of the period and many more historical characters 
are drawn with a vivid and lively pen. Mr. Guest has prepared a short intro- 
duction, telling something of his mother s remarkable gifts and character, and 
experiences, and Mr. Egan Mew has added some notes which explain and give 
an added interest to the text. 

lation from the German by JOHN LEES, M.A., D.Litt. (Edin.). 
With an Introduction by LORD REDESDALE. Two Vols. 
Demy 8vo. (9 x 5! inches). 32^. net. 

PLAYWRIGHT. By RALPH STRAUS. With a Photogravure 
and 16 other Illustrations. Demy 8vo. (9x5! inches). 2is. net. 


AUSTIN O. SPARE. A Series of Thirty Plates. Uniform with 
"A Book of Satyrs." Large Folio. 2is. net. 

University Lecturer in History, Senior Fellow and sometime 
History Tutor at King's College, Cambridge, and formerly 
Assistant Master at Eton College. Illustrated. Demy 8vo. 
(9 x 5f inches). i6s. net. 


Further Letters and Records edited by his daughter and HERBERT 
ST. JOHN MILDMAY. With numerous Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 
(9x5! inches.) i6s. net. 

LEY HOWE: Edited by his Daughter, LAURA E. RICHARDS. 
With Notes by F. B. SANBORN. Demy 8vo. (9 x 5f inches.) 
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THE LIFE OF W. J. FOX. Public Teacher and Social 
Reformer, 1786-1864. By the late RICHARD GARNETT, C.B., LL.D , 
concluded by EDWARD GARNETT. With a Photogravure Portrait 
and numerous other Illustrations. Demy 8vo. (9 x 5f inches.) 
i6j. net. 


of the Chief Leader in the Revolt against Spain in Venezuela, 
New Granada, and Peru. By F. LORAINE PETRE. Author of 
"Napoleon and the Conquest of Prussia," "Napoleon's Cam- 
paign in Poland," and "Napoleon and the Archduke Charles." 
With 2 Portraits, one in Photogravure and Maps. Demy 8vo. 
(9 x St inches.) 125. 6d. net. 

Assistant Professor of English Literature in the University of Leeds. 
With 8 Illustrations. Demy 8vo. (9 x 5f inches.) 12s. 6d. net. 


( I S93~ I 673) ) Vicar of Barnstaple and Prebendary of Exeter Cathe- 
dral, with some account of his conflicts with the Puritan Lecturers 
and of his Persecutions. By JOHN FREDERICK CHANTER, M.A., 
Rector of Parracombe, Devon, with 5 Full-page Illustrations. 
Demy 8vo. (9x5! inches.) los. 6d. net. 

THE WAR IN WEXFORD. An Account of the Re- 
bellion in the South of Ireland in 1798, told from Original Docu- 
ments. By H. F. B. WHEELER and A. M. BROADLEY. Authors 
of "Napoleon and the Invasion of England." With numerous 
Reproductions of contemporary portraits and engravings. Demy 
8vo. (9x5! inches.) 12s. 6d. net. 

AIRSHIPS IN PEACE AND WAR : Being the second 
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duction by Sir HIRAM S. MAXIM, and upwards of 70 Illustrations. 
DemySvo. (9 x 5f inches.) 7s. 6d, net. 

and RUSSELL WILKINSON, with 10 Drawings by AUSTIN OSMAN 
SPARE. Small 4to. 7s. 6d. net. 




OF ENGLAND. Translated from the Italian of G. P. 
Clerici by FREDERIC CHAPMAN. With numerous Illustrations 
reproduced from Contemporary Portraits, Prints, &c. Demy 
8vo. Price One Guinea net. 

Guardian. " There is a great deal that is new and still more that is in- 
teresting in ' A Queen of Indiscretions,' which may fairly be described as the 
joint production of Mr. Frederic Chapman and Signer Graziano Clerici. . . . 
Mr. Chapman's introduction is excellent reading." 

Scotsman. " Mr. Chapman furnishes the Italian work with a long introduction 
not less interesting or instructive than Professor Clerici's own study, yet 
tending, nevertheless, to support a conviction of the Queen's innocence." 

Globe. "Mr. Frederic Chapman has performed admirably his duty as a 

Daily Telegraph. " Mr. Chapman contributes an uncommonly full and well- 
informed introduction to supplement and explain the Italian original." 

Morning Post " Professor Clerici's book and Mr. Chapman's introduction 
will stand as the most complete inquiry into Caroline's affairs that has yet 
been published " 

four Full-page Lithographs by Thomas R. Way. Demy 410. 
Price One Guinea net. 

Studio. " Were it not that Mr. Chapman's literary contribution is so well 
written and full of interesting information, we should be tempted to cut out 
for framing purposes two or three of the drawings; but, under existing con- 
ditions, to spoil the book would be little short of sacrilege." 

Standard. " It is a delightful volume . . . Mr. Chapman's notes are well 
done and full of interest." 

Daily Chronicle. " The book is ons that all lovers of old London and its 
suburbs should possess. The historical facts and innumerable associations, 
literary and otherwise, that add so much to the attraction of these old places, 
are carefully and briefly given in the accompanying notes by Mr. Frederic 


Twenty-four Lithographs by Thomas R. Way. Demy Svo. 
Price One Guinea net. 

Studio. " Not the least valuable portion of the book is the text by Mr. 
Chapman. All available sources of information seem to have been most care- 
fully examined by the writer, and he has so condensed his information as to 
make his work eminently readable and instructive." 

Athencsum. "A word of praise may be given to Mr. Chapman's notes, which 
are adequate and to the point." 

Manchester Guardian. "A great mass of historical material has been pre- 
served, and Mr. Chapman is to be commended for the skill and judgment witb 
which he has drawn upon it for his notes." 



WILLCOCKS. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Daily Telegraph. " ' Widdicombe ' was good and ' The Wingless Victory ' was 
perhaps better, but in 'A Man of Genius' the author has given us something 
that should assure her place in the front rank of our living novelists. It 
should be one of the most popular books of the year." 

James Douglas in the Star. '"A Man of Genius' is even finer than 'The 
Wingless Victory.'" 

Guardian. " There can be no question of the power and originality of Miss 
Willcocks' lateit novel. All the parts have been skilfully interwoven ; there is 
none of that painful isolation of chapters and episodes which is characteristic of 
unskilled literary work the story flows smoothly and inevitably on to its 
appointed close. The achievement is admirably artistic." 

Pall Mall Gaze tie. " ' A Man of Genius ' is a surprise no less than a pleasure, 
seeing how far she had won already. It is not merely that her grasp is firmer 
and her insight keener, but she achieves her purpose more clearly and more 
thoroughly than in her previous books." 

Standard. " Miss Willcocks has produced another wonderful novel." 


M. P. WILLCOCKS. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

The Times. " Such books are worth keeping on the shelves, even by the 
classics, for they are printed in colours that do not fade." 

The Daily Mail. "'The Wingless Victory' stands out as something quite 
out of the common. In its grasp of character and circumstance, in its rare 
wisdom, and above all in its unerring instinct into the deep springs oi human 
action, it is a remarkable achievement which entitles its author to a place in 
the first rank of contemporary novelists. This is high praise, but we venture 
to prophesy that it will be endorsed by critics and readers alike." 

The Daily Express. " It is a drama of the human heart dignified by its 
deep analytical power, its insight into human nature, its beauty of expression, 
and its convincing and humanly logical advance to an intensively human 

The Standard. " Really a book of remarkable strength and glow and 

WIDDICOMBE. A Novel by M. P. 

WILLCOCKS. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Literary World. " A notable achievement . . < Hterary charm is to be found 
in a degree by no means common in ' Widdicombe.' . . . Those who can ap- 
preciate close communings with Nature, skilful dissection of human emotions, 
and word-painting by a real artist, will thank us for drawing their attention to 
this work. 

Daily Telegraph. " Scarcely anything but praise can be given to this forceful 
book, on every page of which thought and observation are scattered lavishly 
. . . The characters live and move for us ... There are real things in the 

Evening Standard. "Wonderfully alive, and pulsating with a curious 
fervour . . . There are some striking studies of women . . < A fine, rather 
unusual novel." 



Mrs. JOHN LANE. Crown 8vo. 6s. Fourth Edition. 

Morning Post. " The author's champagne overflows with witty sayings too 
numerous to cite." 

Academy. " Mrs. Lane may congratulate herself on having that blessed 
sense of humour which is one of the most valuable possessions in life." 

Pall Mall Gazette. " Mrs. Lane's papers on our social manners and foibles 
are the most entertaining, the kindest, and the truest that have been offered 
us for a long time . . . The book shows an airy philosophy that will render it 
of service to the social student." 

Afhenceum. "Mrs. Lane treats each subject with such freshness and 
originality that the work is as entertaining as it is suggestive." 


numerous Illustrations by Albert Sterner, Howard Pyle, and 
George "W barton Edwards. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Times. " Mrs. Lane has succeeded to admiration, and chiefly by reason of 
being to much interested in her theme herself that she makes no conscious effort 
to please. She just tells her tales with no more artifice than one might use in 
narrative by word of mouth, and she keeps the reader's interest as keenly alive 
as if he were really listening to an amusing story of what had once actually 
happened. Every one who seeks to be diverted will read ' Kitwyk ' for its 
obvious qualities of entertainment." 

Daily Telegraph. " Dip where one will into her sparkling pages, one is certain 
to find entertainment, and the charm is much assisted by the delightful 

World. "' Kitwyk ' is destined to be in fiction what an old Dutch master 
painter is in painting a work at once typical of kind, unique of entity. The 
design of this charming book is original. All the people are alive in the not 
wonderful but strangely engrossing story, which is so comical and pathetic, so 
quaint and ' racy of the soil,' so wide in sympathy, so narrow of stage. All the 
drawings are excellent." 

Standard. " Very charming. Admirers will say, not without reason, that 
1 Kitwyk' recalls ' Cranford." " 

PETERKINS : the Story of a Dog. Trans- 

lated from the German of Ossip Schubin by Mrs. JOHN LANE. 
With numerous Drawings by Cottington Taylor. Crown 8vo. 
35. 6d. 

Bystander. "A delicious story . . . full of genuine humour and character." 

Daily Telegraph. " A very pleasing dog ... a most moving tale . . . Mrs. 

Lane has done the history of his adventures into charming English . . . not 

the least of the book's attractions are the delightful drawings of Cottington 


Saturday Review." Charmingly told . . . Mrs. Lane's excellent translation 
will, we are sure, have as great a success as its German original, and will delight 
all dog lovers." 



KOVSKY (1840-1893), by his brother, Modeste Tchaikovsky, 
Edited and Abridged from the Russian and German Editions by 
ROSA NEWMARCH, with numerous Illustrations and Facsimiles, 
and an Introduction by the Editor. Demy 8vo. Price 2is. net. 

Standard. " Mrs Newmarch's valuable addition to Tchaikovsky literature 
may be unreservedly commended to the attention of student and expert, while 
by her clear style and excellent English the needs of the music lover, to whom 
the colour, the sincere emotion, and strong human element of Tchaikovsky's 
music will make a very strong appeal, are met." 

Globe. "Not only copious biographical matter, but an extraordinarily vivid 
portrait of a highly emotional and sensitive personality." 

Times. " A most illuminating commentary on Tchaikovsky's music." 

World. " One of the most fascinating self-revelations by an artist which has 
been given to the world. The translation is excellent, and worth reading for 
its own sake." 

Westminster Gatette. " It is no exaggeration to describe the work as one of 
singular fascination." 

Mr. Ernest Newman in M anchesttr Guardian. "For the present large and 
handsome volume we have nothing but praise . . . for Mrs. Newmarch's trans- 
lation no praise can be too high." 

Truth. " All music lovers may be heartily recommended to get the book and 
read it for themselves." 

Morning Post " This delightful volume is sure to be read with avidity by the 
many admirers of the Russian master in this country, who wiH doubtless feel 
that they owe a debt of gratitude to the composer's brother for a work of deep 
and abiding interest, and to Mrs. Newmarch for the admirable manner in which 
she has performed the difficult task of editing and preparing the book for 


Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. net. 

Standard. " Distinctly a book that should be read . i ; pleasantly written 
and well informed." 


POEMS. Crown 8vo. 55. net. 

Mr. James Douglas in The Thront: "Mrs. Newmarch, to the casual reader, 
reveals naught. To the attentive listener she whispe s a spiritual tragedy. Her 
temper is rare. She is one of those who see life through the veil of music, and 
music through the veil of life." 


3^0 TICE 

Those who possess old letters, documents, corre- 
spondence, ^MSS., scraps of autobiography, and also 
miniatures and portraits, relating to persons and 
matters historical, literary, political and social, should 
communicate with ^Mr. John Lane, The Bodley 
Head, Vigo Street, London, W., who will at all 
times be pleased to give his advice and assistance, 
either as to their preservation or publication. 


An Illustrated Series of Monographs dealing with 
Contemporary Musical Life, and including Repre- 
sentatives of all Branches of the Art. Edited by 
ROSA NEWMARCH. Crown 8vo. Cloth. 2s. 6d. net 
each volume. 













A Series of Illustrated Biographies of the Leading 
Actors, Actresses, and Dramatists. Edited by J. T. 
GREIN. Crown 8vo. zs. 6d. each net. 

** It was Schiller who said: " Twine no wreath for the 
actor, since his work is oral and ephemeral." "Stars of the 
Stage" -may in some degree remove this reproach. There are 
hundreds of thousands of playgoers, and both editor and publisher 
think it reasonable to assume that a considerable number of these 
would like to know something about actors, actresses, and 
dramatists, whose work they nightly applaud. Each volume 
will be carefully illustrated, and as far as text, printing, and 
paper are concerned will be a notable book. Great care has been 
taken in selecting the biographers, who in most cases have 
already accumulated much appropriate material. 

First Volumes. 






The Story of the Great Terror, 1797-1805. By H. F. B. 
WHEELER and A. M. BROADLEY. With upwards of 100 Full- 
page Illustrations reproduced from Contemporary Portraits, Prints, 
etc. ; eight in Colour. Two Volumes. 3 2 s. net. 

Outlook. "The book is not merely one to be ordered from the library; it should be 
purchased, kept 
love England." 


purchased, kept on an accessible shelf, and constantly studied by all Englishmen who 


ROSE, Litt.D. (Cantab.), Author of "The Life of Napoleon," 
and A. M. BROADLEY, joint-author of " Napoleon and the Invasion 
of England." Illustrated with numerous Portraits, Maps, and 
Facsimiles. Demy 8vo. zis. net. 


BROWNING, M. A., Author of "The Boyhood and Youth of Napoleon." 
With numerous Full-page Illustrations. Demy 8vo (9 x 5f inches). 
izs. 6d. net. 

Spectator. " Without doubt Mr. Oscar Browning has produced a book which should have 

its place in any library of Napoleonic literature." 

Truth. " Mr. Oscar Browning has made not the least, but the most of the romantic 
i, . material at his command for the story of the fall of the greatest figure in history." 


1769-1793. Some Chapters on the early life of Bonaparte. 
By OSCAR BROWNING, M.A. With numerous Illustrations, Por- 
traits, etc. Crown 8vo. 51. net. 

Daily News. "Mr. Browning has with patience, labour, careful study, and excellent taste 
given us a very valuable work, which will add materially to the literature on this most 
fascinating of human personalities." 


JOSEPH TURQUAN. Translated from the French by JAMES L. MAY. 
With 32 Full-page Illustrations. Demy 8vo (9 x 5^ inches). 
12s. 6d. net. 



By EDWARD DE WERTHEIMER. Translated from the German. 
With numerous Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 2 is. net. (Second 

Times. "A most careful and interesting work which presents the first complete and 
authoritative account of the life of this unfortunate Prince." 

Westminster Gazette. " This book, admirably produced, reinforced by many additional 
portraits, is a solid contribution to history and a monument of patient, well-applied 


By F. LORAINE PETRE. With an Introduction by FIELD- 
MARSHAL EARL ROBERTS, V.C., K.G., etc. With Maps, Battle 
Plans, Portraits, and 16 Full-page Illustrations. Demy 8vo 
(9 x 5f inches), izs. 6d. net. 

Scotsman. " Neither too concise, nor too diffuse, the book is eminently readable. It is the 
best work in English on a somewhat circumscribed subject." 

Outlook. " Mr. Petre has visited the battlefields and read everything, and his monograph is 
a model of what military history, handled with enthusiasm and literary ability, can be." 


1807. A Military History of Napoleon's First War with Russia, 
verified from unpublished official documents. By F. LORAINE 
PETRE. With 16 Full-page Illustrations, Maps, and Plans. New 
Edition. Demy 8vo (9 x 5| inches). izs. 6d. net. 

Army and Navy Chronicle. " We welcome a second edition of this valuable work. . . . 
Mr. Loraine Petre is an authority on the wars of the great Napoleon, and has brought 
the greatest care and energy into his studies of the subject." 


CHARLES. A History of the Franco- Austrian Campaign in 
the Valley of the Danube in 1809. By F. LORAINE PETRE. 
With 8 Illustrations and 6 sheets of Maps and Plans. Demy 8vo 
(9 x 5i inches). I zs. 6d. net. 

RALPH HEATHCOTE. Letters of a Diplomatist 

During the Time of Napoleon, Giving an Account of the Dispute 
between the Emperor and the Elector of Hesse. By COUNTESS 
GUNTHER GROBEN. With Numerous Illustrations. Demy 8vo 
(9 x 5 f inches), izs. 6d. net. 

*** Ralph Heathcote, the son of an English father and an Alsatian mother, was for 
some time in the English diplomatic service as first secretary to Mr. Brook Taylor, minister 
at the Court of Hesse, and on one occasion found himself very near to making history. 
Napoleon btcamt persuaded that Taylor was implicated in a plot to procure his assassina- 
tion, and insisted on his dismissal from the Hessian Court. As Taylor refused to be 
dismissed, the incident at one time seemed likely to result to the Elector in the loss of his 
throne. Heathcote came into contact with a number of notable people, including the Miss 
Berrys, with whom he assures his mother he is not in love. On the whole, there is much 
interesting material for lovers of old letters and journals. 


A record of the extraordinary events in the life of a French 
Royalist during the war in La Vendee, and of his flight to South- 
ampton, where he followed the humble occupation of gardener. 
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CARLYLE'S FIRST LOVE. Margaret Gordon- 
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detailed record of the last two years of the Reign of His Most 
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CESAR FRANCK : A Study. Translated from the 

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** There is no purer influence in modern music than that of Cfsar Franck, for many 
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Barres, Rene Bazin, Paul Bourget, Pierre de Coulevain, Anatole 
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GILCHRIST. Edited with an Introduction by W.GRAHAM ROBERTSON. 
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GEORGE MEREDITH : Some Characteristics. 

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of Caroline of Brunswick, Queen of England. From the Italian 
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ROBERT BROWNING : Essays and Thoughts. 

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A LATER PEPYS. The Correspondence of Sir 

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biography by ALICE M. DIEHL, Novelist, Writer, and Musician. 
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THE LIFE OF W. J. FOX, Public Teacher and 

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